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2024

Proton-FLASH: effects of ultra-high dose rate irradiation on an in-vivo mouse ear model
S. Rudigkeit, T.E. Schmid, A.C. Dombrowsky, J. Stolz, S. Bartzsch, C.-B. Chen, N. Matejka, M. Sammer, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger and J. Reindl; Scientific Reports 14 (1) (2024) 1418.
Abstract: FLASH-radiotherapy may provide significant sparing of healthy tissue through ultra-high dose rates in protons, electrons, and x-rays while maintaining the tumor control. Key factors for the FLASH effect might be oxygen depletion, the immune system, and the irradiated blood volume, but none could be fully confirmed yet. Therefore, further investigations are necessary. We investigated the protective (tissue sparing) effect of FLASH in proton treatment using an in-vivo mouse ear model. The right ears of Balb/c mice were irradiated with 20 MeV protons at the ion microprobe SNAKE in Garching near Munich by using three dose rates (Conv = 0.06 Gy/s, Flash9 = 9.3 Gy/s and Flash930 = 930 Gy/s) at a total dose of 23 Gy or 33 Gy. The ear thickness, desquamation, and erythema combined in an inflammation score were measured for 180 days. The cytokines TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL1α, and IL1β were analyzed in the blood sampled in the first 4 weeks and at termination day. No differences in inflammation reactions were visible in the 23 Gy group for the different dose rates. In the 33 Gy group, the ear swelling and the inflammation score for Flash9 was reduced by (57 ± 12) % and (67 ± 17) % and for Flash930 by (40 ± 13) % and (50 ± 17) % compared to the Conv dose rate. No changes in the cytokines in the blood could be measured. However, an estimation of the irradiated blood volume demonstrates, that 100-times more blood is irradiated when using Conv compared to using Flash9 or Flash930. This indicates that blood might play a role in the underlying mechanisms in the protective effect of FLASH.
BibTeX:
	@article{Rudigkeit2024,
	  author = {Rudigkeit, Sarah and Schmid, Thomas E. and Dombrowsky, Annique C. and Stolz, Jessica and Bartzsch, Stefan and Chen, Ce-Belle and Matejka, Nicole and Sammer, Matthias and Bergmaier, Andreas and Dollinger, Günther and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Proton-FLASH: effects of ultra-high dose rate irradiation on an in-vivo mouse ear model},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2024},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {1418},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-024-51951-6},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-51951-6}
	}
	
Chromatin Organization after High-LET Irradiation Revealed by Super-Resolution STED Microscopy
B. Schwarz, N. Matejka, S. Rudigkeit, M. Sammer and J. Reindl; International Journal of Molecular Sciences 25 (1) (2024) 628.
Abstract: Ion-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks can lead to severe cellular damage ranging from mutations up to direct cell death. The interplay between the chromatin surrounding the damage and the proteins responsible for damage recognition and repair determines the efficiency and outcome of DNA repair. The chromatin is organized in three major functional compartments throughout the interphase: the chromatin territories, the interchromatin compartment, and the perichromatin lying in between. In this study, we perform correlation analysis using super-resolution STED images of chromatin; splicing factor SC35, as an interchromatin marker; and the DNA repair factors 53BP1, Rad51, and γH2AX in carbon-ion-irradiated human HeLa cells. Chromatin and interchromatin overlap only in protruding chromatin branches, which is the same for the correlation between chromatin and 53BP1. In contrast, between interchromatin and 53BP1, a gap of (270 ± 40) nm is visible. Rad51 shows overlap with decondensed euchromatic regions located at the borders of condensed heterochromatin with further correlation with γH2AX. We conclude that the DNA damage is repaired in decondensed DNA loops in the perichromatin, located in the periphery of the DNA-dense chromatin compartments containing the heterochromatin. Proteins like γH2AX and 53BP1 serve as supporters of the chromatin structure.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schwarz2024,
	  author = {Schwarz, Benjamin and Matejka, Nicole and Rudigkeit, Sarah and Sammer, Matthias and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Chromatin Organization after High-LET Irradiation Revealed by Super-Resolution STED Microscopy},
	  journal = {International Journal of Molecular Sciences},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2024},
	  volume = {25},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {628},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/25/1/628},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010628}
	}
	
Machine learning approaches for automatic classification of single-particle mass spectrometry data
G. Wang, H. Ruser, J. Schade, J. Passig, T. Adam, G. Dollinger and R. Zimmermann; Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 17 (1) (2024) 299-313.
Abstract: The chemical composition of aerosol particles is a key parameter for human health and climate effects. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) has evolved to a mature technology with unique chemical coverage and the capability to analyze the distribution of aerosol components in the particle ensemble in real time. With the fully automated characterization of the chemical profile of the aerosol particles, selective real-time monitoring of air quality could be performed, e.g., for urgent risk assessments due to particularly harmful pollutants. For aerosol particle classification, mostly unsupervised clustering algorithms (ART-2a, K-means and their derivatives) are used, which require manual postprocessing. In this work, we focus on supervised algorithms to tackle the problem of the automatic classification of large amounts of aerosol particle data. Supervised learning requires data with labels to train a predictive model. Therefore, we created a labeled benchmark dataset containing ∼ 24 000 particles with eight different coarse categories that were highly abundant at a measurement in summer in Central Europe: elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC-EC), potassium-rich (K-rich), calcium-rich (Ca-rich), iron-rich (Fe-rich), vanadium-rich (V-rich), magnesium-rich (Mg-rich) and sodium-rich (Na-rich). Using the chemical features of particles, the performance of the following classical supervised algorithms was tested: K-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, decision tree, random forest and multi-layer perceptron. This work shows that despite the entrenched position of unsupervised clustering algorithms in the field, the use of supervised algorithms has the potential to replace the manual step of clustering algorithms in many applications, where real-time data analysis is essential. For the classification of the eight classes, the prediction accuracy of several supervised algorithms exceeded 97 %. The trained model was used to classify ∼ 49 000 particles from a blind dataset in 0.2 s, taking into account also a class of “unclassified” particles. The predictions are highly consistent with the results obtained in a previous study using ART-2a.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wang2024,
	  author = {Wang, G. and Ruser, H. and Schade, J. and Passig, J. and Adam, T. and Dollinger, G. and Zimmermann, R.},
	  title = {Machine learning approaches for automatic classification of single-particle mass spectrometry data},
	  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2024},
	  volume = {17},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {299--313},
	  url = {https://amt.copernicus.org/articles/17/299/2024/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-299-2024}
	}
	

2023

Radiobiology of Combining Radiotherapy with Other Cancer Treatment Modalities
V. Ahire, N. Ahmadi Bidakhvidi, T. Boterberg, P. Chaudhary, F. Chevalier, N. Daems, W. Delbart, S. Baatout, C.M. Deroose, C. Fernandez-Palomo, N.A.P. Franken, U.S. Gaipl, L. Geenen, N. Heynickx, I. Koniarová, V.K. Selvaraj, H. Levillain, A.J. Michaelidesová, A. Montoro, A.L. Oei, S. Penninckx, J. Reindl, F. Rödel, P. Sminia, K. Tabury, K. Vermeulen, K. Viktorsson and A. Waked; In: S. Baatout (Ed.), Radiobiology Textbook , p. 311-386 , Springer International Publishing , 2023.
Abstract: In this chapter, we address the role of radiation as treatment modality in the context of oncological treatments given to patients. Physical aspects of the use of ionizing radiation (IR)---by either photons, neutrons, or charged (high linear energy transfer) particles---and their clinical application are summarized. Information is also provided regarding the radiobiological rationale of the use of conventional fractionation as well as alternative fractionation schedules using deviating total dose, fraction size, number of fractions, and the overall treatment time. Pro- and contra arguments of hypofractionation are discussed. In particular, the biological rationale and clinical application of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) are described. Furthermore, background information is given about FLASH radiotherapy (RT), which is an emerging new radiation method using ultra-high dose rate allowing the healthy, normal tissues and organs to be spared while maintaining the antitumor effect. Spatial fractionation of radiation in tumor therapy, another method that reduces damage to normal tissue is presented. Normal tissue doses could also be minimized by interstitial or intraluminal irradiation, i.e., brachytherapy, and herein an overview is given on the principles of brachytherapy and its clinical application. Furthermore, details are provided regarding the principles, clinical application, and limitations of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Another important key issue in cancer therapy is the combination of RT with other treatment modalities, e.g., chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, and hormonal therapy. Combination treatments are aimed to selectively enhance the effect of radiation in cancer cells or to trigger the immune system but also to minimize adverse effects on normal cells. The biological rationale of all these combination treatments as well as their application in clinical settings are outlined. To selectively reach high concentrations of radionuclides in tumor tissue, radioembolization is a highly interesting approach. Also, radioligand therapy which enables specific targeting of cancer cells, while causing minimal harm surrounding healthy tissues is presented. A brief overview is provided on how nanotechnology could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Last but not least, risk factors involved in acquiring secondary tumors after RT are discussed.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Ahire2023,
	  author = {Ahire, Vidhula and Ahmadi Bidakhvidi, Niloefar and Boterberg, Tom and Chaudhary, Pankaj and Chevalier, Francois and Daems, Noami and Delbart, Wendy and Baatout, Sarah and Deroose, Christophe M. and Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian and Franken, Nicolaas A. P. and Gaipl, Udo S. and Geenen, Lorain and Heynickx, Nathalie and Koniarová, Irena and Selvaraj, Vinodh Kumar and Levillain, Hugo and Michaelidesová, Anna Jelínek and Montoro, Alegría and Oei, Arlene L. and Penninckx, Sébastien and Reindl, Judith and Rödel, Franz and Sminia, Peter and Tabury, Kevin and Vermeulen, Koen and Viktorsson, Kristina and Waked, Anthony},
	  title = {Radiobiology of Combining Radiotherapy with Other Cancer Treatment Modalities},
	  booktitle = {Radiobiology Textbook},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  pages = {311--386},
	  editor = {Baatout, Sarah},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_6},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_6}
	}
	
Basic Concepts of Radiation Biology
A. Baeyens, A.M. Abrantes, V. Ahire, E.A. Ainsbury, S. Baatout, B. Baselet, M.F. Botelho, T. Boterberg, F. Chevalier, F. Da Pieve, W. Delbart, N.F.J. Edin, C. Fernandez-Palomo, L. Geenen, A.G. Georgakilas, N. Heynickx, A.D. Meade, A.J. Michaelidesova, D. Mistry, A. Montoro, C. Mothersill, A.S. Pires, J. Reindl, G. Schettino, Y. Socol, V.K. Selvaraj, P. Sminia, K. Vermeulen, G. Vogin, A. Waked and A.-S. Wozny; In: S. Baatout (Ed.), Radiobiology Textbook , p. 25-81 , Springer International Publishing , 2023.
Abstract: Radiation biology is the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biological tissues and living organisms. It combines radiation physics and biology. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the terminology and basic concepts of radiobiology to create a better understanding of the ionizing radiation interactions with a living organism. This chapter firstly describes the different types of radiation, the sources, and the radiation interactions with matter. The basic concepts of radioactivity and its applications are also included. Ionizing radiation causes significant physical and chemical modifications, which eventually lead to biological effects in the exposed tissue or organism. The physical quantities and units needed to describe the radiation are introduced here. Eventually, a broad range of biological effects of the different radiation types are addressed. This chapter concludes with a specific focus on the effects of low doses of radiation.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Baeyens2023,
	  author = {Baeyens, Ans and Abrantes, Ana Margarida and Ahire, Vidhula and Ainsbury, Elizabeth A. and Baatout, Sarah and Baselet, Bjorn and Botelho, Maria Filomena and Boterberg, Tom and Chevalier, Francois and Da Pieve, Fabiana and Delbart, Wendy and Edin, Nina Frederike Jeppesen and Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian and Geenen, Lorain and Georgakilas, Alexandros G. and Heynickx, Nathalie and Meade, Aidan D. and Michaelidesova, Anna Jelinek and Mistry, Dhruti and Montoro, Alegría and Mothersill, Carmel and Pires, Ana Salomé and Reindl, Judith and Schettino, Giuseppe and Socol, Yehoshua and Selvaraj, Vinodh Kumar and Sminia, Peter and Vermeulen, Koen and Vogin, Guillaume and Waked, Anthony and Wozny, Anne-Sophie},
	  title = {Basic Concepts of Radiation Biology},
	  booktitle = {Radiobiology Textbook},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  pages = {25--81},
	  editor = {Baatout, Sarah},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_2},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_2}
	}
	
On the quantification of hydrogen in lithium metal oxides
T. Köhler, P. Reichart, E. Brendler, A. Vyalikh, A. Klostermeier, Z. Siketić, E. Mehner, G. Dollinger, H. Stöcker and D.C. Meyer; J. Mater. Chem. A 11 (2023) 21183-21202.
Abstract: Hydrogen incorporation during crystal growth or other treatment has attracted research interest for a long time, but inconsistent literature data exist about the bulk hydrogen concentration in the lithium metal oxides LiMO3 with M = Nb and Ta. Hydrogen binds to oxygen and forms hydroxyl groups (OH−), which can be easily detected optically by FT-IR spectroscopy. However, this method cannot determine an absolute hydrogen concentration. With a reliably characterised concentration reference, a calibration for the fast and non-destructive FT-IR spectroscopy could be obtained. In this study, the hydrogen contents of as-grown and hydrogen-doped congruent and near-stoichiometric LiMO3 crystals were investigated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), carrier gas hot extraction (CGHE), 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) and hydrogen microscopy via proton–proton (p–p) scattering. However, not every method is suitable for the investigation of hydrogen in the LiMO3 host lattices. Based on p–p scattering, the A/cH calibration factors for FT-IR spectroscopy can be specified with (4.52 ± 0.58) × 10−17 cm and (6.46 ± 0.96) × 10−17 cm for LiNbO3 and LiTaO3, respectively.
BibTeX:
	@article{Koehler2023,
	  author = {Köhler, Thomas and Reichart, Patrick and Brendler, Erica and Vyalikh, Anastasia and Klostermeier, Andre and Siketić, Zdravko and Mehner, Erik and Dollinger, Günther and Stöcker, Hartmut and Meyer, Dirk C.},
	  title = {On the quantification of hydrogen in lithium metal oxides},
	  journal = {J. Mater. Chem. A},
	  publisher = {The Royal Society of Chemistry},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {11},
	  pages = {21183-21202},
	  url = {https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2023/ta/d3ta03317a},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1039/D3TA03317A}
	}
	
A carbon minibeam irradiation facility concept
M. Mayerhofer, V. Bencini, M. Sammer and G. Dollinger; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2420 (1) (2023) 012097.
Abstract: In minibeam therapy, the sparing of deep-seated normal tissue is limited by transverse beam spread caused by small-angle scattering. Contrary to proton minibeams, helium or carbon minibeams experience less deflection, which potentially reduces side effects. To verify this potential, an irradiation facility for preclinical and clinical studies is needed. This manuscript presents a concept for a carbon minibeam irradiation facility based on a LINAC design for conventional carbon therapy. A quadrupole triplet focuses the LINAC beam to submillimeter minibeams. A scanning and a dosimetry unit are provided to move the minibeam over the target and monitor the applied dose. The beamline was optimized by TRAVEL simulations. The interaction between beam and these components and the resulting beam parameters at the focal plane is evaluated by TOPAS simulations. A transverse beamwidth of < 100 μm (sigma) and a peak-to-valley (energy) dose ratio of > 1000 results for carbon energies of 100 MeV/u and 430 MeV/u (∼ 3 cm and 30 cm range in water) whereby the average beam current is ∼ 30 nA. Therefore, the presented irradiation facility exceeds the requirements for hadron minibeam therapy.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mayerhofer2023,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, M. and Bencini, V. and Sammer, M. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {A carbon minibeam irradiation facility concept},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {2420},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012097},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/2420/1/012097},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2420/1/012097}
	}
	
Additive Manufacturing of Side-Coupled Cavity Linac Structures from Pure Copper: A First Concept
M. Mayerhofer, S. Brenner, R. Helm, S. Gruber, E. Lopez, L. Stepien, G. Gold and G. Dollinger; Instruments 7 (4) (2023) 56.
Abstract: Compared to conventional manufacturing, additive manufacturing (AM) of radio frequency (RF) cavities has the potential to reduce manufacturing costs and complexity and to enable higher performance. This work evaluates whether normal conducting side-coupled linac structures (SCCL), used worldwide for a wide range of applications, can benefit from AM. A unit cell geometry (SC) optimized for 75 MeV protons was developed. Downskins with small downskin angles α were avoided to enable manufacturing by laser powder bed fusion without support structures. SCs with different α were printed and post-processed by Hirtisation (R) (an electrochemical process) to minimize surface roughness. The required accuracy for 3 GHz SCCL (medical linacs) is achieved only for α>45∘. After a material removal of 140 µm due to Hirtisation (R), a quality factor Q0 of 6650 was achieved. This corresponds to 75% of the Q0 simulated by CST®. A 3 GHz SCCL concept consisting of 31 SCs was designed. The effective shunt impedance ZT2 simulated by CST corresponds to 60.13MΩm and is comparable to the ZT2 of SCCL in use. The reduction in ZT2 expected after Hirtisation (R) can be justified in practice by up to 70% lower manufacturing costs. However, future studies will be conducted to further increase Q0.

BibTeX:
	@article{Mayerhofer2023a,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, Michael and Brenner, Stefan and Helm, Ricardo and Gruber, Samira and Lopez, Elena and Stepien, Lukas and Gold, Gerald and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Additive Manufacturing of Side-Coupled Cavity Linac Structures from Pure Copper: A First Concept},
	  journal = {Instruments},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {7},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {56},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2410-390X/7/4/56},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040056}
	}
	
First high quality DTL cavity additively manufactured from pure copper
M. Mayerhofer, J. Mitteneder, C. Wittig, I. Prestes, E. Jägle and G. Dollinge; In: , R. Assmann, P. McIntosh, G. Bisoffi, Elettra-Sincrotrone, I. Andrian and G. Vinicola (Eds.), Proc. 14th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC'23) , JACoW 14 (2023) 4967-4970 , JACoW Publishing, Geneva, Switzerland.
Abstract: Recently presented RF cavity prototypes printed entirely from pure copper illustrate the potential of additive manufacturing (AM), and particularly laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), for accelerator technology. Thereby, the design freedom of L-PBF is only limited by overhanging geometries, which have to be printed with supporting structures to ensure sufficient accuracy. However, subsequent removal of these support structures is a major challenge for cm-sized GHz cavities. Therefore, our approach is to design self-supporting geometries. In this contribution we present a DTL cavity geometry as used in e.g. proton therapy linac systems that can be fabricated by L-PBF without support structures. A 5-cell prototype was manufactured from high-purity copper using L-PBF. It is shown that the developed geometry allows a print accuracy sufficient to reach the defined resonance frequency. A chemical, as well as dynamic electrochemical finishing process, was applied to optimize the prototypes surface quality. Thus, the CST simulated figures of merit (e.g., Q_0, Z_eff) were obtained for the first time with a printed cavity.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Mayerhofer2023b,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, M. and Mitteneder, J. and Wittig, C. and Prestes, I. and Jägle, E. and Dollinge, G.},
	  title = {First high quality DTL cavity additively manufactured from pure copper},
	  booktitle = {Proc. 14th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC'23)},
	  journal = {JACoW},
	  publisher = {JACoW Publishing, Geneva, Switzerland},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {13},
	  pages = {4967-4970},
	  editor = {Ralph Assmann and Peter McIntosh and Giovanni Bisoffi and Elettra-Sincrotrone and Ivan Andrian and Giulia Vinicola},
	  url = {https://accelconf.web.cern.ch/ipac2023/doi/jacow-ipac2023-thpm035/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2023-THPM035}
	}
	
Molecular Radiation Biology
J. Reindl, A.M. Abrantes, V. Ahire, O. Azimzadeh, S. Baatout, A. Baeyens, B. Baselet, V. Chauhan, F. Da Pieve, W. Delbart, C.P. Dobney, N.F.J. Edin, M. Falk, N. Foray, A. François, S. Frelon, U.S. Gaipl, A.G. Georgakilas, O. Guipaud, M. Hausmann, A.J. Michaelidesova, M. Kadhim, I.A. Marques, M. Milic, D. Mistry, S. Moertl, A. Montoro, E. Obrador, A.S. Pires, R. Quintens, N. Rajan, F. Rödel, P. Rogan, D. Savu, G. Schettino, K. Tabury, G.I. Terzoudi, S. Triantopoulou, K. Viktorsson and A.-S. Wozny; In: S. Baatout (Ed.), Radiobiology Textbook , p. 83-189 , Springer International Publishing , 2023.
Abstract: Various exogeneous and endogenous factors constantly cause damages in the biomolecules within a cell. For example, per day, 10,000--100,000 molecular lesions occur in DNA per cell. The molecule modifications that are formed disturb the structure and function of the affected molecules. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the damages to biomolecules caused by radiation, the associated repair pathways, and the effect on the cellular function. Special interest lies on the damages induced to DNA, the carrier of the human genome, and the consequence to genomic integrity, cell death, and cell survival. Additionally, related effects regarding inflammation and immunity, epigenetic factors, and omics are discussed. The chapter concludes with an explanation of the molecular factors of cellular hyper-radiosensitivity and induced radiation resistance.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Reindl2023,
	  author = {Reindl, Judith and Abrantes, Ana Margarida and Ahire, Vidhula and Azimzadeh, Omid and Baatout, Sarah and Baeyens, Ans and Baselet, Bjorn and Chauhan, Vinita and Da Pieve, Fabiana and Delbart, Wendy and Dobney, Caitlin Pria and Edin, Nina Frederike Jeppesen and Falk, Martin and Foray, Nicolas and François, Agnès and Frelon, Sandrine and Gaipl, Udo S. and Georgakilas, Alexandros G. and Guipaud, Olivier and Hausmann, Michael and Michaelidesova, Anna Jelinek and Kadhim, Munira and Marques, Inês Alexandra and Milic, Mirta and Mistry, Dhruti and Moertl, Simone and Montoro, Alegría and Obrador, Elena and Pires, Ana Salomé and Quintens, Roel and Rajan, Nicholas and Rödel, Franz and Rogan, Peter and Savu, Diana and Schettino, Giuseppe and Tabury, Kevin and Terzoudi, Georgia I. and Triantopoulou, Sotiria and Viktorsson, Kristina and Wozny, Anne-Sophie},
	  title = {Molecular Radiation Biology},
	  booktitle = {Radiobiology Textbook},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  pages = {83--189},
	  editor = {Baatout, Sarah},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_3},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_3}
	}
	
