Air pollution accounts for more than 6 million early deaths and 213 million years of healthy life lost worldwide in 2019, and is now listed as the 4th death-leading risk factor behind important chronic diseases including obesity, high cholesterol and malnutrition. Among the different air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) represents the largest risk to human health, which is further increased by the rapid development of global industrial societies and the increasing number of wildfires in the course of climate change.