Osseointegration is highly desirable for implants used for bone replacement. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is an attractive material due to its characteristics such as high biocompatibility and Young's modulus similar to human bones. However, PEEK is bioinert, meaning cells do not adhere and proliferate on its surface. This problem is addressed in this study, with the goal of enhancing osseointegration of additively manufactured PEEK. The influences of surface modifications and porous structures on cellular behavior were assessed by wettability and in vitro tests with subclone of the human osteosarcoma cell line-2 osteoblasts. Overall, the combination of surface modification, type of plasma process used, atmospheric pressure versus vacuum-based, and surface structuring, especially gyroid structures, improve the cellular proliferation on PEEK. Therefore, its ability to enhance osseointegration is highly promising.


Graphical Abstract

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