Beam optimization of a heavy ion microbeam for targeted irradiation of mitochondria in human cells
S. Rudigkeit, N. Matejka, M. Sammer, D.W.M. Walsh, G. Dollinger and J. Reindl; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 542 (2023) 195-205.
Abstract: Mitochondria, organelles of the cytoplasm, are the power plants of the cell and thus their function is important for the survival of cells. Mitochondria are known to depolarize after targeted irradiation, but the effects on cells are still unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mitochondrial depolarization on growth and survival of cells. We performed targeted irradiation with 55 MeV C5+-ions at the ion-microbeam SNAKE at the 14 MV tandem accelerator in Garching near Munich, with a beam spot size of ∼1 µm. Approx. 6% of the mitochondrial area was irradiated in 74 cells with 5,120 carbon ions homogenously distributed over a square area of 13.2 µm2. Cell growth was investigated by observing the cells for 3.5 days via live-cell phase-contrast microscopy and evaluating the number of vital cells. While the number of irradiated cells remained constant during the observation, the unirradiated control group showed exponential growth. An additional particle track detector test with polycarbonate revealed that 4% parasitic ions hit the cells up to 500 µm away from the target, forming a so-called halo and inducing a mean parasitic dose of (2 ± 2) Gy on the cells. This dose alone, when applied in cell nuclei, is large enough to reduce the survival and growth of cells significantly and overrides any effects caused by targeted irradiation of mitochondria. Subsequently, several methods to reduce the halo were investigated. A significant reduction in halo size and number of ions in the halo could be achieved by using C6+-ions instead of C5+-ions. The slit openings, correction of lens errors, and the beam spot size had minor influence on the halo size but could achieve a reduction in halo dose. Overall, a 97% reduction in halo area and a halving of halo dose were achieved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Rudigkeit2023,
	  author = {Rudigkeit, Sarah and Matejka, Nicole and Sammer, Matthias and Walsh, Dietrich W. M. and Dollinger, Günther and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Beam optimization of a heavy ion microbeam for targeted irradiation of mitochondria in human cells},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {542},
	  pages = {195-205},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X23003129},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2023.07.004}
	}
	
Single-Cell Radiation Response Scoring with the Deep Learning Algorithm CeCILE 2.0
S. Rudigkeit and J. Reindl; Cells 12 (24) (2023) 2782.
Abstract: External stressors, such as ionizing radiation, have massive effects on life, survival, and the ability of mammalian cells to divide. Different types of radiation have different effects. In order to understand these in detail and the underlying mechanisms, it is essential to study the radiation response of each cell. This allows abnormalities to be characterized and laws to be derived. Tracking individual cells over several generations of division generates large amounts of data that can no longer be meaningfully analyzed by hand. In this study, we present a deep-learning-based algorithm, CeCILE (Cell classification and in vitro lifecycle evaluation) 2.0, that can localize, classify, and track cells in live cell phase-contrast videos. This allows conclusions to be drawn about the viability of the cells, the cell cycle, cell survival, and the influence of X-ray radiation on these. Furthermore, radiation-specific abnormalities during division could be characterized. In summary, CeCILE 2.0 is a powerful tool to characterize and quantify the cellular response to external stressors such as radiation and to put individual responses into a larger context. To the authors knowledge, this is the first algorithm with a fully integrated workflow that is able to do comprehensive single-cell and cell composite analysis, allowing them to draw conclusions on cellular radiation response.
BibTeX:
	@article{Rudigkeit2023a,
	  author = {Rudigkeit, Sarah and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Single-Cell Radiation Response Scoring with the Deep Learning Algorithm CeCILE 2.0},
	  journal = {Cells},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {12},
	  number = {24},
	  pages = {2782},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/12/24/2782},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12242782}
	}
	
Range verification of a clinical proton beam in an abdominal phantom by co-registration of ionoacoustics and ultrasound
J. Schauer, H.-P. Wieser, J. Lascaud, Y. Huang, M. Vidal, J. Herault, V. Ntziachristos, G. Dollinger and K. Parodi; Physics in Medicine & Biology 68 (12) (2023) 125009.
Abstract: Objective. The range uncertainty in proton radiotherapy is a limiting factor to achieve optimum dose conformity to the tumour volume. Ionoacoustics is a promising approach for in situ range verification, which would allow to reduce the size of the irradiated volume relative to the tumour volume. The energy deposition of a pulsed proton beam leads to an acoustic pressure wave (ionoacoustics), the detection of which allows conclusion about the distance between the Bragg peak and the acoustic detector. This information can be transferred into a co-registered ultrasound image, marking the Bragg peak position relative to the surrounding anatomy. Approach. A CIRS 3D abdominal phantom was irradiated with 126 MeV protons at a clinical proton therapy centre. Acoustic signals were recorded on the beam axis distal to the Bragg peak with a Cetacean C305X hydrophone. The ionoacoustic measurements were processed with a correlation filter using simulated filter templates. The hydrophone was rigidly attached to an ultrasound device (Interson GP-C01) recording ultrasound images of the irradiated region. Main results. The time of flight obtained from ionoacoustic measurements were transferred to an ultrasound image by means of an optoacoustic calibration measurement. The Bragg peak position was marked in the ultrasound image with a statistical uncertainty of σ = 0.5 mm of 24 individual measurements depositing 1.2 Gy at the Bragg peak. The difference between the evaluated Bragg peak position and the one obtained from irradiation planning (1.0 mm) is smaller than the typical range uncertainty (≈4 mm) at the given penetration depth (10 cm). Significance. The measurements show that it is possible to determine the Bragg peak position of a clinical proton beam with submillimetre precision and transfer the information to an ultrasound image of the irradiated region. The dose required for this is smaller than that used for a typical irradiation fraction.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schauer2023,
	  author = {Jannis Schauer and Hans-Peter Wieser and Julie Lascaud and Yuanhui Huang and Marie Vidal and Joel Herault and Vasilis Ntziachristos and Günther Dollinger and Katia Parodi},
	  title = {Range verification of a clinical proton beam in an abdominal phantom by co-registration of ionoacoustics and ultrasound},
	  journal = {Physics in Medicine & Biology},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {68},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {125009},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6560/acd834},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/acd834}
	}
	
Mechanistic, Modeling, and Dosimetric Radiation Biology
G. Schettino, S. Baatout, F. Caramelo, F. Da Pieve, C. Fernandez-Palomo, N.F.J. Edin, A.D. Meade, Y. Perrot, J. Reindl and C. Villagrasa; In: S. Baatout (Ed.), Radiobiology Textbook , p. 191-236 , Springer International Publishing , 2023.
Abstract: The ultimate aim of radiobiological research is to establish a quantitative relationship between the radiation dose absorbed by biological samples (being this a cell, a tissue, an organ, or a body) and the effect caused. Therefore, radiobiological investigations need to be supported by accurate and precise dosimetric measurements. A rigorous standardized methodology has been established to assess and quantify the radiation dose absorbed by biological samples and these will be reviewed and discussed in this chapter. Dosimetric concepts at the macro- and microscopic levels are discussed with a focus on key physical quantities, their measurement technologies, and the link to the biological damage and response. This chapter will also include a description of state-of-the-art irradiation facilities (e.g., mini- and micro-beams) used for probing mechanisms underpinning radiobiological responses. Finally, the link between energy deposition events and detectable biological effects (from the molecular to the organism level) is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation codes and macroscopic radiobiological models.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Schettino2023,
	  author = {Schettino, Giuseppe and Baatout, Sarah and Caramelo, Francisco and Da Pieve, Fabiana and Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian and Edin, Nina Frederike Jeppesen and Meade, Aidan D. and Perrot, Yann and Reindl, Judith and Villagrasa, Carmen},
	  title = {Mechanistic, Modeling, and Dosimetric Radiation Biology},
	  booktitle = {Radiobiology Textbook},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  pages = {191--236},
	  editor = {Baatout, Sarah},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_4},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18810-7_4}
	}
	
High-LET targeted microbeam irradiation induces local chromatin reorganization in living cells showing active basal mechanisms at highly complex DNA damage sites0
B. Schwarz, N. Matejka, M. Sammer, S. Rudigkeit and J. Reindl; Journal of Radiation Research and Imaging 2 (1) (2023) 1-8.
Abstract: DNA repair eukaryotic cells have additional protective mechanisms that avoid uncontrolled interaction of different parts of the chromatin and damaged regions. Key factors here are the regulation of chromatin density and mobility. The 4D (temporal and spatial) organization of chromatin is controlling this security barrier by regulating the accessibility of genes, flexibility of DNA, and its ability to move inside the nucleus. How this regulation mechanisms are involved in DNA repair upon radiation damage is until now rarely known but an important part to understand the enhanced effectiveness of high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. The damage recognition via PARP1 and the subsequent chromatin decondensation via PARylation is a crucial step in the DNA damage response (DDR). Upon We used the SNAKE microbeam with a beam spot size of <1 µm to induce highly localized DNA damage in living cells using 55 MeV Carbon ions to investigate the chromatin rearrangements in the early stage of DDR. The nuclei were irradiated with a cross pattern consisting of 1000 ions per spot and 25 spots per cell either with one (11 000 Gy), two (22 000 Gy), or three crosses (33 000 Gy). The chromatin rearrangement was imaged live for several minutes after irradiation at the beam using SiR chromatin stain. Upon 91% of the cells show a localized decondensation starting from a few seconds up to minutes after irradiation. The chromatin is decondensed by 6%-8% in the beam path with a local condensation at the edges of up to 8%. Our results suggest that chromatin decondensation is a fast process in the first few seconds after damage induction. Furthermore, decondensation status does not change over minutes, which gives evidence that this process and therefore DDR is paused or even stopped. In combination with the existing knowledge about early reactions to damage induction our data support the model of PARP induced chromatin decondensation. Furthermore, it is evident that also ultra-high doses of radiation are, in first place not able to inactivate initial basal mechanisms as response to damage induction.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schwarz2023,
	  author = {Schwarz, Benjamin and Matejka, Nicole and Sammer, Matthias and Rudigkeit, Sarah and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {High-LET targeted microbeam irradiation induces local chromatin reorganization in living cells showing active basal mechanisms at highly complex DNA damage sites0},
	  journal = {Journal of Radiation Research and Imaging},
	  publisher = {ProBiologists LLC.},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {2},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {1-8},
	  url = {https://probiologists.com/Article/High-LET-targeted-microbeam-irradiation-induces-local-chromatin-reorganization-in-living-cells-showing-active-basal-mechanisms-at-highly-complex-DNA-damage-sites},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.46439/radiation.2.006}
	}
	
1D-CNN Network Based Real-Time Aerosol Particle Classification With Single-Particle Mass Spectrometry
G. Wang, H. Ruser, J. Schade, J. Passig, T. Adam, G. Dollinger and R. Zimmermann; IEEE Sensors Letters 7 (11) (2023) 1-4.
Abstract: Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) is a measurement technique that aims to identify the chemical composition of individual airborne aerosol particles (PM 1 or PM 2.5) in real time. One-dimensional (1-D) spectral data of aerosol particles generated by SPMS carry rich information about the chemical composition associated with the sources of the particles, e.g., traffic and ship emissions, biomass burning, etc. Accurate classification of aerosol particles is essential to understand their sources and effects on human health. This letter investigates the application of SPMS and 1-D-convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) in aerosol particle classification. The proposed 1D-CNN achieved a mean classification accuracy of 90.4% with 13 particle classes. According to the experimental results, the combination of SPMS and 1D-CNN enables real-time collection, analysis, and classification of airborne aerosol particles to be used for highly responsive automated air quality monitoring.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wang2023,
	  author = {Wang, Guanzhong and Ruser, Heinrich and Schade, Julian and Passig, Johannes and Adam, Thomas and Dollinger, Günther and Zimmermann, Ralf},
	  title = {1D-CNN Network Based Real-Time Aerosol Particle Classification With Single-Particle Mass Spectrometry},
	  journal = {IEEE Sensors Letters},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2023},
	  volume = {7},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {1-4},
	  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/10251644},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/LSENS.2023.3315554}
	}
	

2022

Elucidating the Roles of Polyamide Layer Structural Properties in the Permeability-Selectivity Tradeoff Governing Aqueous Separations
X. Chen, R. Verbeke, C. Boo, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, K. Ndamage, I.F.J. Vankelecom and N.Y. Yip; ACS EST Eng. 2 (10) (2022) 1857-1870.
Abstract: A tradeoff relationship between permeability and selectivity of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration aqueous separation membranes is increasingly being documented. However, there is currently no comprehensive mechanistic framework to describe the roles of membrane structural properties in the transport tradeoff. This study investigates two key structural properties of the widely used thin-film composite polyamide (TFC-PA) membranes, namely, the free volume element (FVE) size and the effective transport pathway, and examines their influence on the tradeoff behavior. Permeability and selectivity performance were characterized by challenging chemically modified TFC-PA membranes with two neutral organic tracers. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) determined that the FVE diameters slightly increased for more permeable membranes, but the marginal size enlargement cannot fully account for the permeability trend. Instead, analysis using the hindered transport model showed that shortening of the effective transport pathway is identified as having a more significant effect on raising the water permeability. On the other hand, membrane selectivity is found to be dominated by FVE size and is essentially independent of the transport pathway. Lastly, a framework reconciling experimental evidence with transport theory is proposed to relate the influence of membrane structural properties on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff. Findings of this study provide fundamental insights for understanding the transport phenomena in aqueous separation membranes.
A tradeoff relationship between permeability and selectivity of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration aqueous separation membranes is increasingly being documented. However, there is currently no comprehensive mechanistic framework to describe the roles of membrane structural properties in the transport tradeoff. This study investigates two key structural properties of the widely used thin-film composite polyamide (TFC-PA) membranes, namely, the free volume element (FVE) size and the effective transport pathway, and examines their influence on the tradeoff behavior. Permeability and selectivity performance were characterized by challenging chemically modified TFC-PA membranes with two neutral organic tracers. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) determined that the FVE diameters slightly increased for more permeable membranes, but the marginal size enlargement cannot fully account for the permeability trend. Instead, analysis using the hindered transport model showed that shortening of the effective transport pathway is identified as having a more significant effect on raising the water permeability. On the other hand, membrane selectivity is found to be dominated by FVE size and is essentially independent of the transport pathway. Lastly, a framework reconciling experimental evidence with transport theory is proposed to relate the influence of membrane structural properties on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff. Findings of this study provide fundamental insights for understanding the transport phenomena in aqueous separation membranes.
BibTeX:
	@article{Chen2022,
	  author = {Chen, Xi and Verbeke, Rhea and Boo, Chanhee and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Ndamage, Kalisa and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J. and Yip, Ngai Yin},
	  title = {Elucidating the Roles of Polyamide Layer Structural Properties in the Permeability-Selectivity Tradeoff Governing Aqueous Separations},
	  journal = {ACS EST Eng.},
	  publisher = {American Chemical Society},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {2},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {1857--1870},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsestengg.2c00103},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestengg.2c00103}
	}
	
Manufacturing Method for Radio-Frequency Cavity Resonators and Corresponding Resonator
G. Dollinger and M. Mayerhofer; Patent, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg (DE), EP3944725, 2022.
Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method of manufacturing a radio frequency cavity resonator, wherein said radio frequency cavity resonator comprises a tubular structure extending along a longitudinal axis, said tubular structure comprising a circumferential wall structure surrounding said longitudinal axis, one or more tubular elements and a first and a second support structure associated with each of said tubular elements, wherein said first and second support structures are provided on opposite sides of each tubular element and extend radially along a diameter of the tubular structure, wherein the method comprises producing the resonator by additive manufacturing in a manufacturing direction that is parallel to said diameter.
BibTeX:
	@patent{Dollinger2022,
	  author = {Dollinger, Günther and Mayerhofer, Michael},
	  title = {Manufacturing Method for Radio-Frequency Cavity Resonators and Corresponding Resonator},
	  type = {Patent},
	  holder = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg (DE)},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {EP3944725},
	  url = {https://register.epo.org/application?number=EP20187438}
	}
	
Manufacturing Method for Radio-Frequency Cavity Resonators and Corresponding Resonator
G. Dollinger and M. Mayerhofer; Patent, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg (DE), WO 2022/017833, 2022.
Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method of manufacturing a radio frequency cavity resonator, wherein said radio frequency cavity resonator comprises a tubular structure extending along a longitudinal axis, said tubular structure comprising a circumferential wall structure surrounding said longitudinal axis, one or more tubular elements and a first and a second support structure associated with each of said tubular elements, wherein said first and second support structures are provided on opposite sides of each tubular element and extend radially along a diameter of the tubular structure, wherein the method comprises producing the resonator by additive manufacturing in a manufacturing direction that is parallel to said diameter.
BibTeX:
	@patent{Dollinger2022a,
	  author = {Dollinger, Günther and Mayerhofer, Michael},
	  title = {Manufacturing Method for Radio-Frequency Cavity Resonators and Corresponding Resonator},
	  type = {Patent},
	  holder = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg (DE)},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {WO 2022/017833},
	  url = {https://register.epo.org/application?number=EP20187438}
	}
	
Indications for a bound tetraneutron
T. Faestermann, A. Bergmaier, R. Gernhäuser, D. Koll and M. Mahgoub; Physics Letters B 824 (2022) 136799.
Abstract: Using the reaction 7Li(7Li,10C) we tried to populate states in the tetraneutron. A peak in the energy spectrum of identified 10C, which we cannot attribute to a reaction with any other of the target components, corresponds to an excitation of the 10C+4n system of 2.93±0.16 MeV. Under different kinematic conditions an equivalent peak was observed. For a binding energy of the tetraneutron of −2.93 MeV a much larger width than the observed upper limit of Γ<0.24 MeV (mainly due to experimental spread) is expected. Therefore, we favor the interpretation that this peak corresponds to 10C in the first excited state at 3.354 MeV and a tetraneutron with a binding energy of +0.42±0.16 MeV.
BibTeX:
	@article{Faestermann2022,
	  author = {Faestermann, Thomas and Bergmaier, Andreas and Gernhäuser, Roman and Koll, Dominik and Mahgoub, Mahmoud},
	  title = {Indications for a bound tetraneutron},
	  journal = {Physics Letters B},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {824},
	  pages = {136799},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269321007395},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2021.136799}
	}
	
On the helium bubble swelling in nano-oxide dispersion-strengthened steels
V. Krsjak, T. Shen, J. Degmova, S. Sojak, E. Korpas, P. Noga, W. Egger, B. Li, V. Slugen and F.A. Garner; Journal of Materials Science & Technology 105 (2022) 172-181.
Abstract: The development of structural materials resistant to harsh radiation environments requires an in-depth understanding of the early stage of the aging processes. In radiation environments with high transmutation helium production rates such as in fusion and spallation applications, even materials with otherwise acceptable radiation stability may suffer from radiation embrittlement related to helium bubble formation. While theoretical modeling of helium-assisted cavity nucleation in pure metals and simple alloys provides some useful guidelines at the atomic scale level, these, however, do not overlap with the size resolution of available experimental techniques. In this study, we employed slow positron beam spectroscopy to characterize the nucleation and growth of nano-scale helium bubbles in martensitic steels strengthened by thermodynamically stable nano-oxide dispersoids. In combination with transmission electron microscopy, we experimentally characterized the evolution of helium bubbles from small clusters of radiation-induced vacancies to large cavities well resolvable by TEM. Superior radiation resistance of oxide-dispersion strengthened steels dominates only in the early stages of bubble evolution, where positron lifetime measurements provide a missing piece of the microstructural puzzle conventionally constructed by TEM.
BibTeX:
	@article{Krsjak2022,
	  author = {Vladimir Krsjak and Tielong Shen and Jarmila Degmova and Stanislav Sojak and Erik Korpas and Pavol Noga and Werner Egger and Bingsheng Li and Vladimir Slugen and Frank A. Garner},
	  title = {On the helium bubble swelling in nano-oxide dispersion-strengthened steels},
	  journal = {Journal of Materials Science & Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {105},
	  pages = {172-181},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S100503022100743X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2021.08.004}
	}
	
A 3D printed pure copper drift tube linac prototype
M. Mayerhofer, J. Mitteneder and G. Dollinger; Review of Scientific Instruments 93 (2) (2022) 023304.
Abstract: Radio frequency cavities are among the most challenging and costly components of an accelerator facility. They are usually manufactured in individual parts, which are then joined by complex processes, e.g., several brazing steps. 3D printing has become an alternative to these conventional manufacturing methods due to higher cost efficiency, freedom in design, and recent achievement of high print quality for pure copper. A fully functional 3 GHz drift tube linac (DTL) prototype was 3D printed in one piece, made from pure copper by selective laser melting (SLM). To achieve a higher surface quality, the DTL geometry was optimized for the SLM process. The DTL design is related to the design of the DTL part of the side-coupled DTL modules used in linac-based proton therapy facilities. The quality factor (8750) and the shunt impedance per unit length (102 mΩ/m) of the printed prototype are already comparable to traditionally manufactured DTL structures and can be further enhanced by surface treatments.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mayerhofer2022,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, Michael and Mitteneder, Johannes and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {A 3D printed pure copper drift tube linac prototype},
	  journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {93},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {023304},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/5.0068494},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0068494}
	}
	
