Primary energy is often supplied by combustion processes. In many technical applications, such as gas turbine combustion chambers or supercharged piston engines, combustion takes place at elevated pressure. Due to the high energy density of fossil fuels, they are indispensable for commercial aircrafts in the foreseeable future and at least medium-term, despite increasing electrification, piston engines will still be used in conventional or hybrid drives. In order to optimize the flow and combustion process as well as to reduce development times and to save costs, numerical flow simulation is becoming increasingly important. Specifically, the large eddy simulation (LES) approach has become an important tool for flow simulation in recent years and is already used for first industrial configurations. Instead of modelling all turbulent scales, as often done in the past in the so called RANS approach, many physical processes can be resolved with LES.

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