For autonomous control, the two MuCAR test vehicles were equipped with actuators that enable electronic control of the steering wheel, the  accelerator and brake pedals as well as the drive-mode selector. These extensions make the two vehicles fully electronically controllable
(so-called drive-by-wire functionality). 

The vehicle control system for the planning and execution of desired driving maneuvers is divided into two parts (see figure). The more complex path and trajectory planning (high-level control) is  carried out on the on-board computer of the respective vehicle and results in a desired vehicle speed or, in certain cases, a desired stopping distance and a desired steering angle. The low-level control system is based on a simpler but very fast control system that uses the high-level commands as reference for controlling the vehicle's actuators, e.g., the accelerator.