A Carbon Minibeam Irradiation Facility Concept
M. Mayerhofer, V. Bencini, G. Dollinger and M.A. Sammer; In: Proc. 13th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC'22) , JACoW (2022) 2947-2950 , JACoW Publishing, Geneva, Switzerland.
Abstract: In minibeam therapy, the sparing of deep-seated normal tissue is limited by transverse beam spread caused by small-angle scattering. Contrary to proton minibeams, helium or carbon minibeams experience less deflection, which potentially reduces side effects. To verify this potential, an irradiation facility for preclinical and clinical studies is needed. This manuscript presents a concept for a carbon minibeam irradiation facility based on a LINAC design for conventional carbon therapy. A quadrupole triplet focuses the LINAC beam to submillimeter minibeams. A scanning and a dosimetry unit are provided to move the minibeam over the target and monitor the applied dose. The beamline was optimized by TRAVEL simulations. The interaction between beam and these components and the resulting beam parameters at the focal plane is evaluated by TOPAS simulations. A transverse beamwidth of < 100 µm (σ) and a peak-to-valley (energy) dose ratio of > 1000 results for carbon energies of 100 MeV/u and 430 MeV/u (about 3 cm and 30 cm range in water) whereby the average beam current is about 30 nA. Therefore, the presented irradiation facility exceeds the requirements for hadron minibeam therapy.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Mayerhofer2022a,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, M. and Bencini, V. and Dollinger, G. and Sammer, M. A.},
	  title = {A Carbon Minibeam Irradiation Facility Concept},
	  booktitle = {Proc. 13th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC'22)},
	  journal = {JACoW},
	  publisher = {JACoW Publishing, Geneva, Switzerland},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  number = {13},
	  pages = {2947--2950},
	  url = {https://jacow.org/ipac2022/papers/thpoms006.pdf},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2022-THPOMS006}
	}
	
Dosimetry of heavy ion exposure to human cells using nanoscopic imaging of double strand break repair protein clusters
J. Reindl, P. Kundrat, S. Girst, M. Sammer, B. Schwarz and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 12 (1) (2022) 1305.
Abstract: The human body is constantly exposed to ionizing radiation of different qualities. Especially the exposure to high-LET (linear energy transfer) particles increases due to new tumor therapy methods using e.g. carbon ions. Furthermore, upon radiation accidents, a mixture of radiation of different quality is adding up to human radiation exposure. Finally, long-term space missions such as the mission to mars pose great challenges to the dose assessment an astronaut was exposed to. Currently, DSB counting using γH2AX foci is used as an exact dosimetric measure for individuals. Due to the size of the γH2AX IRIF of   0.6 µm, it is only possible to count DSB when they are separated by this distance. For high-LET particle exposure, the distance of the DSB is too small to be separated and the dose will be underestimated. In this study, we developed a method where it is possible to count DSB which are separated by a distance of   140 nm. We counted the number of ionizing radiation-induced pDNA-PKcs (DNA-PKcs phosphorylated at T2609) foci (size = 140 nm ± 20 nm) in human HeLa cells using STED super-resolution microscopy that has an intrinsic resolution of 100 nm. Irradiation was performed at the ion microprobe SNAKE using high-LET 20 MeV lithium (LET = 116 keV/µm) and 27 MeV carbon ions (LET = 500 keV/µm). pDNA-PKcs foci label all DSB as proven by counterstaining with 53BP1 after low-LET γ-irradiation where separation of individual DSB is in most cases larger than the 53BP1 gross size of about 0.6 µm. Lithium ions produce (1.5 ± 0.1) IRIF/µm track length, for carbon ions (2.2 ± 0.2) IRIF/µm are counted. These values are enhanced by a factor of 2-3 compared to conventional foci counting of high-LET tracks. Comparison of the measurements to PARTRAC simulation data proof the consistency of results. We used these data to develop a measure for dosimetry of high-LET or mixed particle radiation exposure directly in the biological sample. We show that proper dosimetry for radiation up to a LET of 240 keV/µm is possible.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reindl2022,
	  author = {Reindl, Judith and Kundrat, P. and Girst, S. and Sammer, M. and Schwarz, B. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Dosimetry of heavy ion exposure to human cells using nanoscopic imaging of double strand break repair protein clusters},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {12},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {1305},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-05413-6},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05413-6}
	}
	
Longitudinally Heterogeneous Tumor Dose Optimizes Proton Broadbeam, Interlaced Minibeam, and FLASH Therapy
M. Sammer, A. Rousseti, S. Girst, J. Reindl and G. Dollinger; Cancers 14 (20) (2022) 5162.
Abstract: The prerequisite of any radiation therapy modality (X-ray, electron, proton, and heavy ion) is meant to meet at least a minimum prescribed dose at any location in the tumor for the best tumor control. In addition, there is also an upper dose limit within the tumor according to the International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU) recommendations in order to spare healthy tissue as well as possible. However, healthy tissue may profit from the lower side effects when waving this upper dose limit and allowing a larger heterogeneous dose deposition in the tumor, but maintaining the prescribed minimum dose level, particularly in proton minibeam therapy. Methods: Three different longitudinally heterogeneous proton irradiation modes and a standard spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) irradiation mode are simulated for their depth-dose curves under the constraint of maintaining a minimum prescribed dose anywhere in the tumor region. Symmetric dose distributions of two opposing directions are overlaid in a 25 cm-thick water phantom containing a 5 cm-thick tumor region. Interlaced planar minibeam dose distributions are compared to those of a broadbeam using the same longitudinal dose profiles. Results and Conclusion: All longitudinally heterogeneous proton irradiation modes show a dose reduction in the healthy tissue compared to the common SOBP mode in the case of broad proton beams. The proton minibeam cases show eventually a much larger mean cell survival and thus a further reduced equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in the healthy tissue than any broadbeam case. In fact, the irradiation mode using only one proton energy from each side shows better sparing capabilities in the healthy tissue than the common spread-out Bragg peak irradiation mode with the option of a better dose fall-off at the tumor edges and an easier technical realization, particularly in view of proton minibeam irradiation at ultra-high dose rates larger than  10 Gy/s (so-called FLASH irradiation modes).
BibTeX:
	@article{Sammer2022,
	  author = {Sammer, Matthias and Rousseti, Aikaterini and Girst, Stefanie and Reindl, Judith and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Longitudinally Heterogeneous Tumor Dose Optimizes Proton Broadbeam, Interlaced Minibeam, and FLASH Therapy},
	  journal = {Cancers},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {20},
	  pages = {5162},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/14/20/5162},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14205162}
	}
	
Proton beam range verification by means of ionoacoustic measurements at clinically relevant doses using a correlation-based evaluation
J. Schauer, H.-P. Wieser, Y. Huang, H. Ruser, J. Lascaud, M. Würl, A. Chmyrov, M. Vidal, J. Herault, V. Ntziachristos, W. Assmann, K. Parodi and G. Dollinger; Frontiers in Oncology 12:925542 (2022) 1-18.
Abstract: PurposeThe Bragg peak located at the end of the ion beam range is one of the main advantages of ion beam therapy compared to X-Ray radiotherapy. However, verifying the exact position of the Bragg peak within the patient online is a major challenge. The goal of this work was to achieve submillimeter proton beam range verification for pulsed proton beams of an energy of up to 220 MeV using ionoacoustics for a clinically relevant dose deposition of typically 2 Gy per fraction by i) using optimal proton beam characteristics for ionoacoustic signal generation and ii) improved signal detection by correlating the signal with simulated filter templates.MethodsA water tank was irradiated with a preclinical 20 MeV proton beam using different pulse durations ranging from 50 ns up to 1 μs in order to maximise the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ionoacoustic signals. The ionoacoustic signals were measured using a piezo-electric ultrasound transducer in the MHz frequency range. The signals were filtered using a cross correlation-based signal processing algorithm utilizing simulated templates, which enhances the SNR of the recorded signals. The range of the protons is evaluated by extracting the time of flight (ToF) of the ionoacoustic signals and compared to simulations from a Monte Carlo dose engine (FLUKA).ResultsOptimised SNR of 28.0 ± 10.6 is obtained at a beam current of 4.5 μA and a pulse duration of 130 ns at a total peak dose deposition of 0.5 Gy. Evaluated ranges coincide with Monte Carlo simulations better than 0.1 mm at an absolute range of 4.21 mm. Higher beam energies require longer proton pulse durations for optimised signal generation. Using the correlation-based post-processing filter a SNR of 17.8 ± 5.5 is obtained for 220 MeV protons at a total peak dose deposition of 1.3 Gy. For this clinically relevant dose deposition and proton beam energy, submillimeter range verification was achieved at an absolute range of 303 mm in water.ConclusionOptimal proton pulse durations ensure an ideal trade-off between maximising the ionoacoustic amplitude and minimising dose deposition. In combination with a correlation-based post-processing evaluation algorithm, a reasonable SNR can be achieved at low dose levels putting clinical applications for online proton or ion beam range verification into reach.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schauer2022a,
	  author = {Schauer, Jannis and Wieser, Hans-Peter and Huang, Yuanhui and Ruser, Heinrich and Lascaud, Julie and Würl, Matthias and Chmyrov, Andriy and Vidal, Marie and Herault, Joel and Ntziachristos, Vasilis and Assmann, Walter and Parodi, Katia and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Proton beam range verification by means of ionoacoustic measurements at clinically relevant doses using a correlation-based evaluation},
	  journal = {Frontiers in Oncology},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {12:925542},
	  pages = {1--18},
	  url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2022.925542},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.925542}
	}
	
Planar Proton Minibeam Irradiation Elicits Spatially Confined DNA Damage in a Human Epidermis Model
H. Scherthan, S.-Q. Wagner, J. Grundhöfer, N. Matejka, J. Müller, S. Müller, S. Rudigkeit, M. Sammer, S. Schoof, M. Port and J. Reindl; Cancers 14 (6) (2022) 1545.
Abstract: Purpose: High doses of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy can elicit undesirable side effects to the skin. Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) may circumvent such limitations due to tissue-sparing effects observed at the macro scale. Here, we mapped DNA damage dynamics in a 3D tissue context at the sub-cellular level. Methods: Epidermis models were irradiated with planar proton minibeams of 66 µm, 408 µm and 920 µm widths and inter-beam-distances of 2.5 mm at an average dose of 2 Gy using the scanning-ion-microscope SNAKE in Garching, GER. γ-H2AX + 53BP1 and cleaved-caspase-3 immunostaining revealed dsDNA damage and cell death, respectively, in time courses from 0.5 to 72 h after irradiation. Results: Focused 66 µm pMBRT induced sharply localized severe DNA damage (pan-γ-H2AX) in cells at the dose peaks, while damage in the dose valleys was similar to sham control. pMBRT with 408 µm and 920 µm minibeams induced DSB foci in all cells. At 72 h after irradiation, DNA damage had reached sham levels, indicating successful DNA repair. Increased frequencies of active-caspase-3 and pan-γ-H2AX-positive cells revealed incipient cell death at late time points. Conclusions: The spatially confined distribution of DNA damage appears to underlie the tissue-sparing effect after focused pMBRT. Thus, pMBRT may be the method of choice in radiotherapy to reduce side effects to the skin.
BibTeX:
	@article{Scherthan2022,
	  author = {Scherthan, Harry and Wagner, Stephanie-Quinta and Grundhöfer, Jan and Matejka, Nicole and Müller, Jessica and Müller, Steffen and Rudigkeit, Sarah and Sammer, Matthias and Schoof, Sarah and Port, Matthias and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Planar Proton Minibeam Irradiation Elicits Spatially Confined DNA Damage in a Human Epidermis Model},
	  journal = {Cancers},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {1545},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/14/6/1545},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061545}
	}
	
FLASHlab@PITZ: New R&D platform with unique capabilities for electron FLASH and VHEE radiation therapy and radiation biology under preparation at PITZ
F. Stephan, M. Gross, A. Grebinyk, Z. Aboulbanine, Z. Amirkhanyan, V. Budach, V.H. Ehrhardt, A. Faus-Golfe, M. Frohme, J.-F. Germond, J.D. Good, F. Grüner, D. Kaul, M. Krasilnikov, R. Leavitt, W. Leemans, X. Li, G. Loisch, F. Müller, G. Müller, F. Obier, A. Oppelt, S. Philipp, H. Qian, J. Reindl, F. Riemer, M. Sack, M. Schmitz, T. Schnautz, A. Schüller, T. Staufer, C. Stegmann, G. Tsakanova, M.-C. Vozenin, H. Weise, S. Worm and D. Zips; Physica Medica 104 (2022) 174-187.
Abstract: At the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ), an R&D platform for electron FLASH and very high energy electron radiation therapy and radiation biology is being prepared (FLASHlab@PITZ). The beam parameters available at PITZ are worldwide unique. They are based on experiences from 20 + years of developing high brightness beam sources and an ultra-intensive THz light source demonstrator for ps scale electron bunches with up to 5 nC bunch charge at MHz repetition rate in bunch trains of up to 1 ms length, currently 22 MeV (upgrade to 250 MeV planned). Individual bunches can provide peak dose rates up to 1014 Gy/s, and 10 Gy can be delivered within picoseconds. Upon demand, each bunch of the bunch train can be guided to a different transverse location, so that either a “painting” with micro beams (comparable to pencil beam scanning in proton therapy) or a cumulative increase of absorbed dose, using a wide beam distribution, can be realized at the tumor. Full tumor treatment can hence be completed within 1 ms, mitigating organ movement issues. With extremely flexible beam manipulation capabilities, FLASHlab@PITZ will cover the current parameter range of successfully demonstrated FLASH effects and extend the parameter range towards yet unexploited short treatment times and high dose rates. A summary of the plans for FLASHlab@PITZ and the status of its realization will be presented.
BibTeX:
	@article{Stephan2022a,
	  author = {Stephan, Frank and Gross, Matthias and Grebinyk, Anna and Aboulbanine, Zakaria and Amirkhanyan, Zohrab and Budach, Volker and Ehrhardt, Vincent Henrique and Faus-Golfe, Angeles and Frohme, Marcus and Germond, Jean-Francois and Good, James David and Grüner, Florian and Kaul, David and Krasilnikov, Mikhail and Leavitt, Ron and Leemans, Wim and Li, Xiangkun and Loisch, Gregor and Müller, Frieder and Müller, Georg and Obier, Frank and Oppelt, Anne and Philipp, Sebastian and Qian, Houjun and Reindl, Judith and Riemer, Felix and Sack, Martin and Schmitz, Michael and Schnautz, Tobias and Schüller, Andreas and Staufer, Theresa and Stegmann, Christian and Tsakanova, Gohar and Vozenin, Marie-Catherine and Weise, Hans and Worm, Steven and Zips, Daniel},
	  title = {FLASHlab@PITZ: New R&D platform with unique capabilities for electron FLASH and VHEE radiation therapy and radiation biology under preparation at PITZ},
	  journal = {Physica Medica},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {104},
	  pages = {174-187},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1120179722020877},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2022.10.026}
	}
	
Formation of vacancies and metallic-like domains in photochromic rare-earth oxyhydride thin films studied by in-situ illumination positron annihilation spectroscopy
Z. Wu, T. de Krom, G. Colombi, D. Chaykina, G. van Hattem, H. Schut, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt, E. Brück, B. Dam and S.W.H. Eijt; Phys. Rev. Mater. 6 (2022) 065201.
Abstract: Rare-earth (RE) oxyhydride thin films show a color-neutral, reversible photochromic effect at ambient conditions. The origin of the photochromism is the topic of current investigations. Here, we investigated the lattice defects, electronic structure, and crystal structure of photochromic YH_xO_y and GdH_xO_y thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering using positron annihilation techniques and x-ray diffraction, in comparison with Y, YH_\sim1.9, Y_2O_3, Gd, GdH_\sim1.8, and Gd_2O_3 films. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) reveals the presence of cation monovacancies in the as-deposited Y and YH_\sim1.9 films at concentrations of \sim10^-5 per cation. In addition, vacancy clusters and nanopores are found in the as-prepared YH_xO_y and Y_2O_3 films. Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy (DB-PAS) of the Y- and Gd-based films reflects the transition from a metallic to an insulating nature of the RE metal, metal hydride, semiconducting oxyhydride and insulating oxide films. In-situ illumination DB-PAS shows the irreversible formation predominantly of di-vacancies, as PALS showed that cation mono-vacancies are already abundantly present in the as-prepared films. The formation of di-vacancies supports conjectures that H^-- (and/or O^2--) ions become mobile upon illumination, as these will leave anion vacancies behind, some of which may subsequently cluster with cation vacancies present. In addition, in RE oxyhydride films, partially reversible shifts in the Doppler parameters are observed that correlate with the photochromic effect and point to the formation of metallic domains in the semiconducting films. Two processes are discussed that may explain the formation of these metallic domains and the changes in optical properties associated with the photochromic effect. The first process considers the reversible formation of metallic nanodomains with reduced O : H composition by transport of light-induced mobile hydrogen and local oxygen displacements. The second process considers metallic nanodomains resulting from the trapping of photoexcited electrons in an e_g orbital at the yttrium ions surrounding positively charged hydrogen vacancies that are formed by light-induced removal of hydrogen atoms from octahedral sites. When a sufficiently large concentration, on the order of \sim10%, is reached in a certain domain of the film, band formation of the e_g electrons may occur, leading to an Anderson-Mott insulator-metal transition like the case of yttrium trihydride in these domains." name="description" /> BibTeX:
	@article{Wu2022,
	  author = {Wu, Ziying and de Krom, Tom and Colombi, Giorgio and Chaykina, Diana and van Hattem, Gijs and Schut, Henk and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Brück, Ekkes and Dam, Bernard and Eijt, Stephan W. H.},
	  title = {Formation of vacancies and metallic-like domains in photochromic rare-earth oxyhydride thin films studied by in-situ illumination positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Phys. Rev. Mater.},
	  publisher = {American Physical Society},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {6},
	  pages = {065201},
	  url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.6.065201},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.6.065201}
	}
	
A combined experimental and theoretical study of small and large vacancy clusters in tungsten
Q. Yang, Z. Hu, I. Makkonen, P. Desgardin, W. Egger, M.-F. Barthe and P. Olsson; Journal of Nuclear Materials 571 (2022) 154019.
Abstract: Tungsten is considered to be used in the future fusion reactors as plasma-facing material. In such extreme environments, defects are induced in materials that modify their macroscopic properties such as the mechanical ones. It is of paramount importance to be able to determine concentration and size of the vacancy defects, from the mono vacancy to the large cavities, to validate the models developed to predict the evolution of the microstructure of irradiated materials. Positrons are very useful non-destructive probes that can characterize vacancy-type defects in materials. We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on detecting and estimating the sizes of vacancy clusters that are invisible with electron microscopy in tungsten, using positron annihilation spectroscopy. We here model the positron annihilation in the tungsten lattice and in vacancy-type defects using state-of-the-art first principles methodology. The Doppler broadening spectra and positron lifetimes in tungsten are calculated with two-component density functional theory with local density approximation and weighted density approximation. Our calculations are in excellent agreement with our experimental results. We show that the sizes of vacancy clusters in tungsten can be well estimated by combining both positron lifetimes and Doppler broadening spectra. We also determine the limit of validity of the canonical calculation method, which here is shown to fail when the vacancy clusters grow beyond their nucleation stage. This work is a first step needed to better interpret the measured positron annihilation characteristics (Doppler and lifetime) in tungsten and then extract quantitative data on small vacancy defects required to improve the understanding of early-stage vacancy defect evolution in tungsten. The method used in this paper could be used to study other metallic materials.
BibTeX:
	@article{Yang2022,
	  author = {Yang, Qigui and Hu, Zhiwei and Makkonen, Ilja and Desgardin, Pierre and Egger, Werner and Barthe, Marie-France and Olsson, Pär},
	  title = {A combined experimental and theoretical study of small and large vacancy clusters in tungsten},
	  journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2022},
	  volume = {571},
	  pages = {154019},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311522005049},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2022.154019}
	}
	

2021

Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Verschmutzungsgrades von Thermoelementen im Betrieb
D. Felkl and H. Ruser; In: 15. Dresdner Sensor-Symposium 2021 , Dresdner Sensor-Symposium (2021) 332-337 , AMA Association for Sensors and Measurement.
Abstract: Für die Verbesserung der Zuverlässigkeit eines Sensors und die Minimierung der Messabweichungen spielt die Kenntnis des Sensorzustandes eine wichtige Rolle. Dies gilt verstärkt im Zusammenhang mit der Sensorentwicklung für den Einsatz in komplexen industriellen Produktionsanlagen mit einer Vielzahl vernetzter sensorbasierter Teilsysteme (sog. cyber-physischer Systeme) [1]. Kontinuierliche Zustandsüberwachungen der Sensoren sind die Voraussetzung für eine prädiktive Wartung bzw. Instandsetzung.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Felkl2021,
	  author = {Felkl, Dieter and Ruser, Heinrich},
	  title = {Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Verschmutzungsgrades von Thermoelementen im Betrieb},
	  booktitle = {15. Dresdner Sensor-Symposium 2021},
	  journal = {Dresdner Sensor-Symposium},
	  publisher = {AMA Association for Sensors and Measurement},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  pages = {332--337},
	  url = {https://www.ama-science.org/proceedings/details/4134},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.5162/15dss2021/P13.3}
	}
	
Identification of lead vacancy defects in lead halide perovskites
D.J. Keeble, J. Wiktor, S.K. Pathak, L.J. Phillips, M. Dickmann, K. Durose, H.J. Snaith and W. Egger; Nature Communications 12 (2021) 5566.
Abstract: Perovskite photovoltaics advance rapidly, but questions remain regarding point defects: while experiments have detected the presence of electrically active defects no experimentally confirmed microscopic identifications have been reported. Here we identify lead monovacancy (VPb) defects in MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3+) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with the aid of density functional theory. Experiments on thin film and single crystal samples all exhibited dominant positron trapping to lead vacancy defects, and a minimum defect density of  3 × 1015 cm−3 was determined. There was also evidence of
trapping at the vacancy complex (VPbVI)- in a minority of samples, but no trapping to MAion vacancies was observed. Our experimental results support the predictions of other firstprinciples studies that deep level, hole trapping, V2 Pb , point defects are one of the most stable defects in MAPbI3. This direct detection and identification of a deep level native defect in a halide perovskite, at technologically relevant concentrations, will enable further investigation of defect driven mechanisms.
BibTeX:
	@article{Keeble2021,
	  author = {Keeble, David J. and Wiktor, Julia and Pathak, Sandeep K. and Phillips, Laurie J. and Dickmann, Marcel and Durose, Ken and Snaith, Henry J. and Egger, Werner},
	  title = {Identification of lead vacancy defects in lead halide perovskites},
	  journal = {Nature Communications},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {12},
	  pages = {5566},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-25937-1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25937-1}
	}
	
Phone-Pointing Remote App: Using Smartphones as Pointers in Gesture-Based IoT Remote Controls
I. Kirsh and H. Ruser; In: , C. Stephanidis, M. Antona and S. Ntoa (Eds.), HCI International 2021 - Posters 1420 (2021) 14-21 , Springer International Publishing.
Abstract: Remote control mobile applications for operating Internet of Things (IoT) devices using smartphones are commonly based on a touch user interface. The effort of using such apps is often disproportionate to the simplicity of carrying out the actions manually. For example, turning a light on or off via menus and forms of a standard remote app might not be very convenient. A voice user interface, while easier to use, gives rise to other issues, including user privacy and distracting others nearby. This paper proposes a new type of universal IoT remote control applications for smartphones: phone-pointing remote apps. Using a phone-pointing remote app, users can physically point their smartphones at IoT devices to select them, and operate them via movement gestures, without needing to turn on the phone screen or talk, and with no need for any additional hardware. This new approach provides a unique combination of advantages. It is simple, intuitive, fast, and voiceless. Instead of using the touchscreen or the microphone as the input source, phone-pointing remote apps will use a combination of standard smartphone sensors, including the GNSS sensor, Wi-Fi scanner, Bluetooth receiver, camera, barometer, magnetometer, g-force meter, accelerometer, and gyroscope. An analysis of the proposed model in light of relevant results from related studies provides positive preliminary indications regarding the feasibility of this novel approach.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Kirsh2021,
	  author = {Kirsh, Ilan and Ruser, Heinrich},
	  title = {Phone-Pointing Remote App: Using Smartphones as Pointers in Gesture-Based IoT Remote Controls},
	  booktitle = {HCI International 2021 - Posters},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {1420},
	  pages = {14--21},
	  editor = {Stephanidis, Constantine and Antona, Margherita and Ntoa, Stavroula},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-78642-7_3},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78642-7_3}
	}
	
A new approach to near-surface positron annihilation analysis of ion irradiated ferritic alloys
V. Kršjak, P. Hruška, J. Degmová, S. Sojak, P. Noga, T. Shen, V. Sabelová, W. Egger and V. Slugen; Nanoscale Advances 3 (23) (2021) 6596-6607.
Abstract: The present work provides an innovative approach to the near-surface slow-positron-beam (SPB) study of structural materials exposed to ion-beam irradiation. This approach enables the use of variable-energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to characterise a wide range of microstructural damage along the ion implantation profile. In a typical application of the SPB PALS technique, positron lifetime is used to provide qualitative information on the size of vacancy clusters as a function of the positron energy, i.e., the probing depth of the spectrometer. This approach is limited to a certain defect concentration above which the positron lifetime gets saturated. In our experiments, we investigated the back-diffusion of positrons and their annihilation at the surface. The probability of such an event is characterised by the positron diffusion length, and it depends on the density of lattice defects, even in the saturation range of the positron lifetime. Until now, the back-diffusion experiments were reported only in connection with Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) of positron-annihilation radiation. To verify the validity of the used approach, we compared the obtained results on helium-implanted Fe9Cr alloy and its oxide dispersion strengthened variant with the transmission electron microscopy and “conventional” slow positron DBS analysis.
BibTeX:
	@article{Krsjak2021,
	  author = {Kršjak, Vladimír and Hruška, Petr and Degmová, Jarmila and Sojak, Stanislav and Noga, Pavol and Shen, Tielong and Sabelová, Veronika and Egger, Werner and Slugen, Vladimír},
	  title = {A new approach to near-surface positron annihilation analysis of ion irradiated ferritic alloys},
	  journal = {Nanoscale Advances},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {3},
	  number = {23},
	  pages = {6596-6607},
	  url = {https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2021/NA/D1NA00394A},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1039/D1NA00394A}
	}
	
Focused Ion Microbeam Irradiation Induces Clustering of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Heterochromatin Visualized by Nanoscale-Resolution Electron Microscopy
Y. Lorat, J. Reindl, A. Isermann, C. Rübe, A.A. Friedl and C.E. Rübe; International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22 (14) (2021) 7638.
Abstract: Background: Charged-particle radiotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for radioresistant tumors. The enhanced effectiveness of high-energy particles (such as heavy ions) has been related to the spatial clustering of DNA lesions due to highly localized energy deposition. Here, DNA damage patterns induced by single and multiple carbon ions were analyzed in the nuclear chromatin environment by different high-resolution microscopy approaches. Material and Methods: Using the heavy-ion microbeam SNAKE, fibroblast monolayers were irradiated with defined numbers of carbon ions (1/10/100 ions per pulse, ipp) focused to micrometer-sized stripes or spots. Radiation-induced lesions were visualized as DNA damage foci (γH2AX, 53BP1) by conventional fluorescence and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. At micro- and nanoscale level, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were visualized within their chromatin context by labeling the Ku heterodimer. Single and clustered pKu70-labeled DSBs were quantified in euchromatic and heterochromatic regions at 0.1 h, 5 h and 24 h post-IR by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Increasing numbers of carbon ions per beam spot enhanced spatial clustering of DNA lesions and increased damage complexity with two or more DSBs in close proximity. This effect was detectable in euchromatin, but was much more pronounced in heterochromatin. Analyzing the dynamics of damage processing, our findings indicate that euchromatic DSBs were processed efficiently and repaired in a timely manner. In heterochromatin, by contrast, the number of clustered DSBs continuously increased further over the first hours following IR exposure, indicating the challenging task for the cell to process highly clustered DSBs appropriately. Conclusion: Increasing numbers of carbon ions applied to sub-nuclear chromatin regions enhanced the spatial clustering of DSBs and increased damage complexity, this being more pronounced in heterochromatic regions. Inefficient processing of clustered DSBs may explain the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of particle-based radiotherapy in cancer treatment.
BibTeX:
	@article{Lorat2021,
	  author = {Lorat, Yvonne and Reindl, Judith and Isermann, Anna and Rübe, Christian and Friedl, Anna A. and Rübe, Claudia E.},
	  title = {Focused Ion Microbeam Irradiation Induces Clustering of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Heterochromatin Visualized by Nanoscale-Resolution Electron Microscopy},
	  journal = {International Journal of Molecular Sciences},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {22},
	  number = {14},
	  pages = {7638},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/14/7638},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147638}
	}
	
Transport of organic solutes in ion-exchange membranes: Mechanisms and influence of solvent ionic composition
L. Ma, L. Gutierrez, R. Verbeke, A. D'Haese, M. Waqas, M. Dickmann, R. Helm, I. Vankelecom, A. Verliefde and E. Cornelissen; Water Research 190 (2021) 116756.
Abstract: Ion-exchange membrane (IEM)-based processes are used in the industry or in the drinking water production to achieve selective separation. The transport mechanisms of organic solutes/micropollutants (i.e., paracetamol, clofibric acid, and atenolol) at a single-membrane level in diffusion cells were similar to that of salts (i.e., diffusion, convection, and electromigration). The presence of an equal concentration of salts at both sides of the membrane slightly decreased the transport of organics due to lower diffusion coefficients of organics in salts and the increase of hindrance and/or decrease of partitioning in the membrane phase. In the presence of a salt gradient, diffusion was the main transport mechanism for non-charged organics, while the counter-transport of salts promoted the transport of charged organics through electromigration (electroneutrality). Conversely, the co-transport of salts hindered the transport of charged organics, where diffusion was the main transport mechanism of the latter. Although convection played a role in the transport of non-charged organics, its influence on the charged solutes was minimal due to the dominant electromigration. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy showed a bimodal size distribution of free-volume elements of IEMs, with both classes of free-volume elements contributing to salt transport, while larger organics can only transport through the larger class.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ma2021,
	  author = {Ma, Lingshan and Gutierrez, Leonardo and Verbeke, Rhea and D'Haese, Arnout and Waqas, Muhammad and Dickmann, Marcel and Helm, Ricardo and Vankelecom, Ivo and Verliefde, Arne and Cornelissen, Emile},
	  title = {Transport of organic solutes in ion-exchange membranes: Mechanisms and influence of solvent ionic composition},
	  journal = {Water Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {190},
	  pages = {116756},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135420312896},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116756}
	}
	
Oxygen related defects and vacancy clusters identified in sputtering grown UOx thin films by positron annihilation techniques
C.E. Macchi, A. Somoza, J. Guimpel, S. Suárez, W. Egger, C.P. Hugenschmidt, S. Mariazzi and R.S. Brusa; Results in Physics 27 (2021) 104513.
Abstract: We experimentally studied the formation of vacancy clusters and oxygen related defects in uranium oxide (UOx) thin films (<70 nm) changing the stoichiometry in the x = 2.2–3.5 range. Films were deposited on Si(001) by DC magnetron sputtering varying the substrate temperature (room temperature, 400 °C and 600 °C) and different relative O2 partial pressures in the argon-oxygen mixture. The different species of vacancy-like defects are identified by the combination of depth dependent positron annihilation techniques and by comparison of the experimental data with ab-initio calculations. In samples growth up to 400 °C substrate temperature, di- and tri- vacancies were formed whereas at higher temperature, hexa-vacancies and larger vacancy clusters appear. Film growth at increasing oxygen partial pressure was found not to be correlated with an increase of oxygen defects, but with the formation of more complex vacancy clusters. The presence of oxygen related defects is revealed by identifying preferential positron annihilations with oxygen electrons. Moreover, uranium vacancies inside vacancy clusters are identified by localization of positrons, in agreement with ab-initio calculations.
BibTeX:
	@article{Macchi2021,
	  author = {Macchi, Carlos Eugenio and Somoza, Alberto and Guimpel, Julio and Suárez, Sebastián and Egger, Werner and Hugenschmidt, Christoph P. and Mariazzi, Sebastiano and Brusa, Roberto Sennen},
	  title = {Oxygen related defects and vacancy clusters identified in sputtering grown UOx thin films by positron annihilation techniques},
	  journal = {Results in Physics},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {27},
	  pages = {104513},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211379721006239?via%3Dihub},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104513}
	}
	
Magnetically focused 70 MeV proton minibeams for preclinical experiments combining a tandem accelerator and a 3 GHz linear post-accelerator
M. Mayerhofer, G. Datzmann, A. Degiovanni, V. Dimov and G. Dollinger; Medical Physics 48 (6) (2021) 2733-2749.
Abstract: Purpose Radiotherapy plays an important role for the treatment of tumor diseases in two-thirds of all cases, but it is limited by side effects in the surrounding healthy tissue. Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is a promising option to widen the therapeutic window for tumor control at reduced side effects. An accelerator concept based on an existing tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and a linac enables the focusing of 70 MeV protons to form minibeams with a size of only 0.1 mm for a preclinical small animal irradiation facility, while avoiding the cost of an RFQ injector. Methods The tandem accelerator provides a 16 MeV proton beam with a beam brightness of as averaged from 5 µs long pulses with a flat top current of 17 µA at 200 Hz repetition rate. Subsequently, the protons are accelerated to 70 MeV by a 3 GHz linear post-accelerator consisting of two Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) structures and four Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) structures [design: AVO-ADAM S.A (Geneva, Switzerland)]. A 3 GHz buncher and four magnetic quadrupole lenses are placed between the tandem and the post-accelerator to maximize the transmission through the linac. A quadrupole triplet situated downstream of the linac structure focuses the protons into an area of (0.1 × 0.1) mm2. The beam dynamics of the facility is optimized using the particle optics code TRACE three-dimensional (3D). Proton transmission through the facility is elaborated using the particle tracking code TRAVEL. Results A study about buncher amplitude and phase shift between buncher and linac is showing that 49% of all protons available from the tandem can be transported through the post-accelerator. A mean beam current up to 19 nA is expected within an area of (0.1 × 0.1) mm2 at the beam focus. Conclusion An extension of existing tandem accelerators by commercially available 3 GHz structures is able to deliver a proton minibeam that serves all requirements to obtain proton minibeams to perform preclinical minibeam irradiations as it would be the case for a complete commercial 3 GHz injector-RFQ–linac combination. Due to the modularity of the linac structure, the irradiation facility can be extended to clinically relevant proton energies up to or above 200 MeV.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mayerhofer2021,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, Michael and Datzmann, Gerd and Degiovanni, Alberto and Dimov, Veliko and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Magnetically focused 70 MeV proton minibeams for preclinical experiments combining a tandem accelerator and a 3 GHz linear post-accelerator},
	  journal = {Medical Physics},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {48},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {2733-2749},
	  url = {https://aapm.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mp.14854},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/mp.14854}
	}
	
Concept and performance evaluation of two 3 GHz buncher units optimizing the dose rate of a novel preclinical proton minibeam irradiation facility
M. Mayerhofer, A. Bergmaier, G. Datzmann, H. Hagn, R. Helm, J. Mitteneder, R. Schubert, L. Picardi, P. Nenzi, C. Ronsivalle, H.-F. Wirth and G. Dollinger; PLOS ONE 16 (10) (2021) 1-19.
Abstract: To demonstrate the large potential of proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) as a new method to treat tumor diseases, a preclinical proton minibeam radiation facility was designed. It is based on a tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator providing a 16 MeV proton beam and a 3 GHz linac post-accelerator (designs: AVO-ADAM S.A, Geneva, Switzerland and ENEA, Frascati, Italy). To enhance the transmission of the tandem beam through the post-accelerator by a factor of 3, two drift tube buncher units were designed and constructed: A brazed 5-gap structure (adapted SCDTL tank of the TOP-IMPLART project (ENEA)) and a non-brazed low budget 4-gap structure. Both are made of copper. The performance of the two differently manufactured units was evaluated using a 16 MeV tandem accelerator beam and a Q3D magnetic spectrograph. Both buncher units achieve the required summed voltage amplitude of 42 kV and amplitude stability at a power feed of less than 800 W.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mayerhofer2021a,
	  author = {Mayerhofer, Michael and Bergmaier, Andreas and Datzmann, Gerd and Hagn, Hermann and Helm, Ricardo and Mitteneder, Johannes and Schubert, Ralf and Picardi, Luigi and Nenzi, Paolo and Ronsivalle, Concetta and Wirth, Hans-Friedrich and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Concept and performance evaluation of two 3 GHz buncher units optimizing the dose rate of a novel preclinical proton minibeam irradiation facility},
	  journal = {PLOS ONE},
	  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {16},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {1-19},
	  url = {https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258477},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258477}
	}
	
Non-steady diffusion and adsorption of organic micropollutants in ion-exchange membranes: effect of the membrane thickness
M. Roman, P. Roman, R. Verbeke, L. Gutierrez, M. Vanoppen, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, I. Vankelecom, J. Post, E. Cornelissen, K. Keesman and A. Verliefde; iScience 24 (2) (2021) 102095.
Abstract: Summary
There is no efficient wastewater treatment solution for removing organic micropollutants (OMPs), which, therefore, are continuously introduced to the Earth's surface waters. This creates a severe risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. In emerging water treatment processes based on ion-exchange membranes (IEM), transport of OMPs through membranes remains unknown. We performed a comprehensive investigation of the OMP transport through a single IEM under non-steady-state conditions. For the first time, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was used to study differences in the free volume element radius between anion- and cation-exchange membranes, and between their thicknesses. The dynamic diffusion-adsorption model was used to calculate the adsorption and diffusion coefficients of OMPs. Remarkably, diffusion coefficients increased with the membrane thickness, where its surface resistance was more evident in thinner membranes. Presented results will contribute to the improved design of next-generation IEMs with higher selectivity toward multiple types of organic compounds.
BibTeX:
	@article{Roman2021,
	  author = {Roman, Malgorzata and Roman, Pawel and Verbeke, Rhea and Gutierrez, Leonardo and Vanoppen, Marjolein and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Vankelecom, Ivo and Post, Jan and Cornelissen, Emile and Keesman, Karel and Verliefde, Arne},
	  title = {Non-steady diffusion and adsorption of organic micropollutants in ion-exchange membranes: effect of the membrane thickness},
	  journal = {iScience},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {24},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {102095},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2589004221000638},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102095}
	}
	
CeCILE - An Artificial Intelligence Based Cell-Detection for the Evaluation of Radiation Effects in Eucaryotic Cells
S. Rudigkeit, J.B. Reindl, N. Matejka, R. Ramson, M. Sammer, G. Dollinger and J. Reindl; Frontiers in Oncology 11 (2021) 2327.
Abstract: The fundamental basis in the development of novel radiotherapy methods is in-vitro cellular studies. To assess different endpoints of cellular reactions to irradiation like proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and cell death, several assays are used in radiobiological research as standard methods. For example, colony forming assay investigates cell survival and Caspase3/7-Sytox assay cell death. The major limitation of these assays is the analysis at a fixed timepoint after irradiation. Thus, not much is known about the reactions before or after the assay is performed. Additionally, these assays need special treatments, which influence cell behavior and health. In this study, a completely new method is proposed to tackle these challenges: A deep-learning algorithm called CeCILE (Cell Classification and In-vitroLifecycle Evaluation), which is used to detect and analyze cells on videos obtained from phase-contrast microscopy. With this method, we can observe and analyze the behavior and the health conditions of single cells over several days after treatment, up to a sample size of 100 cells per image frame. To train CeCILE, we built a dataset by labeling cells on microscopic images and assign class labels to each cell, which define the cell states in the cell cycle. After successful training of CeCILE, we irradiated CHO-K1 cells with 4 Gy protons, imaged them for 2 days by a microscope equipped with a live-cell-imaging set-up, and analyzed the videos by CeCILE and by hand. From analysis, we gained information about cell numbers, cell divisions, and cell deaths over time. We could show that similar results were achieved in the first proof of principle compared with colony forming and Caspase3/7-Sytox assays in this experiment. Therefore, CeCILE has the potential to assess the same endpoints as state-of-the-art assays but gives extra information about the evolution of cell numbers, cell state, and cell cycle. Additionally, CeCILE will be extended to track individual cells and their descendants throughout the whole video to follow the behavior of each cell and the progeny after irradiation. This tracking method is capable to put radiobiologic research to the next level to obtain a better understanding of the cellular reactions to radiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Rudigkeit2021,
	  author = {Rudigkeit, Sarah and Reindl, Julian B. and Matejka, Nicole and Ramson, Rika and Sammer, Matthias and Dollinger, Günther and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {CeCILE - An Artificial Intelligence Based Cell-Detection for the Evaluation of Radiation Effects in Eucaryotic Cells},
	  journal = {Frontiers in Oncology},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {11},
	  pages = {2327},
	  url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2021.688333},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.688333}
	}
	
Evaluating the Accuracy and User Experience of a Gesture-Based Infrared Remote Control in Smart Homes
H. Ruser, S. Vorwerg, C. Eicher, F. Pfeifer, F. Piela, A. Kaltenbach and L. Mechold; In: , M. Kurosu (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Techniques and Novel Applications 12763 (2021) 89-108 , Springer International Publishing.
Abstract: To enhance user experience while satisfying basic expectations and needs is the most important goal in the design of assistive technical devices. As a contribution, the user experience with the SmartPointer, a novel hand-held gesture-based remote control for everyday use in the living environment, is being explored in comprehensive user tests. The concept and design of the SmartPointer exploits the user's familiarity with TV remotes, flashlights or laser pointers. The buttonless device emits both an infrared (IR) and a visible (VIS) laser beam and is designed to be universally and consistently used for a large variety of devices and appliances in private homes out of arm's reach. In the paper, the results of three user studies regarding recognition rates and usability issues are summarized. Study One was a mixed-method study in the pre-implementation stage with 20 older adults, gathering the expectations towards a gesture-based remote control and exploring simple, quasi-intuitive controlling gestures. In Study Two, the acceptance and usability of a prototype of the SmartPointer remote control was verified and compared with a group of 29 users from the target group, exploring 8 most frequently used gestures from Study One. In Study Three, comprehensive gesture-recognition tests with an updated version of the remote were carried out with a group of 11 younger adults in various light conditions, postures and distances to the operated device. All three studies confirm the feasibility of the underlying principle, the usability and satisfaction among the participants and the robustness of the technical solution along with a high success rate of the recognition algorithm.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Ruser2021,
	  author = {Ruser, Heinrich and Vorwerg, Susan and Eicher, Cornelia and Pfeifer, Felix and Piela, Felix and Kaltenbach, André and Mechold, Lars},
	  title = {Evaluating the Accuracy and User Experience of a Gesture-Based Infrared Remote Control in Smart Homes},
	  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Techniques and Novel Applications},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {12763},
	  pages = {89--108},
	  editor = {Kurosu, Masaaki},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-78465-2_8},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78465-2_8}
	}
	
''Point at It with Your Smartphone'': Assessing the Applicability of Orientation Sensing of Smartphones to Operate IoT Devices
H. Ruser and I. Kirsh; In: , C. Stephanidis, M. Kurosu, J.Y.C. Chen, G. Fragomeni, N. Streitz, S. Konomi, H. Degen and S. Ntoa (Eds.), HCI International 2021 - Late Breaking Papers: Multimodality, eXtended Reality, and Artificial Intelligence 13095 (2021) 115-131 , Springer International Publishing.
Abstract: The built-in orientation and motion sensors of smartphones along with their wireless communication abilities are utilized to control connected IoT devices from any place in a room, by pointing at them with the smartphone in the hand. The information of which device is targeted will be derived from the user's actual location, the spatial orientation of the smartphone and pre-knowledge regarding the positions of devices. Chosen devices are remotely operated with simple mid-air gestures performed with the smartphone. The feasibility of this cost-effective approach is assessed by user experiments. The continuous readings of the smartphone's inclination, rotation and magnetic field sensors are recorded with a dedicated freeware app. An algorithm combines the sensor readings to deliver the actual spatial orientation. Our preliminary experiments with different smartphone models and several users show that pointing at defined positions and performing gestures with a smartphone in the user's hand can be accurately sensed without latency and with small deviations of the orientation measurements in the range of up to 5 degrees, indicating the feasibility of this novel approach.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Ruser2021a,
	  author = {Ruser, Heinrich and Kirsh, Ilan},
	  title = {''Point at It with Your Smartphone'': Assessing the Applicability of Orientation Sensing of Smartphones to Operate IoT Devices},
	  booktitle = {HCI International 2021 - Late Breaking Papers: Multimodality, eXtended Reality, and Artificial Intelligence},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {13095},
	  pages = {115--131},
	  editor = {Stephanidis, Constantine and Kurosu, Masaaki and Chen, Jessie Y. C. and Fragomeni, Gino and Streitz, Norbert and Konomi, Shin'ichi and Degen, Helmut and Ntoa, Stavroula},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-90963-5_10},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90963-5_10}
	}
	
Normal Tissue Response of Combined Temporal and Spatial Fractionation in Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy
M. Sammer, A.C. Dombrowsky, J. Schauer, K. Oleksenko, S. Bicher, B. Schwarz, S. Rudigkeit, N. Matejka, J. Reindl, S. Bartzsch, A. Blutke, A. Feuchtinger, S.E. Combs, G. Dollinger and T.E. Schmid; International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 109 (1) (2021) 76-83.
Abstract: Purpose
Proton minibeam radiation therapy, a spatial fractionation concept, widens the therapeutic window. By reducing normal tissue toxicities, it allows a temporally fractionated regime with high daily doses. However, an array shift between daily fractions can affect the tissue-sparing effect by decreasing the total peak-to-valley dose ratio. Therefore, combining temporal fractions with spatial fractionation raises questions about the impact of daily applied dose modulations, reirradiation accuracies, and total dose modulations.
Methods and Materials
Healthy mouse ear pinnae were irradiated with 4 daily fractions of 30 Gy mean dose, applying proton pencil minibeams (pMB) of Gaussian σ = 222 μm in 3 different schemes: a 16 pMB array with a center-to-center distance of 1.8 mm irradiated the same position in all sessions (FS1) or was shifted by 0.9 mm to never hit the previously irradiated tissue in each session (FS2), or a 64 pMB array with a center-to-center distance of 0.9 mm irradiated the same position in all sessions (FS3), resulting in the same total dose distribution as FS2. Reirradiation positioning and its accuracy were obtained from image guidance using the unique vessel structure of ears. Acute toxicities (swelling, erythema, and desquamation) were evaluated for 153 days after the first fraction. Late toxicities (fibrous tissue, inflammation) were analyzed on day 153.
Results
Reirradiation of highly dose-modulated arrays at a positioning accuracy of 110 ± 52 μm induced the least severe acute and late toxicities. A shift of the same array in FS2 led to significantly inducted acute toxicities, a higher otitis score, and a slight increase in fibrous tissue. FS3 led to the strongest increase in acute and late toxicities.
Conclusions
The highest normal-tissue sparing is achieved after accurate reirradiation of a highly dose modulated pMB array, although high positioning accuracies are challenging in a clinical environment. Nevertheless, the same integral dose applied in highly dose-modulated fractions is superior to low daily dose-modulated fractions.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sammer2021,
	  author = {Sammer, Matthias and Dombrowsky, Annique C. and Schauer, Jannis and Oleksenko, Kateryna and Bicher, Sandra and Schwarz, Benjamin and Rudigkeit, Sarah and Matejka, Nicole and Reindl, Judith and Bartzsch, Stefan and Blutke, Andreas and Feuchtinger, Annette and Combs, Stephanie E. and Dollinger, Günther and Schmid, Thomas E.},
	  title = {Normal Tissue Response of Combined Temporal and Spatial Fractionation in Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy},
	  journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics},
	  publisher = {Elsevier},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {109},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {76--83},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S036030162034116X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.08.027}
	}
	
Optimizing proton minibeam radiotherapy by interlacing and heterogeneous tumor dose on the basis of calculated clonogenic cell survival
M. Sammer, S. Girst and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 11 (1) (2021) 3533.
Abstract: Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is a spatial fractionation method using sub-millimeter beams at center-to-center (ctc) distances of a few millimeters to widen the therapeutic index by reduction of side effects in normal tissues. Interlaced minibeams from two opposing or four orthogonal directions are calculated to minimize side effects. In particular, heterogeneous dose distributions applied to the tumor are investigated to evaluate optimized sparing capabilities of normal tissues at the close tumor surrounding. A 5 cm thick tumor is considered at 10 cm depth within a 25 cm thick water phantom. Pencil and planar minibeams are interlaced from two (opposing) directions as well as planar beams from four directions. An initial beam size of σ0 = 0.2 mm (standard deviation) is assumed in all cases. Tissue sparing potential is evaluated by calculating mean clonogenic cell survival using a linear-quadratic model on the calculated dose distributions. Interlacing proton minibeams for homogeneous irradiation of the tumor has only minor benefits for the mean clonogenic cell survival compared to unidirectional minibeam irradiation modes. Enhanced mean cell survival, however, is obtained when a heterogeneous dose distribution within the tumor is permitted. The benefits hold true even for an elevated mean tumor dose, which is necessary to avoid cold spots within the tumor in concerns of a prescribed dose. The heterogeneous irradiation of the tumor allows for larger ctc distances. Thus, a high mean cell survival of up to 47% is maintained even close to the tumor edges for single fraction doses in the tumor of at least 10 Gy. Similar benefits would result for heavy ion minibeams with the advantage of smaller minibeams in deep tissue potentially offering even increased tissue sparing. The enhanced mean clonogenic cell survival through large ctc distances for interlaced pMBRT with heterogeneous tumor dose distribution results in optimum tissue sparing potential. The calculations show the largest enhancement of the mean cell survival in normal tissue for high-dose fractions. Thus, hypo-fractionation or even single dose fractions become possible for tumor irradiation. A widened therapeutic index at big cost reductions is offered by interlaced proton or heavy ion minibeam therapy.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sammer2021a,
	  author = {Sammer, Matthias and Girst, Stefanie and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Optimizing proton minibeam radiotherapy by interlacing and heterogeneous tumor dose on the basis of calculated clonogenic cell survival},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {11},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {3533},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-81708-4},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81708-4}
	}
	
Template-mediated control over polymorphism in the vapor-assisted formation of zeolitic imidazolate framework powders and films
M. Tu, D.E. Kravchenko, B. Xia, V. Rubio-Giménez, N. Wauteraerts, R. Verbeke, I. Vankelecom, T. Stassin, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, H. Amenitsch and R. Ameloot; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 60 (14) (2021) 7553-7558.
Abstract: The landscape of possible polymorphs for some metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can pose a challenge for controlling the synthesis outcome. In this work, we demonstrate how a template can enable such control in the vapor-assisted formation of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) powders and thin films. Introducing a small amount of ethanol or dimethylformamide vapor during the reaction between ZnO and 4,5-dichloroimidazole vapor results in the formation of the porous ZIF-71 phase; other conditions lead to the formation of the dense ZIF-72 phase or amorphous materials. Time-resolved in situ small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that the porous phase is metastable and can be transformed into its dense polymorph. This transformation is avoided through the introduction of template vapor. The porosity of the resulted ZIF powders and films was studied by N 2 and Kr physisorption, as well as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The templating principle was demonstrated for other members of the ZIF family as well, including the ZIF-7 series, ZIF-8Cl, and ZIF-8Br.
BibTeX:
	@article{Tu2021,
	  author = {Tu, Min and Kravchenko, Dmitry E. and Xia, Benzheng and Rubio-Giménez, Víctor and Wauteraerts, Nathalie and Verbeke, Rhea and Vankelecom, Ivo and Stassin, Timothée and Egger, Werner and Dickmann, Marcel and Amenitsch, Heinz and Ameloot, Rob},
	  title = {Template-mediated control over polymorphism in the vapor-assisted formation of zeolitic imidazolate framework powders and films},
	  journal = {Angewandte Chemie International Edition},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {60},
	  number = {14},
	  pages = {7553--7558},
	  url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/anie.202014791},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202014791}
	}
	
Chlorine-Resistant Epoxide-Based Membranes for Sustainable Water Desalination
R. Verbeke, D.M. Davenport, T. Stassin, S. Eyley, M. Dickmann, A.J. Cruz, P. Dara, C.L. Ritt, C. Bogaerts, W. Egger, R. Ameloot, J. Meersschaut, W. Thielemans, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Elimelech and I.F.J. Vankelecom; Environmental Science and Technology Letters 8 (9) (2021) 818-824.
Abstract: The hypersensitivity of state-of-the-art polyamide-based membranes to chlorine is a major source of premature membrane failure and module replacement in water desalination plants. This problem can currently only be solved by implementing pre- and post-treatment processes involving additional chemical use and energy input, thus increasing environmental, capital, and operational costs. Herein, we report a chlorine-, acid-, and base-resistant desalination membrane comprising a cross-linked epoxide-based polymer-selective layer with permanent positive charges. These novel membranes exhibit high mono- and divalent salt rejection (81% NaCl, 87% CaCl2, 89% MgCl2) and a water permeance of ∼2 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, i.e., desalination performance comparable to that of commercially available nanofiltration membranes. Unlike conventional polyamide-based membranes, this new generation of epoxide-based membranes takes advantage of the intrinsic chemical stability of ether bonds while achieving the polymer and charge density needed for desalination. In doing so, the stability of these membranes opens new horizons for sustainable water purification and many other separations in harsh media in a variety of applications (e.g., solvent recovery, gas separations, redox flow batteries).
The hypersensitivity of state-of-the-art polyamide-based membranes to chlorine is a major source of premature membrane failure and module replacement in water desalination plants. This problem can currently only be solved by implementing pre- and post-treatment processes involving additional chemical use and energy input, thus increasing environmental, capital, and operational costs. Herein, we report a chlorine-, acid-, and base-resistant desalination membrane comprising a cross-linked epoxide-based polymer-selective layer with permanent positive charges. These novel membranes exhibit high mono- and divalent salt rejection (81% NaCl, 87% CaCl2, 89% MgCl2) and a water permeance of ∼2 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, i.e., desalination performance comparable to that of commercially available nanofiltration membranes. Unlike conventional polyamide-based membranes, this new generation of epoxide-based membranes takes advantage of the intrinsic chemical stability of ether bonds while achieving the polymer and charge density needed for desalination. In doing so, the stability of these membranes opens new horizons for sustainable water purification and many other separations in harsh media in a variety of applications (e.g., solvent recovery, gas separations, redox flow batteries).
BibTeX:
	@article{Verbeke2021,
	  author = {Verbeke, Rhea and Davenport, Douglas M. and Stassin, Timothée and Eyley, Samuel and Dickmann, Marcel and Cruz, Alexander John and Dara, Praveen and Ritt, Cody L. and Bogaerts, Caroline and Egger, Werner and Ameloot, Rob and Meersschaut, Johan and Thielemans, Wim and Koeckelberghs, Guy and Elimelech, Menachem and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.},
	  title = {Chlorine-Resistant Epoxide-Based Membranes for Sustainable Water Desalination},
	  journal = {Environmental Science and Technology Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {8},
	  number = {9},
	  pages = {818-824},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00515},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00515}
	}
	
Experimental demonstration of accurate Bragg peak localization with ionoacoustic tandem phase detection (iTPD)
H.P. Wieser, Y. Huang, J. Schauer, J. Lascaud, M. Würl, S. Lehrack, D. Radonic, M. Vidal, J. Hérault, A. Chmyrov, V. Ntziachristos, W. Assmann, K. Parodi and G. Dollinger; Physics in Medicine &ampmathsemicolon Biology 66 (24) (2021) 245020.
Abstract: Accurate knowledge of the exact stopping location of ions inside the patient would allow full exploitation of their ballistic properties for patient treatment. The localized energy deposition of a pulsed particle beam induces a rapid temperature increase of the irradiated volume and leads to the emission of ionoacoustic (IA) waves. Detecting the time-of-flight (ToF) of the IA wave allows inferring information on the Bragg peak location and can henceforth be used for in-vivo range verification. A challenge for IA is the poor signal-to-noise ratio at clinically relevant doses and viable machines. We present a frequency-based measurement technique, labeled as ionoacoustic tandem phase detection (iTPD) utilizing lock-in amplifiers. The phase shift of the IA signal to a reference signal is measured to derive the ToF. Experimental IA measurements with a 3.5 MHz lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer and lock-in amplifiers were performed in water using 22 MeV proton bursts. A digital iTPD was performed in-silico at clinical dose levels on experimental data obtained from a clinical facility and secondly, on simulations emulating a heterogeneous geometry. For the experimental setup using 22 MeV protons, a localization accuracy and precision obtained through iTPD deviates from a time-based reference analysis by less than 15 μm. Several methodological aspects were investigated experimentally in systematic manner. Lastly, iTPD was evaluated in-silico for clinical beam energies indicating that iTPD is in reach of sub-mm accuracy for fractionated doses < 5 Gy. iTPD can be used to accurately measure the ToF of IA signals online via its phase shift in frequency domain. An application of iTPD to the clinical scenario using a single pulsed beam is feasible but requires further development to reach <1 Gy detection capabilities.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wieser2021,
	  author = {Wieser, H. P. and Huang, Y. and Schauer, J. and Lascaud, J. and Würl, M. and Lehrack, S. and Radonic, D. and Vidal, M. and Hérault, J. and Chmyrov, A. and Ntziachristos, V. and Assmann, W. and Parodi, K. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Experimental demonstration of accurate Bragg peak localization with ionoacoustic tandem phase detection (iTPD)},
	  journal = {Physics in Medicine &ampmathsemicolon Biology},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  year = {2021},
	  volume = {66},
	  number = {24},
	  pages = {245020},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6560/ac3ead},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac3ead}
	}
	

2020

Characterization of Enzymatically Synthesized Titania Thin Films Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Reveals Low-Cost Approach for Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Cells
E.F. van Amelrooij, H. Schut, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, C. Hugenschmidt, L. Mallée, U. Hanefeld, D.G.G. McMillan and S.W.H. Eijt; Advanced Sustainable Systems 4 (6) (2020) 2000003.
Abstract: Abstract A new method is developed to produce mesoporous titania thin films at room temperature using the enzyme papain in a dip-coating procedure, providing low-cost titania films in a sustainable manner. Quartz crystal microbalance, positron annihilation Doppler broadening and lifetime spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction are used to determine the deposition and structural properties of the films. As-deposited films have low densities ρ ≈ 0.6 g cm−3, contain small micropores and proteins, and exhibit corrugated surfaces. Annealing at temperatures of 300 °C or higher leads to the destruction and evaporation of most of the organic material, resulting in a thickness decrease of 50–60 more pure titania films with increased density, an increase in micropore size and a decrease in the concentration and size of atomic-scale vacancies. Up to 50 layers could be stacked, allowing easy control over the total layer thickness. Based on these titania films, first test devices consisting of natural dye-sensitized solar cells are produced, that show photovoltaic activity and indicate possibilities for low-cost, accessible, organic production of solar cells. Given the wide range of other applications for titania, this new method is a promising candidate for improving the fabrication of those products with respect to cost, sustainability, and production speed.
BibTeX:
	@article{Amelrooij2020,
	  author = {van Amelrooij, Edward F. and Schut, Henk and Egger, Werner and Dickmann, Marcel and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Mallée, Lloyd and Hanefeld, Ulf and McMillan, Duncan G. G. and Eijt, Stephan W. H.},
	  title = {Characterization of Enzymatically Synthesized Titania Thin Films Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Reveals Low-Cost Approach for Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Cells},
	  journal = {Advanced Sustainable Systems},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {4},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {2000003},
	  url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adsu.202000003},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/adsu.202000003}
	}
	
Tuning Selectivities in Gas Separation Membranes Based on Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles
C.R. Bilchak, M. Jhalaria, Y. Huang, Z. Abbas, J. Midya, F.M. Benedetti, D. Parisi, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, M. Minelli, F. Doghieri, A. Nikoubashman, C.J. Durning, D. Vlassopoulos, J. Jestin, Z.P. Smith, B.C. Benicewicz, M. Rubinstein, L. Leibler and S.K. Kumar; ACS Nano 14 (12) (2020) 17174-17183.
Abstract: Polymer membranes are critical to many sustainability applications that require the size-based separation of gas mixtures. Despite their ubiquity, there is a continuing need to selectively affect the transport of different mixture components while enhancing mechanical strength and hindering aging. Polymer-grafted nanoparticles (GNPs) have recently been explored in the context of gas separations. Membranes made from pure GNPs have higher gas permeability and lower selectivity relative to the neat polymer because they have increased mean free volume. Going beyond this ability to manipulate the mean free volume by grafting chains to a nanoparticle, the conceptual advance of the present work is our finding that GNPs are spatially heterogeneous transport media, with this free volume distribution being easily manipulated by the addition of free polymer. In particular, adding a small amount of appropriately chosen free polymer can increase the membrane gas selectivity by up to two orders of magnitude while only moderately reducing small gas permeability. Added short free chains, which are homogeneously distributed in the polymer layer of the GNP, reduce the permeability of all gases but yield no dramatic increases in selectivity. In contrast, free chains with length comparable to the grafts, which populate the interstitial pockets between GNPs, preferentially hinder the transport of the larger gas and thus result in large selectivity increases. This work thus establishes that we can favorably manipulate the selective gas transport properties of GNP membranes through the entropic effects associated with the addition of free chains.
BibTeX:
	@article{Bilchak2020,
	  author = {Bilchak, Connor R. and Jhalaria, Mayank and Huang, Yucheng and Abbas, Zaid and Midya, Jiarul and Benedetti, Francesco M. and Parisi, Daniele and Egger, Werner and Dickmann, Marcel and Minelli, Matteo and Doghieri, Ferruccio and Nikoubashman, Arash and Durning, Christopher J. and Vlassopoulos, Dimitris and Jestin, Jacques and Smith, Zachary P. and Benicewicz, Brian C. and Rubinstein, Michael and Leibler, Ludwik and Kumar, Sanat K.},
	  title = {Tuning Selectivities in Gas Separation Membranes Based on Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles},
	  journal = {ACS Nano},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {17174-17183},
	  note = {PMID: 33216546},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c07049},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c07049}
	}
	
Open Volumes Structure and Molecular Transport in Biopolymer Nanocomposites
R. Checchetto, L. Penasa, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, S. Tarter and R.S. Brusa; Acta Physica Polonica A 137 (2020) 118-121.
Abstract: We discuss gas barrier mechanisms in biopolymer nanocomposite in which fillers of different natures and concentrations are added. The kinetics of gas transport is studied by gas phase permeation techniques and free volumes are analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Gas barrier properties of two biopolymer nanocomposite films are presented in relation to their free volume. The first film is poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBH) containing 0.25 wt% of graphene oxide (GO) filler nanoparticles. The second film is poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in which cellulose nanofibrils have been dispersed with content from 4.1 to 12.4 vol.%. It is shown that in both biopolymer films the filler addition improves their gas barrier properties but with different mechanism.
BibTeX:
	@article{Checchetto2020,
	  author = {Checchetto, R. and Penasa, L. and Dickmann, M. and Egger, W. and Tarter, S. and Brusa, R. S.},
	  title = {Open Volumes Structure and Molecular Transport in Biopolymer Nanocomposites},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {137},
	  pages = {118--121},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a137-2.html},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.137.118}
	}
	
Preclinical Challenges in Proton Minibeam Radiotherapy: Physics and Biomedical Aspects
G. Datzmann, M. Sammer, S. Girst, M. Mayerhofer, G. Dollinger and J. Reindl; Frontiers in Physics 8 (2020) 471.
Abstract: The concept of spatial fractionation in radiotherapy was developed for better sparing of normal tissue in the entrance channel of radiation. Spatial fractionation utilizing proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) promises to be advantageous compared to X-ray minibeams due to higher dose conformity at the tumor. Preclinical in vivo experiments conducted with pMBRT in mouse ear models or in rat brains support the prospects, but the research about the radiobiological mechanisms and the search for adequate application parameters delivering the most beneficial minibeam therapy is still in its infancy. Concerning preclinical research, we consider glioma, non-small cell lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma as the most promising targets and propose investigating the effects on healthy tissue, especially neuronal cells and abdominal organs. The experimental setups for preclinical pMBRT used so far follow different technological approaches, and experience technical limitations when addressing the current questions in the field. We review the crucial physics parameters necessary for proton minibeam production and link them to the technological challenges to be solved for providing an optimal research environment. We consider focusing of pencil or planar minibeams in a scanning approach superior compared to collimation due to less beam halos, higher peak-to-valley dose ratios and higher achievable dose rates. A possible solution to serve such a focusing system with a high-quality proton beam at all relevant energies is identified to be a 3 GHz radio-frequency linear accelerator. We propose using a 16 MeV proton beam from an existing tandem accelerator injected into a linear post-accelerator, boosted up to 70 MeV, and finally delivered to an imaging and positioning end-station suitable for small animal irradiation. Ion-optical simulations show that this combination can generate focused proton minibeams with sizes down to 0.1 mm at 18 nA mean proton current - sufficient for all relevant preclinical experiments. This technology is expected to offer powerful and versatile tools for unleashing structured and advanced preclinical pMBRT studies at the limits and also has the potential to enable a next step into precision tumor therapy.
BibTeX:
	@article{Datzmann2020,
	  author = {Datzmann, Gerd and Sammer, Matthias and Girst, Stefanie and Mayerhofer, Michael and Dollinger, Günther and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Preclinical Challenges in Proton Minibeam Radiotherapy: Physics and Biomedical Aspects},
	  journal = {Frontiers in Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {8},
	  pages = {471},
	  url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphy.2020.568206},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2020.568206}
	}
	
Thin film composite membrane compaction in high-pressure reverse osmosis
D.M. Davenport, C.L. Ritt, R. Verbeke, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, I.F.J. Vankelecom and M. Elimelech; Journal of Membrane Science 610 (2020) 118268.
Abstract: Membrane deformation under an applied hydraulic pressure, often termed compaction, is observed in almost all pressure-driven membrane processes. Most notably, compaction decreases water permeability in conventional reverse osmosis (RO) and is expected to critically hinder high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) for hypersaline brine desalination. In this work, we demonstrated that compaction decreases the water permeability of commercial RO membranes from 2.0 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 at 70 bar applied hydraulic pressure to 1.3 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 at 150 bar. The morphological effects of compaction were primarily associated with changes in the support layer, where a  60% decrease in cross-sectional thickness is observed following compaction at 150 bar hydraulic pressure. In contrast, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy demonstrates that the selective layer does not compact irreversibly. The mechanism that drives compaction was found to be the difference in hydraulic pressure across the interface of the selective and support layers. We further found that compaction can reduce the support layer surface porosity by up to  95%. This decreased porosity is identified as the cause for compaction-induced water permeability decline, while the intrinsic permeability of the selective layer is not influenced by compaction. As such, we conclude that compaction of the support layer has an inextricable impact on composite membrane performance. Finally, we propose recommendations for developing compaction-resistant membranes that can maintain high water permeability, and thus good desalination performance, in high-pressure membrane applications, such as HPRO.
BibTeX:
	@article{Davenport2020,
	  author = {Davenport, Douglas M. and Ritt, Cody L. and Verbeke, Rhea and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J. and Elimelech, Menachem},
	  title = {Thin film composite membrane compaction in high-pressure reverse osmosis},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {610},
	  pages = {118268},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738820308462},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2020.118268}
	}
	
Defect accommodation in off-stoichiometric (SrTiO3)nSrO Ruddlesden–Popper superlattices studied with positron annihilation spectroscopy
N.M. Dawley, B.H. Goodge, W. Egger, M.R. Barone, L.F. Kourkoutis, D.J. Keeble and D.G. Schlom; Applied Physics Letters 117 (6) (2020) 062901.
Abstract: The low dielectric loss underlying the record performance of strained (SrTiO3)nSrO Ruddlesden–Popper films as tunable microwave dielectrics was postulated to arise from (SrO)2 faults accommodating local non-stoichiometric defects. Here, we explore the effect of non-stoichiometry on (SrTiO3)nSrO using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy on a composition series of 300 nm thick n = 6 (Sr1+δTiO3)nSrO thin films. These films show titanium-site vacancies across the stoichiometry series, with evidence that TiOx vacancy complexes dominate. Little change in defect populations is observed across the series, indicating the ability of Ruddlesden–Popper phases to accommodate ± 5% off-stoichiometry. This ability for defect accommodation is corroborated by scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy.
The synthesis science work at Cornell was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Award No. DE-SC0002334. Sample preparation was in part facilitated by the Cornell NanoScale Facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI), which was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NNCI-1542081). This work made use of the Cornell Center for Materials Research Shared Facilities, which are supported through the NSF MRSEC program (No. DMR-1719875). B.H.G. and L.F.K. acknowledge support from the Department of Defense Air Force Office of Scientific Research (No. FA 9550-16-1-0305). The FEI Titan Themis 300 was acquired through No. NSF-MRI-1429155, with additional support from Cornell University, the Weill Institute, and the Kavli Institute at Cornell. The Thermo Fisher Helios G4 X FIB was acquired with support by NSF No. DMR-1539918. D.J.K. gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by FRM-II to perform the high-intensity positron beam measurements at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Garching, Germany.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dawley2020,
	  author = {Dawley, Natalie M. and Goodge, Berit H. and Egger, Werner and Barone, Matthew R. and Kourkoutis, Lena F. and Keeble, David J. and Schlom, Darrell G.},
	  title = {Defect accommodation in off-stoichiometric (SrTiO3)nSrO Ruddlesden–Popper superlattices studied with positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {117},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {062901},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0011136},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0011136}
	}
	
Interface nanocavities in poly (lactic acid) membranes with dispersed cellulose nanofibrils: Their role in the gas barrier performances
M. Dickmann, S. Tarter, W. Egger, A. Pegoretti, D. Rigotti, R.S. Brusa and R. Checchetto; Polymer 202 (2020) 122729.
Abstract: Poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites containing lauryl-functionalized cellulose nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting method and structurally characterized. The gas transport process was studied in   50 μm thick nanocomposite films with filler contents up to 12 vol% using He, 2H2, N2 and CO2 as test gases. The gas permeability and diffusivity was evaluated by studying the permeation process using a specific mass spectroscopy technique in the temperature range from 298 K to 340 K in transient and stationary transport conditions. We present original diffusivity and permeability data as a function of the temperature together with the obtained values for the activation energy. Gas transport data were correlated with information on the nanocomposite free volume structure obtained by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicate that the decrease of the gas barrier performances observed in nanocomposites with filler contents larger than   5 vol% is due to an increased gas solubility caused by the formation of rigid cavities at the interface between the polymer matrix and micrometer-sized filler aggregations.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dickmann2020,
	  author = {Dickmann, M. and Tarter, S. and Egger, W. and Pegoretti, A. and Rigotti, D. and Brusa, R. S. and Checchetto, R.},
	  title = {Interface nanocavities in poly (lactic acid) membranes with dispersed cellulose nanofibrils: Their role in the gas barrier performances},
	  journal = {Polymer},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {202},
	  pages = {122729},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032386120305590},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2020.122729}
	}
	
Upgrade of the NEPOMUC Remoderator
M. Dickmann, W. Egger, G. Kögel, S. Vohburger and C. Hugenschmidt; Acta Physica Polonica A 137 (2020) 149-151.
Abstract: The neutron-induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) provides a monochromatic low-energy positron beam with an intensity of >1×109e+ s-1 and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) diameter of about 10 mm. To create a small beam focus or sharp positron pulses of 100 ps FWHM the beam brightness needs to be enhanced by remoderation. This is achieved by focusing the primary beam magnetically onto a tungsten single crystal W(100) in reflection geometry. Afterwards the beam exhibits an intensity of >5×107e+ s-1 and a diameter of <2 mm FWHM. To further optimize the beam quality of NEPOMUC we redesigned the remoderation unit. The new setup allows a precise positioning of the remoderator crystal within the focus of the magnetic lens. Additionally, a replacement of the crystal within several minutes and without breaking the beamline vacuum is possible that offers the opportunity for systematic tests of different remoderator materials.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dickmann2020a,
	  author = {Dickmann, M. and Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Vohburger, S. and Hugenschmidt, C.},
	  title = {Upgrade of the NEPOMUC Remoderator},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {137},
	  pages = {149--151},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a137-2.html},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.137.149}
	}
	
Photochromic YOxHy Thin Films Examinedby in situ Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
S.W.H. Eijt, T.W.H. de Krom, D. Chaykina, H. Schut, G. Colombi, S. Cornelius, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, C. Hugenschmidt and B. Dam; Acta Physica Polonica A 137 (2020) 205-208.
Abstract: Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy depth profiles were collected on photochromic YOxHy thin films. In situ UV illumination of photochromic semiconductor YOxHy films leads to an increase in S-parameter and a large reduction in W-parameter, possibly caused by a change in the charge state of vacancies or the growth of hydrogen-rich metallic Y(Ox)Hy clusters, albeit that vacancy formation or changes in positronium formation during illumination might also play a role. Intriguingly, both the S- and W-parameters increase during thermal bleaching, indicating that another process takes place. The Doppler parameters do not return to their initial values after complete thermal bleaching, suggesting that persistent local rearrangements of vacancies and possibly hydride ions have occurred during the full photodarkening-thermal bleaching cycle. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy shows that a small fraction of positronium is formed in as-deposited YOxHy films, indicating that the films contain some nanopores.
BibTeX:
	@article{Eijt2020,
	  author = {Eijt, S. W. H. and de Krom, T. W. H. and Chaykina, D. and Schut, H. and Colombi, G. and Cornelius, S. and Egger, W. and Dickmann, M. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Dam, B.},
	  title = {Photochromic YOxHy Thin Films Examinedby in situ Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {137},
	  pages = {205--208},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a137-2.html},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.137.205}
	}
	
Author Correction: DNA damage interactions on both nanometer and micrometer scale determine overall cellular damage
T. Friedrich, K. Ilicic, C. Greubel, S. Girst, J. Reindl, M. Sammer, B. Schwarz, C. Siebenwirth, D.W.M. Walsh, T.E. Schmid, M. Scholz and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 10 (1) (2020) 19552.
Abstract: An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
BibTeX:
	@article{Friedrich2020,
	  author = {Friedrich, Thomas and Ilicic, Katarina and Greubel, Christoph and Girst, Stefanie and Reindl, Judith and Sammer, Matthias and Schwarz, Benjamin and Siebenwirth, Christian and Walsh, Dietrich W. M. and Schmid, Thomas E. and Scholz, Michael and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Author Correction: DNA damage interactions on both nanometer and micrometer scale determine overall cellular damage},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {10},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {19552},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76568-3#citeas},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76568-3}
	}
	
Injection of intense low-energy reactor-based positron beams into a supported magnetic dipole trap
J. Horn-Stanja, E.V. Stenson, M.R. Stoneking, M. Singer, U. Hergenhahn, S. Nißl, H. Saitoh, T.S. Pedersen, M. Dickmann, C. Hugenschmidt and J.R. Danielson; Plasma Research Express 2 (1) (2020) 015006.
Abstract: An increased low-energy positron flux is obtained from the reactor based NEPOMUC source when using its primary beam at energies as low as 20 eV. First experiments with this beam in a supported magnetic dipole trap resulted in the maximum current of injected positrons to date. According to single-particle simulations, remaining limitations in the injection efficiency, observed in the experiment, can be attributed to the spatial spread of the beam. In the first trapping measurements with this beam, top-down asymmetries in the electrostatic trapping potential are found to be detrimental to confinement.
BibTeX:
	@article{Horn-Stanja2020,
	  author = {Horn-Stanja, J. and Stenson, E. V. and Stoneking, M. R. and Singer, M. and Hergenhahn, U. and Nißl, S. and Saitoh, H. and Pedersen, T. Sunn and Dickmann, M. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Danielson, J. R.},
	  title = {Injection of intense low-energy reactor-based positron beams into a supported magnetic dipole trap},
	  journal = {Plasma Research Express},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {2},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {015006},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2516-1067/ab6f44},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/2516-1067/ab6f44}
	}
	
Influence of α-Particle Radiation on Intercellular Communication Networks of Tunneling Nanotubes in U87 Glioblastoma Cells
N. Matejka and J. Reindl; Frontiers in Oncology 10 (2020) 1691.
Abstract: Cellular communication plays a crucial role in the coordination and organization of cancer cells. Especially processes such as uncontrolled cell growth, invasion, and therapy resistance (development), which are features of very malignant tumors like glioblastomas, are supported by an efficient cell-to-cell communication in the tumor environment. One powerful way for cells to communicate are tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). These tiny membrane tunnels interconnect cells over long distances and serve as highways for information exchange between distant cells. Here, we study the response of cellular communication via TNTs in U87 glioblastoma cells to homogeneous irradiation with α-particles as a stress factor. We describe the development of TNT networks in certain time steps after irradiation using confocal live-cell imaging and suggest an evaluation method to characterize these communication networks. Our results show that irradiated cells establish their network faster and have more cell-to-cell connections with high TNT content than sham-irradiated controls within the first 24 h. These findings suggest that there is an additional trigger upon radiation damage which results in fast and intensive network formation by TNTs as a radiation damage response mechanism.
BibTeX:
	@article{Matejka2020,
	  author = {Matejka, Nicole and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Influence of α-Particle Radiation on Intercellular Communication Networks of Tunneling Nanotubes in U87 Glioblastoma Cells},
	  journal = {Frontiers in Oncology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {10},
	  pages = {1691},
	  url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2020.01691},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01691}
	}
	
Ion beam analysis of fusion plasma-facing materials and components: facilities and research challenges
M. Mayer, S. Möller, M. Rubel, A. Widdowson, S. Charisopoulos, T. Ahlgren, E. Alves, G. Apostolopoulos, N.P. Barradas, S. Donnelly, S. Fazini&cacute;, K. Heinola, O. Kakuee, H. Khodja, A. Kimura, A. Lagoyannis, M. Li, S. Markelj, M. Mudrinic, P. Petersson, I. Portnykh, D. Primetzhofer, P. Reichart, D. Ridikas, T. Silva, S.M.G. de Vicente and Y.Q. Wang; Nuclear Fusion 60 (2) (2020) 025001.
Abstract: Following the IAEA Technical Meeting on ‘Advanced Methodologies for the Analysis of Materials in Energy Applications Using Ion Beam Accelerators’, this paper reviews the current status of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques and some aspects of ion-induced radiation damage in materials for the field of materials relevant to fusion. Available facilities, apparatus development, future research options and challenges are presented and discussed. The analysis of beryllium and radioactivity-containing samples from future experiments in JET or ITER represents not only an analytical but also a technical challenge. A comprehensive list of the facilities, their current status, and analytical capabilities comes alongside detailed descriptions of the labs. A discussion of future issues of sample handling and the current status of facilities at JET complete the technical section.
To prepare the international IBA community for these challenges, the IAEA technical meeting concludes the necessity for determining new nuclear reaction cross-sections and improving the inter-laboratory comparability by defining international standards and testing these via a round-robin test.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mayer2020,
	  author = {Mayer, M. and Möller, S. and Rubel, M. and Widdowson, A. and Charisopoulos, S. and Ahlgren, T. and Alves, E. and Apostolopoulos, G. and Barradas, N. P. and Donnelly, S. and Fazini&cacute;, S. and Heinola, K. and Kakuee, O. and Khodja, H. and Kimura, A. and Lagoyannis, A. and Li, M. and Markelj, S. and Mudrinic, M. and Petersson, P. and Portnykh, I. and Primetzhofer, D. and Reichart, P. and Ridikas, D. and Silva, T. and de Vicente, S. M. Gonzalez and Wang, Y. Q.},
	  title = {Ion beam analysis of fusion plasma-facing materials and components: facilities and research challenges},
	  journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {60},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {025001},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/ab58177},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab5817}
	}
	
Limitations on the positron lifetime spectra decomposability applying the iterative least-square re-convolution method using the instrumental responses obtained from 207Bi and 60Co
D. Petschke, R. Helm, M. Haaks and T.E.M. Staab; Acta Physica Polonica A 137 (2, Proceedings of 15th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques \& Applications (SLOPOS-15) Prague, Czech Republic, September 2–6, 2019) (2020) 171-176.
Abstract: Since the decomposition of positron lifetime spectra requires solving an ill-posed and inverse problem, the accurate knowledge of the spectrometer`s instrument response function is crucial for extracting the true underlying physical information of the phenomenon under investigation. In general, the instrument response function is modelled by a superposition of Gaussian functions, since an analytical solution for the convolution with an exponential distribution function exists and, hence, the characteristic lifetimes and its corresponding contributions can be obtained by non-linear least-squares fitting. In contrast, the iterative least-squares re-convolution approach determines the best fit of the recorded lifetime spectrum by re-convoluting a sum of N expected exponential decays with the numerical data of the experimentally obtained instrument response function. For a laboratory setup, two methods exist to estimate the shape of the instrument response function from experiment: (1) the direct method using a 60Co isotope and an indirect method by graphically deconvoluting the monoexponential lifetime spectrum obtained from 207Bi. For both variants, the energies of the incident gamma-rays are considerably different to the energies accompanying the creation (1274 keV) and annihilation (511 keV) of a positron using 22Na: 60Co (1173 keV, 1333 keV), 207Bi (570 keV, 1064 keV). Here we present a detailed study on the basis of plastic scintillators regarding the spectra decomposability by using the re-convolution technique with experimentally obtained instrument response functions. We can clearly show that beyond incident gamma-ray energy differences, the Compton scattering effects and pile-up events represent the limiting factors in this approach.
BibTeX:
	@article{Petschke2020,
	  author = {Petschke, Danny and Helm, Ricardo and Haaks, M. and Staab, Torsten E. M.},
	  title = {Limitations on the positron lifetime spectra decomposability applying the iterative least-square re-convolution method using the instrumental responses obtained from 207Bi and 60Co},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {137},
	  number = {2, Proceedings of 15th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques & Applications (SLOPOS-15) Prague, Czech Republic, September 2–6, 2019},
	  pages = {171-176},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a137-2.html},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.137.171}
	}
	
Morphology of Thin Film Composite Membranes Explored by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Positron-Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy
V. Pipich, M. Dickmann, H. Frielinghaus, R. Kasher, C. Hugenschmidt, W. Petry, Y. Oren and D. Schwahn; Membranes 10 (3) (2020) 48.
Abstract: The morphology of thin film composite (TFC) membranes used in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) water treatment was explored with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The combination of both methods allowed the characterization of the bulk porous structure from a few &Aring; to &micro;m in radius. PALS shows pores of  4.5 &Aring; average radius in a surface layer of about 4 &mu;m thickness, which become  40% smaller at the free surface of the membranes. This observation may correlate with the glass state of the involved polymer. Pores of similar size appear in SANS as closely packed pores of  6 &Aring; radius distributed with an average distance of  30 &Aring;. The main effort of SANS was the characterization of the morphology of the porous polysulfone support layer as well as the fibers of the nonwoven fabric layer. Contrast variation using the media H2O/D2O and supercritical CO2 and CD4 identified the polymers of the support layers as well as internal heterogeneities.
BibTeX:
	@article{Pipich2020,
	  author = {Pipich, Vitaliy and Dickmann, Marcel and Frielinghaus, Henrich and Kasher, Roni and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Petry, Winfried and Oren, Yoram and Schwahn, Dietmar},
	  title = {Morphology of Thin Film Composite Membranes Explored by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Positron-Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Membranes},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {10},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {48},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0375/10/3/48},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10030048}
	}
	
Making the Home Accessible - Experiments with an Infrared Handheld Gesture-Based Remote Control
H. Ruser, S. Vorwerg and C. Eicher; In: , C. Stephanidis and M. Antona (Eds.), HCI International 2020 - Posters , Proceedings 22nd Int. Conf. Human-Computer InteractionInternational (HCII’20), Part III, 1226 (2020) 89-97 , Springer International Publishing.
Abstract: A universal remote control for many different technical devices in the living environment - which should be very easy, almost intuitively to use - would be most desirable, especially for elderly and mobility-impaired persons. For this purpose, a flashlight-like handheld infrared gesture-controlled remote we call SmartPointer is being developed and evaluated. Carrying out a mid-air gesture with the SmartPointer moves the irradiated beam of structured IR light across a receiver box near the device, which detects the light pattern's trajectory and converts the identified gesture into device-specific commands. In our laboratory study, the user experience of the SmartPointer system and its gesture recognition capabilities were examined with a group of 29 elderly volunteers who were asked to repeatedly carry out quasi-intuitive gestures with the SmartPointer to operate four typical home appliances: light switch (on/off), heating device (warmer/colder), blinds (up/down) and door (lock/unlock). Applying adaptive rule-based signal processing and pattern recognition, an overall recognition rate of 94.3% could be achieved so far.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Ruser2020,
	  author = {Ruser, Heinrich and Vorwerg, Susan and Eicher, Cornelia},
	  title = {Making the Home Accessible - Experiments with an Infrared Handheld Gesture-Based Remote Control},
	  booktitle = {HCI International 2020 - Posters},
	  journal = {Proceedings 22nd Int. Conf. Human-Computer InteractionInternational (HCII’20), Part III,},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {1226},
	  pages = {89--97},
	  editor = {Stephanidis, Constantine and Antona, Margherita},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-50732-9_13},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50732-9_13}
	}
	
Low-cost gestural interaction based on motion estimation of a projected dot pattern : Experiments with a working prototype
H. Ruser, A. Kaltenbach, L. Mechold, F. Obée and F. Piela; In: 2020 IEEE SENSORS , Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2020-October (2020) 1-4 , Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Abstract: The concept and realization of an easy-to-use, low-cost handheld IR optical sensor for universal, long-range gesture-controlled operation of technical devices is presented and recognition results with a working prototype are given. The system comprises two elements: a handheld buttonless light emitter which resembles a small laser pointer but emits a wide-angle IR random-dot pattern along with a visible light beam (for device selection) and a small photo-sensor array along with a processing/decoder unit near or in the device to be controlled. The emitted IR light is spatially modulated by a diffractive optical element (DOE) which has a specially designed micro-structured surface to generate a binary pseudo-random array of light beams. This concept allows to come up with a handheld device which contains only a few inexpensive mass-market components (since the IR-optical signal is both the information and transmission channel). User experience and gesture recognition capabilities were examined with a group of 29 elderly volunteers who were asked to repeatedly "draw" quasi-intuitive gestures with the handheld emitter towards typical home appliances like light switch, blinds, heating device, and door from distances of up to 6 meters. Applying a correlation-based reconstruction algorithm and adaptive rule-based pattern recognition with low computational load for real-time processing on low-end processors, an overall recognition rate of 94 % could be achieved so far. As the algorithm is being optimized to enable sequential spotting of meaningful gestures and enhanced class separation, the list of gestures will be extended.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Ruser2020a,
	  author = {H. Ruser and A. Kaltenbach and L. Mechold and F. Obée and F. Piela},
	  title = {Low-cost gestural interaction based on motion estimation of a projected dot pattern : Experiments with a working prototype},
	  booktitle = {2020 IEEE SENSORS},
	  journal = {Proceedings of IEEE Sensors},
	  publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {2020-October},
	  number = {9278920},
	  pages = {1--4},
	  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9278920},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/SENSORS47125.2020.9278920}
	}
	
Positron Annihilation Studies of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Treated by Hydrogen Ion Implantation
V. Slugen, S. Pecko, S. Sojak, W. Egger, M. Saro and M. Petriska; Acta Physica Polonica A 137 (2020) 238-241.
Abstract: Long term operation of nuclear reactors is one of the most discussed challenges in nuclear power engineering. Radiation degradation of nuclear materials limits the operational lifetime of all nuclear installations or at least decreases its safety margin. This paper is focused on experimental simulation and evaluation of materials via hydrogen ion implantation and on comparison with our previous results obtained from neutron-irradiated samples. In our case, German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, originally from CARINA/CARISMA program, were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and the pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) with the aim to study microstructural changes in RPV steels after high level of irradiation. Unique specimens were irradiated by neutrons in the German experimental reactor VAK (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl) in the 1980s and these results were compared with the results from a high level of hydrogen nuclei implantation. Defects with sizes of about 1-2 vacancies with relatively small contributions (with intensity on the level of 20-40%) were observed in all ``as-received'' steels. An increase in the sizes of the induced defects (2-3 vacancies) due to neutron damage was observed in the irradiated specimens. On the other hand, the size and intensity of defects reached extremely high values due to displacement damage caused by implantation of hydrogen ions in a very narrow damaged region. This fact can be a limiting factor in the operation of new fission or fusion nuclear facilities.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2020,
	  author = {Slugen, V. and Pecko, S. and Sojak, S. and Egger, W. and Saro, M. and Petriska, M.},
	  title = {Positron Annihilation Studies of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Treated by Hydrogen Ion Implantation},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {137},
	  pages = {238--241},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a137-2.html},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.137.238}
	}
	
Radiation Damage of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy—A Review
V. Slugeň, S. Sojak, W. Egger, V. Krsjak, J. Simeg Veternikova and M. Petriska; Metals 10 (10) (2020) 1378.
Abstract: Safe and long term operation of nuclear reactors is one of the most discussed challenges in nuclear power engineering. The radiation degradation of nuclear design materials limits the operational lifetime of all nuclear installations or at least decreases its safety margin. This paper is a review of experimental PALS/PLEPS studies of different nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels investigated over last twenty years in our laboratories. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) via its characteristics (lifetimes of positrons and their intensities) provides useful information about type and density of radiation induced defects. The new results obtained on neutron-irradiated and hydrogen ions implanted German steels were compared to those from the previous studies with the aim to evaluate different processes (neutron flux/fluence, thermal treatment or content of selected alloying elements) to the microstructural changes of neutron irradiated RPV steel specimens. The possibility of substitution of neutron treatment (connected to new defects creation) via hydrogen ions implantation was analyzed as well. The same materials exposed to comparable displacement damage (dpa) introduced by neutrons and accelerated hydrogen ions shown that in the results interpretation the effect of hydrogen as a vacancy-stabilizing gas must be considered, too. This approach could contribute to future studies of nuclear fission/fusion design steels treated by high levels of neutron irradiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2020a,
	  author = {Slugeň, Vladimír and Sojak, Stanislav and Egger, Werner and Krsjak, Vladimir and Simeg Veternikova, Jana and Petriska, Martin},
	  title = {Radiation Damage of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy—A Review},
	  journal = {Metals},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {10},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {1378},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4701/10/10/1378},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101378}
	}
	
Solvent-Free Powder Synthesis and MOF-CVD Thin Films of the Large-Pore Metal–Organic Framework MAF-6
T. Stassin, I. Stassen, J. Marreiros, A.J. Cruz, R. Verbeke, M. Tu, H. Reinsch, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, I.F.J. Vankelecom, D.E. De Vos and R. Ameloot; Chemistry of Materials 32 (5) (2020) 1784-1793.
Abstract: A simple solvent- and catalyst-free method is presented for the synthesis of the large-pore metal–organic framework (MOF) MAF-6 (RHO-Zn(eIm)2) based on the reaction of ZnO with 2-ethylimidazole vapor at temperatures ≤100 °C. By translating this method to a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol, crystalline films of a large-pore material could be deposited for the first time entirely from the vapor phase. A combination of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Kr physisorption measurements confirmed the porosity of these MOF-CVD films and the size of the MAF-6 supercages (diameter ∼2 nm), in close agreement with powder data and calculations. MAF-6 powders and films were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pair distribution function (PDF), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The exceptional uptake capacity of MAF-6 in comparison to ZIF-8 is demonstrated by vapor-phase loading of a molecule larger than the ZIF-8 windows.
BibTeX:
	@article{Stassin2020,
	  author = {Stassin, Timothée and Stassen, Ivo and Marreiros, João and Cruz, Alexander John and Verbeke, Rhea and Tu, Min and Reinsch, Helge and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J. and De Vos, Dirk E. and Ameloot, Rob},
	  title = {Solvent-Free Powder Synthesis and MOF-CVD Thin Films of the Large-Pore Metal–Organic Framework MAF-6},
	  journal = {Chemistry of Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {32},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {1784-1793},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b03807},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b03807}
	}
	
Aqueous Flow Reactor and Vapour-Assisted Synthesis of Aluminium Dicarboxylate Metal–Organic Frameworks with Tuneable Water Sorption Properties
T. Stassin, S. Waitschat, N. Heidenreich, H. Reinsch, F. Pluschkell, D. Kravchenko, J. Marreiros, I. Stassen, J. van Dinter, R. Verbeke, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, I. Vankelecom, D. De Vos, R. Ameloot and N. Stock; Chemistry 26 (47) (2020) 10841-10848.
Abstract: Abstract Energy-efficient indoors temperature and humidity control can be realised by using the reversible adsorption and desorption of water in porous materials. Stable microporous aluminium-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) present promising water sorption properties for this goal. The development of synthesis routes that make use of available and affordable building blocks and avoid the use of organic solvents is crucial to advance this field. In this work, two scalable synthesis routes under mild reaction conditions were developed for aluminium-based MOFs: (1) in aqueous solutions using a continuous-flow reactor and (2) through the vapour-assisted conversion of solid precursors. Fumaric acid, its methylated analogue mesaconic acid, as well as mixtures of the two were used as linkers to obtain polymorph materials with tuneable water sorption properties. The synthesis conditions determine the crystal structure and either the MIL-53 or MIL-68 type structure with square-grid or kagome-grid topology, respectively, is formed. Fine-tuning resulted in new MOF materials thus far inaccessible through conventional synthesis routes. Furthermore, by varying the linker ratio, the water sorption properties can be continuously adjusted while retaining the sigmoidal isotherm shape advantageous for heat transformation and room climatisation applications.
BibTeX:
	@article{Stassin2020a,
	  author = {Stassin, Timothée and Waitschat, Steve and Heidenreich, Niclas and Reinsch, Helge and Pluschkell, Finn and Kravchenko, Dmitry and Marreiros, João and Stassen, Ivo and van Dinter, Jonas and Verbeke, Rhea and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Vankelecom, Ivo and De Vos, Dirk and Ameloot, Rob and Stock, Norbert},
	  title = {Aqueous Flow Reactor and Vapour-Assisted Synthesis of Aluminium Dicarboxylate Metal–Organic Frameworks with Tuneable Water Sorption Properties},
	  journal = {Chemistry},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {26},
	  number = {47},
	  pages = {10841-10848},
	  url = {https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/chem.202001661},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.202001661}
	}
	
Sputtering of LiF and other halide crystals in the electronic energy loss regime
M. Toulemonde, W. Assmann, B. Ban-d’Etat, M. Bender, A. Bergmaier, P. Boduch, S. Della Negra, J. Duan, A.S. El-Said, F.F. Grüner, J. Liu, D. Lelièvre, H. Rothard, T. Seidl, D. Severin, J.P. Stoquert, K.-O. Voss and C. Trautmann; The European Physical Journal D 74 (2020) 144.
Abstract: Sputtering experiments were performed by irradiating LiF, NaCl, and RbCl crystals with various swift heavy ions like S, Ni, I, Au with energies between 60 and 210 MeV, C60 clusters between 12 and 30 MeV or Pb ions between 730 and 6040 MeV. Sputtered species are collected on arc-shaped catchers and subsequently analyzed by elastic recoil detection analysis or Rutherford backscattering analysis. The study focuses on angular distributions and total yields for LiF and covers a broad range of experimental parameters including cleaved or rough sample surfaces, ion fluence, beam incident angles, and different ion velocities leading to electronic energy loss (Se) values from 5 to 45 keV/nm. In most cases, the angular distribution has two components, a jet-like peak perpendicular to the surface sample superimposed on a broad isotropic cosine distribution whatever is the beam incident angle. The observation of the jet depends mainly on the surface flatness and angle of ion incidence. However, the jet does not appear clearly when irradiated with C60 cluster. The sputtering yield is stoichiometric and characterized by huge total yields of up to a few 105 atoms per incident ion. The yield follows a power law as function of electronic energy loss, Y follows an exponential law with Sen with n   4. While the azimuthal symmetry for sputtering is observed at low ion velocity ( 1 MeV/u), it seems to be lost at high velocity (>4 MeV/u). The data provide a comprehensive overview how the angular distribution and the total sputtering yield scale with the energy loss, beam incidence angle and ion velocity. Complementary experiments have been done with NaCl and RbCl targets confirming the observation made for LiF.
BibTeX:
	@article{Toulemonde2020,
	  author = {Toulemonde, Marcel and Assmann, Walter and Ban-d’Etat, Brigitte and Bender, Markus and Bergmaier, Andreas and Boduch, Philippe and Della Negra, Serge and Duan, Jinglai and El-Said, Aymann S. and Grüner, Florian Florian and Liu, Jie and Lelièvre, Daniel and Rothard, Hermann and Seidl, Tim and Severin, Daniel and Stoquert, Jean Paul and Voss, Kay-Obe and Trautmann, Christina},
	  title = {Sputtering of LiF and other halide crystals in the electronic energy loss regime},
	  journal = {The European Physical Journal D},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {74},
	  pages = {144},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1140/epjd/e2020-10040-9},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2020-10040-9}
	}
	
Annealing Behaviours of Open Spaces in Thin Al2O3 Films Deposited on Semiconductors Studied Using Monoenergetic Positron Beams
A. Uedono, W. Egger, T. Koschine, C. Hugenschmidt, M. Dickmann and S. Ishibashi; Acta Physica Polonica A 137 (2020) 227-230.
Abstract: Open spaces in amorphous Al2O3 films fabricated by atomic layer deposition and in AlONx deposited by a reactive sputtering technique were probed by using monoenergetic positron beams. In these films, open spaces with three different sizes were found to coexist. The mean size and the concentration of open spaces were decreased by annealing at 800° in N2 atmosphere, which was associated with rearrangements of the amorphous network in the films and their crystallization. Nitrogen incorporation into Al2O3 suppressed the shrinkage of network structures due to the annealing, which was attributed to the formation of a stable network through the introduction of Al-N bonding. For Al2O3 deposited on GaN, the temperature treatment above 800° led to the introduction of vacancy-type defects in the GaN substrate. This fact suggests that the change in the network structure of Al2O3 enhances chemical instability at the Al2O3/GaN interface and the out-diffusion of atoms from the substrate.
BibTeX:
	@article{Uedono2020,
	  author = {Uedono, A. and Egger, W. and Koschine, T. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Dickmann, M. and Ishibashi, S.},
	  title = {Annealing Behaviours of Open Spaces in Thin Al2O3 Films Deposited on Semiconductors Studied Using Monoenergetic Positron Beams},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {137},
	  pages = {227--230},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a137-2.html},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.137.227}
	}
	
Voids and vacancy-type defects in SiO2/GaN structures probed by monoenergetic positron beams
A. Uedono, W. Ueno, T. Yamada, T. Hosoi, W. Egger, T. Koschine, C. Hugenschmidt, M. Dickmann and H. Watanabe; Journal of Applied Physics 127 (5) (2020) 054503.
Abstract: Voids in SiO2 films deposited on GaN were probed by using monoenergetic positron beams. The films were fabricated on GaN substrates by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The size and density of the voids in the films increased up to an annealing temperature of 800 °C and then decreased at 1000 °C. The observed annealing behaviors of the voids were attributed to the desorption of impurities incorporated during the deposition process and the shrinkage of the Si–O matrix by high-temperature annealing. Vacancy-type defects were introduced into the GaN substrate after 1000 °C annealing in O2 atmosphere due to the diffusion of Ga from the substrate to the SiO2 film. No out-diffusion of Ga into the SiO2 film was observed for the annealing in N2 atmosphere. Thus, the observed out-diffusion of Ga was attributed to the enhanced oxidation of GaN during the annealing in O2 atmosphere. The diffusion of positrons implanted into the GaN substrate toward the SiO2 film was suppressed by annealing, suggesting a decrease in the negative charges in the SiO2 film or near the SiO2/GaN interface.
BibTeX:
	@article{Uedono2020a,
	  author = {Uedono, Akira and Ueno, Wataru and Yamada, Takahiro and Hosoi, Takuji and Egger, Werner and Koschine, Tönjes and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Dickmann, Marcel and Watanabe, Heiji},
	  title = {Voids and vacancy-type defects in SiO2/GaN structures probed by monoenergetic positron beams},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {127},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {054503},
	  url = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5134513},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5134513}
	}
	
Annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects in AlN deposited by radio-frequency sputtering and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy studied using monoenergetic positron beams
A. Uedono, K. Shojiki, K. Uesugi, S.F. Chichibu, S. Ishibashi, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt and H. Miyake; Journal of Applied Physics 128 (8) (2020) 085704.
BibTeX:
	@article{Uedono2020b,
	  author = {Uedono, Akira and Shojiki, Kanako and Uesugi, Kenjiro and Chichibu, Shigefusa F. and Ishibashi, Shoji and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Miyake, Hideto},
	  title = {Annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects in AlN deposited by radio-frequency sputtering and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy studied using monoenergetic positron beams},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {128},
	  number = {8},
	  pages = {085704},
	  url = {https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0015225},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0015225}
	}
	
Control of vacancy-type defects in Mg implanted GaN studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy
A. Uedono, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt, S. Ishibashi and S.F. Chichibu; In: , H. Fujioka, H. Morkoç and U.T. Schwarz (Eds.), Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XV , Proc. SPIE 11280 (2020) 28 - 35 , SPIE.
Abstract: Vacancy-type defects in Mg-implanted GaN were probed using monoenergetic positron beams. Mg+ ions were implanted to provide box profiles with Mg concentrations [Mg] of 1017-1019 cm-3. For as-implanted samples, the major defect species was determined to be Ga-vacancy (VGa) related defects such as divacancy (VGaVN) and/or their complexes with impurities. For Mg-implanted samples, an agglomeration of vacancies started at 800-1000&deg;C annealing, leading to the formation of vacancy clusters such as (VGaVN)3. For the sample with [Mg]=1019 cm-3, the trapping rate of positrons to the vacancies decreased with increasing annealing temperature (&ge;1100&deg;C), which was attributed to the change in the charge state of vacancy-type defects from neutral to positive (or negative to neutral) due to the activation of Mg. For Mg- and H-implanted samples, the hydrogenation of vacancy-type defects started after 800&deg;C annealing. Comparing with the annealing behavior of defects for the samples without H-implantation, the clustering of vacancy-type defects was suppressed, which can be attributed to the interaction between Mg, H, and vacancies.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Uedono2020c,
	  author = {Uedono, Akira and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Ishibashi, Shoji and Chichibu, Shigefusa F.},
	  title = {Control of vacancy-type defects in Mg implanted GaN studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  booktitle = {Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XV},
	  journal = {Proc. SPIE},
	  publisher = {SPIE},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {11280},
	  pages = {28 -- 35},
	  editor = {Hiroshi Fujioka and Hadis Morkoç and Ulrich T. Schwarz},
	  url = {https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/11280/2541518/Control-of-vacancy-type-defects-in-Mg-implanted-GaN-studied/10.1117/12.2541518.short},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2541518}
	}
	
Vergleichsstudie zur Akzeptanz und Usability eines gestengesteuerten Smart Home Systems mit Personen im späten Erwachsenenalter (Comparative study on acceptance and usability of agesture-controlled smart home system with persons in late adulthood)
S. Vorwerg, C. Eicher, H. Ruser, F. Piela, FelixObee and L. Mechold; In: 54th Annual Conference of the GermanSociety for Biomedical Engineering (BMT 2020) , Proc. AAL-Kongress 2020 (2020) 47-52 , VDE-Verlag.
Abstract: Kurzfassung
Hintergrund: Im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojektes „SmartPointer“ soll für die Gruppe älterer Men-schen eine tastenlose gestengesteuerte Fernbedienung mit einer einfachen, quasi-intuitiven Bedienstruktur entwickelt und evaluiert werden.
Ziel: Um den vorherrschenden Akzeptanzproblemen gegenüber Smart-Home-Technologien im Alter entgegenzuwirken, war das Ziel der hier präsentierten Studie die Untersuchung der Technikbereitschaft, Akzeptanz und Usability bei der Bedienung von vier Smart-Home-Demonstratoren durch die Zielgruppe.
Methodik: Für die Studie wurden 29 gesunde Probanden ab 60 Jahren in zwei Altersgruppen (unter und über 75 Jahren) aufgeteilt. In Form eines Wizard-of-Oz Experiments konnte jede Person die Anwendungsszenarien für Licht, Rollo, Hei-zung sowie Tür mit einer von zwei Fernbedienungen erproben. Jede Anwendung erforderte eine spezifische Geste. Die Erhebung der Daten erfolgte mit verschiedenen Assessments sowie einem Kurzinterview.
Ergebnisse: Keine Unterschiede ergaben sich bei der Technikbereitschaft zwischen beiden Altersgruppen. Signifikante Unterschiede bestanden in der Wahl der Fernbedienung (Chi2-Test, p=0,008). Ein Gruppenunterschied wurde auch in der Bewertung der Usability deutlich (unabh. t-Test, p=0,035). Insgesamt wies das System eine Gestenerkennungsrate von etwa 95% auf. Für die Nutzerakzeptanz spielen Features, wie bspw. ein optisches Feedback eine Rolle. Die Akzeptanz und Usability kann zudem durch eine bessere Oberflächengestaltung der Fernbedienung und Verbesserung der Reakti-onszeit des Systems erhöht werden.
Schlussfolgerung: Insgesamt wurden die evaluierten Einsatzszenarien von den Probanden als alltagstauglich bewertet. Als Anwendungsfälle wurden explizit Bettlägerigkeit oder Immobilität genannt, um damit die Selbstständigkeit zu erhal-ten. Um die Funktionalität und somit Usability sowie Nutzerakzeptanz zu steigern, werden alle Systemkomponenten im weiteren Projektverlauf verbessert und erneut evaluiert.

Abstract
Background: As part of the "SmartPointer" research and development project, a buttonless gesture-controlled remote control with a simple, quasi-intuitive operating structure is to be developed and evaluated for the group of older people.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the technical readiness, acceptance and usability in the operation of four smart home demonstrators by the target group.
Methods: For the study, 29 healthy participants aged 60 and above were divided into two age groups (under and above 75 years). In the context of a Wizard-of-Oz experiment, each person could test the application scenarios for light, blinds, heating, and doors with one of two remote controls. Each application required a specific gesture. The data was collected with various assessments and a short interview.
Results: There were no differences in the technical readiness between the two age groups. Significant differences existed in the choice of remote control (Chi2-test, p=0.008). A group difference was also evident in the evaluation of usability (independent t-test, p=0.035). Overall, the system had a gesture recognition rate of about 95%. Features such as optical feedback were important for user acceptance. Acceptance and usability can also be increased by a better interface design of the remote controls and improvement of the system's response time.
Conclusions: Overall, the evaluated application scenarios were rated by the test persons as suitable for everyday use. As use cases, bedriddenness or immobility were explicitly mentioned in order to maintain independence. To increase func-tionality and thus usability as well as user acceptance, all system components will be improved and re-evaluated in the further studies of the project.�

BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Vorwerg2020,
	  author = {Vorwerg, Susan and Eicher, Cornelia and Ruser, Heinrich and Piela, Felix and FelixObee and Mechold, Lars},
	  title = {Vergleichsstudie zur Akzeptanz und Usability eines gestengesteuerten Smart Home Systems mit Personen im späten Erwachsenenalter (Comparative study on acceptance and usability of agesture-controlled smart home system with persons in late adulthood)},
	  booktitle = {54th Annual Conference of the GermanSociety for Biomedical Engineering (BMT 2020)},
	  journal = {Proc. AAL-Kongress 2020},
	  publisher = {VDE-Verlag},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  pages = {47--52},
	  url = {https://www.vde-verlag.de/buecher/455342/aal-kongress-2020.html}
	}
	
High temperature recovery of radiation defects in tungsten and its effect on deuterium retention
M. Zibrov, T. Dürbeck, W. Egger and M. Mayer; Nuclear Materials and Energy 23 (2020) 100747.
Abstract: The recovery of radiation defects in tungsten (W) due to post-irradiation isochronal (15 min) annealing at temperatures in the range of 1600–2100 K has been investigated. The defects were introduced in W (100) single crystals by irradiation with 9 MeV W ions to a maximum damage level of 1.1 dpa at 290 K. Vacancies and vacancy clusters in the samples were examined using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The defects were decorated with deuterium (D) by exposing the annealed samples to a low-flux (1020 D/(m2s)), low-energy (10 eV/D) D plasma at a temperature of 450 K. The D concentration profiles in the samples were measured by D(3He, p)α nuclear reaction analysis and the D binding states in the defects were identified by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Annealing at 1600–1900 K resulted in the presence of mainly large vacancy clusters which gave rise to a single desorption peak near 600 K. The trapped D concentration in the sample annealed at 1600 K was 15% of that in the as-irradiated sample and decreased to 4% in the sample annealed at 1900 K. Annealing at 2000 K resulted in the complete recovery of radiation defects.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zibrov2020,
	  author = {M. Zibrov and T. Dürbeck and W. Egger and M. Mayer},
	  title = {High temperature recovery of radiation defects in tungsten and its effect on deuterium retention},
	  journal = {Nuclear Materials and Energy},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {23},
	  pages = {100747},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352179120300235},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2020.100747}
	}
	
Vacancy cluster growth and thermal recovery in hydrogen-irradiated tungsten
M. Zibrov, W. Egger, J. Heikinheimo, M. Mayer and F. Tuomisto; Journal of Nuclear Materials 531 (2020) 152017.
Abstract: The thermal evolution of vacancies and vacancy clusters in tungsten (W) has been studied. W (100) single crystals were irradiated with 200 keV hydrogen (H) ions to a low damage level (5.8×10−3 dpa) at 290 K and then annealed at temperatures in the range of 500–1800 K. The resulting defects were characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). Annealing at 700 K resulted in the formation of clusters containing 10–15 vacancies, while at 800 K and higher temperatures clusters containing about 20 vacancies or more were formed. Reduction of the defect concentration likely accompanied by further coarsening of the clusters started at 1300 K and ended at 1800 K with the complete defect recovery. The determined cluster sizes at 700 K and 800 K were larger than the estimated minimum cluster sizes that are thermally stable at these temperatures, indicating that the migration and ensuing coalescence of small clusters plays an important role in cluster growth.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zibrov2020a,
	  author = {M. Zibrov and W. Egger and J. Heikinheimo and M. Mayer and F. Tuomisto},
	  title = {Vacancy cluster growth and thermal recovery in hydrogen-irradiated tungsten},
	  journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2020},
	  volume = {531},
	  pages = {152017},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311519312395},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2020.152017}
	}
	

2019

Influence of filler content on free volumes structure and gas transport properties of biopolymer nanocomposites
R.S. Brusa, R. Checchetto and W. Egger; In: , F. Selim (Ed.), THE 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POSITRON ANNIHILATION (ICPA-18): Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy-Fundamentals, Techniques ad Applications , AIP Conference Proceedings 2182 (2019) 050005 , American Institute of Physics.
Abstract: The kinetics of gas transport through bi-layer membranes consisting of self-assembled cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) on polylactic acid (PLA) support was studied by gas phase permeation techniques: their gas barrier properties were explained thanks to depth-profiled PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) measurements. CNF were then dispersed at different concentration in PLA matrix: these nano-composite were also studied with PALS and gas permeation. The gas barrier properties of CNF-PLA bi-layer will be reviewed and the new results on nano-composite discussed.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Brusa2019,
	  author = {Brusa, Roberto S. and Checchetto, Riccardo and Egger, Werner},
	  title = {Influence of filler content on free volumes structure and gas transport properties of biopolymer nanocomposites},
	  booktitle = {THE 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POSITRON ANNIHILATION (ICPA-18): Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy-Fundamentals, Techniques ad Applications},
	  journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
	  publisher = {American Institute of Physics},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {2182},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {050005},
	  editor = {Farida Selim},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5135848},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5135848}
	}
	
Acute Skin Damage and Late Radiation-Induced Fibrosis and Inflammation in Murine Ears after High-Dose Irradiation
C.A. Dombrowsky, J. Schauer, M. Sammer, A. Blutke, W.D. Walsh, B. Schwarz, S. Bartzsch, A. Feuchtinger, J. Reindl, E.S. Combs, G. Dollinger and E.T. Schmid; Cancers 11 (5) (2019) 727.
Abstract: The use of different scoring systems for radiation-induced toxicity limits comparability between studies. We examined dose-dependent tissue alterations following hypofractionated X-ray irradiation and evaluated their use as scoring criteria. Four dose fractions (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 Gy/fraction) were applied daily to ear pinnae. Acute effects (ear thickness, erythema, desquamation) were monitored for 92 days after fraction 1. Late effects (chronic inflammation, fibrosis) and the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF&beta;1)-expressing cells were quantified on day 92. The maximum ear thickness displayed a significant positive correlation with fractional dose. Increased ear thickness and erythema occurred simultaneously, followed by desquamation from day 10 onwards. A significant dose-dependency was observed for the severity of erythema, but not for desquamation. After 4 &times; 20 and 4 &times; 30 Gy, inflammation was significantly increased on day 92, whereas fibrosis and the abundance of TGF&beta;1-expressing cells were only marginally increased after 4 &times; 30 Gy. Ear thickness significantly correlated with the severity of inflammation and fibrosis on day 92, but not with the number of TGF&beta;1-expressing cells. Fibrosis correlated significantly with inflammation and fractional dose. In conclusion, the parameter of ear thickness can be used as an objective, numerical and dose-dependent quantification criterion to characterize the severity of acute toxicity and allow for the prediction of late effects.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dombrowsky2019,
	  author = {Dombrowsky, C. Annique and Schauer, Jannis and Sammer, Matthias and Blutke, Andreas and Walsh, W. Dietrich and Schwarz, Benjamin and Bartzsch, Stefan and Feuchtinger, Annette and Reindl, Judith and Combs, E. Stephanie and Dollinger, Günther and Schmid, E. Thomas},
	  title = {Acute Skin Damage and Late Radiation-Induced Fibrosis and Inflammation in Murine Ears after High-Dose Irradiation},
	  journal = {Cancers},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {11},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {727},
	  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/5/727},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050727}
	}
	
Fine-tuning the molecular structure of binaphthalene polyimides for gas separations
W. Dujardin, C.V. Goethem, Z. Zhang, R. Verbeke, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, E. Nies, I. Vankelecom and G. Koeckelberghs; European Polymer Journal 114 (2019) 134 - 143.
Abstract: A set of new stiff and contorted polyimides were prepared to systematically link polymer structure with gas separation properties. Seven novel bridged binaphthalene polyimides were synthesized for this purpose using commercial dianhydrides pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), biphenyl-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BPDA) and 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA). From these polyimides, freestanding membranes were prepared and tested on mixed gas CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 separation performance. They were further characterized using WAXS and PALS and through the simulation of their free volume elements (FVEs) and gas separation properties. The binaphthalene polyimides had CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 mixed gas selectivities of respectively 40 and 29 and mixed gas permeabilities of about 20 barrer for both gas mixtures.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dujardin2019,
	  author = {Dujardin, Wouter and Goethem, Cédric Van and Zhang, Zidan and Verbeke, Rhea and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Nies, Erik and Vankelecom, Ivo and Koeckelberghs, Guy},
	  title = {Fine-tuning the molecular structure of binaphthalene polyimides for gas separations},
	  journal = {European Polymer Journal},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {114},
	  pages = {134 - 143},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014305718324376},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.02.014}
	}
	
Growth and characterization of β-Ga2O3 thin films on different substrates
S.J. Hao, M. Hetzl, F. Schuster, K. Danielewicz, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, Q.L. Sai, C.T. Xia, T. Hoffmann, M. Wiesinger, S. Matich, W. Aigner and M. Stutzmann; Journal of Applied Physics 125 (10) (2019) 105701.
Abstract: β-Ga2O3 thin films were grown on the substrates of sapphire, GaN, and single crystals of β-Ga2O3, using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. By varying deposition conditions, pure-phase epitaxial β-Ga2O3 thin films were obtained, and the crystal quality of the as-grown films was optimized. A systematic characterization and a detailed analysis were performed on the films, including the nucleation process, surface morphology, crystal quality, thermal stability, as well as electrical and optical properties. Optical absorption was investigated using photothermal deflection spectroscopy, which provides detailed information about sub-gap optical absorption. Photocurrent measurements indicated a pronounced persistent photo-conductivity of β-Ga2O3. A blue-UV emission with an energy of 3-3.5 eV was observed by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The Fermi level position of the as-grown film was determined based on temperature-dependent electrical conductivity measurements. It is proposed that oxygen vacancies in the film form a defect band at around E c-0.8 eV that pins the Fermi level and is related to the observed photocurrent and cathodoluminescence characteristics.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hao2019,
	  author = {Hao, S. J. and Hetzl, M. and Schuster, F. and Danielewicz, K. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Sai, Q. L. and Xia, C. T. and Hoffmann, T. and Wiesinger, M. and Matich, S. and Aigner, W. and Stutzmann, M.},
	  title = {Growth and characterization of β-Ga2O3 thin films on different substrates},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  publisher = {American Institute of Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {125},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {105701},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.5061794},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5061794}
	}
	
Tuning the porosity of asymmetric membranes via simple post-synthesis solvent-treatment for non-aqueous applications
Y. Li, I. Nulens, R. Verbeke, H. Mariën, T. Koschine, M. Dickmann, W. Egger and I.F.J. Vankelecom; Separation and Purification Technology 217 (2019) 147 - 153.
Abstract: Tuning the cohesive and swelling forces in porous membranes by post-synthesis solvent-treatment was already proven to be a successful way to increase the membrane selectivity in aqueous redox flow battery application without sacrificing too much permeability of the membranes. This method was now extended to non-aqueous applications and the mechanism behind the tuning of the pore sizes upon solvent-treatment was studied in more detail. Porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polysulfone (PSF) membranes were thus prepared via phase inversion and subsequently treated with different solvents followed by the evaporation of this solvent to adjust the structural porosities of these asymmetric membranes and better understand the underlying mechanism. For this purpose, water and acetonitrile permeances were determined before and after the solvent-treatment and these permeances were linked to the (solvent)-(membrane polymer) Hansen solubility parameters. The membrane density changes were characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It was proven that the pore adjustment that was created by the solvent-treatment was reversible when the membrane was later on applied in a feed solution with high affinity for the membrane polymer.
BibTeX:
	@article{Li2019,
	  author = {Li, Yun and Nulens, Ines and Verbeke, Rhea and Mariën, Hanne and Koschine, Tönjes and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.},
	  title = {Tuning the porosity of asymmetric membranes via simple post-synthesis solvent-treatment for non-aqueous applications},
	  journal = {Separation and Purification Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {217},
	  pages = {147 - 153},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383586618337584},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2019.02.012}
	}
	
Perspectives of cellular communication through tunneling nanotubes in cancer cells and the connection to radiation effects
N. Matejka and J. Reindl; Radiation Oncology 14 (1) (2019) 218.
Abstract: Direct cell-to-cell communication is crucial for the survival of cells in stressful situations such as during or after radiation exposure. This communication can lead to non-targeted effects, where non-treated or non-infected cells show effects induced by signal transduction from non-healthy cells or vice versa. In the last 15 years, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) were identified as membrane connections between cells which facilitate the transfer of several cargoes and signals. TNTs were identified in various cell types and serve as promoter of treatment resistance e.g. in chemotherapy treatment of cancer. Here, we discuss our current understanding of how to differentiate tunneling nanotubes from other direct cellular connections and their role in the stress reaction of cellular networks. We also provide a perspective on how the capability of cells to form such networks is related to the ability to surpass stress and how this can be used to study radioresistance of cancer cells.
BibTeX:
	@article{Matejka2019,
	  author = {Matejka, Nicole and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Perspectives of cellular communication through tunneling nanotubes in cancer cells and the connection to radiation effects},
	  journal = {Radiation Oncology},
	  type = {Open Access},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {218},
	  url = {https://ro-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-019-1416-8},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-019-1416-8}
	}
	
Morphology and porous structure of standalone aromatic polyamide films as used in RO membranes – An exploration with SANS, PALS, and SEM
V. Pipich, K. Schlenstedt, M. Dickmann, R. Kasher, J. Meier-Haack, C. Hugenschmidt, W. Petry, Y. Oren and D. Schwahn; Journal of Membrane Science 573 (2019) 167 - 176.
Abstract: This report presents a study about the morphology of a cross-linked aromatic polyamide (PA) film in its dry and wet state using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PA is used as active skin layer for reverse osmosis membranes and determines the selectivity of the membrane with respect to water and salt molecules. This selectivity of PA is largely determined from its morphology. The PA film scatters the neutrons much stronger and shows a different profile as expected from randomly distributed nanoscopic large pores. SANS contrast variation, using supercritical CO2 as contrast medium, confirms that pores are the only scattering centers. The analysis shows that interconnected pores of an average radius of about 16 Å determine the scattering. The pores are formed as a network of channels showing a fractal structure. PALS determines pores of ∼6 Å diameter representing the diameter of such channels. The volume fraction of the pores is estimated as ∼10% which after water up-take increases by ∼30% due to slightly swelling of the pores.
BibTeX:
	@article{Pipich2019,
	  author = {Vitaliy Pipich and Kornelia Schlenstedt and Marcel Dickmann and Roni Kasher and Jochen Meier-Haack and Christoph Hugenschmidt and Winfried Petry and Yoram Oren and Dietmar Schwahn},
	  title = {Morphology and porous structure of standalone aromatic polyamide films as used in RO membranes – An exploration with SANS, PALS, and SEM},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {573},
	  pages = {167 - 176},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738818325936},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2018.11.055}
	}
	
Membrane Hsp70-supported Cell-to-cell Connections Via Tunneling Nanotubes Revealed by Live-cell Sted Nanoscopy
J. Reindl, M. Shevtsov, G. Dollinger, S. Stangl and G. Multhoff; Cell Stress and Chaperones 24 (1) (2019) 213-221.
Abstract: Heat shock protein Hsp70 (Hsp70) is found on the cell surface of a large variety of human and mouse tumor cell types including U87, GL261 glioblastoma, and 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. We studied the role of membrane-bound Hsp70 (mHsp70) in the formation of cell-to-cell connections via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) using live-cell STED nanoscopy. This technique allows the visualization of microstructures in the 100-nm range in the living cells. We could show that the presence of tumor-derived mHsp70 in TNTs with a diameter ranging from 120 to 140 nm predominantly originates from cholesterol-rich-microdomains containing the lipid compound globoyltriaosylceramide (Gb3). Under non-stress conditions, Hsp70 and Gb3 are structurally clustered in the membrane of TNTs of tumor cells that showed tumor type specific variations in the amount of cell-to-cell connection networks. Furthermore depletion of cholesterol and ionizing radiation as a stress factor results in a complete loss of Hsp70-containing TNTs.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reindl2019,
	  author = {Reindl, Judith and Shevtsov, Maxim and Dollinger, Günther and Stangl, Stefan and Multhoff, Gabriele},
	  title = {Membrane Hsp70-supported Cell-to-cell Connections Via Tunneling Nanotubes Revealed by Live-cell Sted Nanoscopy},
	  journal = {Cell Stress and Chaperones},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {24},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {213--221},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12192-018-00958-w?wt_mc=Internal.Event.1.SEM.ArticleAuthorOnlineFirst&utm_source=ArticleAuthorOnlineFirst&utm_medium=email&utm_content=AA_en_06082018&ArticleAuthorOnlineFirst_20190113},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-018-00958-w}
	}
	
pMB FLASH - Status and Perspectives of Combining Proton Minibeam with FLASH Radiotherapy
J. Reindl and S. Girst; Journal of Cancer Immunology 1 (1) (2019) 14-23.
Abstract: Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is an external beam radiotherapy method with reduced side effects by taking advantage of spatial fractionation in the normal tissue. Due to scattering, the delivered small beams widen in the tissue ensuring a homogeneous dose distribution in the tumor. In this review, the physical and biological principles regarding dose distribution and healing effects are explained. In the last decade, several preclinical studies have been conducted addressing normal tissue sparing and tumor control in-vitro and in-vivo, using human skin tissue and mouse or rat models. The major results acquired in these studies are summarized. A further newly emerging therapy method is FLASH radiotherapy, i.e. the treatment using ultra-high dose rates. The possibility of combining these methods in proton minibeam FLASH therapy (pMB FLASH) is worked out. Additionally, technical feasibility and limitations will be discussed by looking at simulations as well as preclinical studies and also pointing out new ways of delivering the desired tumor dose, such as interlacing. We will also highlight the opportunities that emerge regarding high dose radiation, hypofractionation and the combination with immunotherapy.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reindl2019a,
	  author = {Reindl, Judith and Girst, Stefanie},
	  title = {pMB FLASH - Status and Perspectives of Combining Proton Minibeam with FLASH Radiotherapy},
	  journal = {Journal of Cancer Immunology},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {1},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {14--23},
	  url = {https://www.scientificarchives.com/article/pmb-flash--status-and-perspectives-of-combining-proton-minibeam-with-flash-radiotherapy},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.33696/cancerimmunol.1.003}
	}
	
”SmartPointer“- Buttonless remote control based on structured light and intuitive gestures
H. Ruser, A. Kaltenbach and L. Mechold; In: , M.A. Thomas Kirste (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Workshop on Sensor-based Activity Recognition and Interaction ( iWOAR 2019) , ACM International Conference Proceeding Series (2019) 1-6 .
Abstract: The concept and design guidelines for an universal gesture-based remote control with simple intuitive operating are presented. The hand-held buttonless “SmartPointer” emits “structured” infrared (IR) light with a spatial pattern projected by a diffractive optical element (DOE). A cost-effective array of photodiodes on or near the devices to be remotely controlled (such as light, blinds, windows, heating/air conditioning or TV/radio) records the light intensities while a gesture is carried out. Based on the cross-correlation of the spatio-temporal intensity changes at all pairs of photodiodes, the trajectory of motion of the pattern is reconstructed and the gesture is recognized (classified). During tests with uninstructed persons, horizontal, vertical, circular and targeting gestures were most frequently used. Extensive simulations addressing design parameters of the 2D projection pattern and the receiver array were carried out to identify suitable parameter sets for highly reliable gesture reconstruction and recognition of the recorded gestures. As a result, DOE with various pseudo-random beam distributions can be applied.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Ruser2019,
	  author = {Ruser, H. and Kaltenbach, A. and Mechold, L.},
	  title = {”SmartPointer“- Buttonless remote control based on structured light and intuitive gestures},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th international Workshop on Sensor-based Activity Recognition and Interaction ( iWOAR 2019)},
	  journal = {ACM International Conference Proceeding Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  number = {3361691},
	  pages = {1--6},
	  editor = {Thomas Kirste, Mario Aehnelt},
	  url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3361684.3361691},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3361684.3361691}
	}
	
Optical sensor based on pseudo-random diffractive optical elements for reliable gesture reconstruction
H. Ruser, A. Kaltenbach, L. Mechold, F. Obee and F. Piela; In: 2019 IEEE SENSORS , Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2019-October (2019) 1-4 , IEEE.
Abstract: The concept, design guidelines and reconstruction results for a universal gesture-based optical remote control with simple quasi-intuitive operation are presented. The buttonless hand-held flashlight-type device emits structured infrared light with a pseudo-random spatial pattern projected by a diffractive optical element (DOE). A cost-effective array of photodetectors on or near the device to be remotely controlled records the spatio-temporal intensity changes while a gesture is carried out. From the consecutive time lags between highly correlated signal segments received at each pair of photodetectors, the velocity vector is composed from which Cartesian coordinates of the trajectory of motion of the pattern are calculated and the gesture is reconstructed. Extensive simulations varying major design parameters of the DOE pattern and the receiver array were carried out. Based on simulated and typical practical gestures obtained from user tests, design parameters for a highly satisfactory reconstruction performance could be identified.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Ruser2019a,
	  author = {Ruser, H. and Kaltenbach, A. and Mechold, L. and Obee, F. and Piela, F.},
	  title = {Optical sensor based on pseudo-random diffractive optical elements for reliable gesture reconstruction},
	  booktitle = {2019 IEEE SENSORS},
	  journal = {Proceedings of IEEE Sensors},
	  publisher = {IEEE},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {2019-October},
	  number = {8956875},
	  pages = {1--4},
	  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8956875},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/SENSORS43011.2019.8956875}
	}
	
Beam size limit for pencil minibeam radiotherapy determined from side effects in an in-vivo mouse ear model
M. Sammer, K. Teiluf, S. Girst, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, K. Ilicic, D.W.M. Walsh, M. Aichler, A. Walch, S.E. Combs, J.J. Wilkens, G. Dollinger and T.E. Schmid; PLoSONE 14 (e0221454) (2019) e0221454.
Abstract: Side effects caused by radiation are a limiting factor to the amount of dose that can be applied to a tumor volume. A novel method to reduce side effects in radiotherapy is the use of spatial fractionation, in which a pattern of sub-millimeter beams (minibeams) is applied to spare healthy tissue. In order to determine the skin reactions in dependence of single beam sizes, which are relevant for spatially fractionated radiotherapy approaches, single pencil beams of submillimeter to 6 millimeter size were applied in BALB/c mice ears at a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) with a plateau dose of 60 Gy. Radiation toxicities in the ears were observed for 25 days after irradiation. Severe radiation responses were found for beams ≥ 3 mm diameter. The larger the beam diameter the stronger the observed reactions. No ear swelling and barely reddening or desquamation were found for the smallest beam sizes (0.5 and 1 mm). The findings were confirmed by histological sections. Sub-millimeter beams are preferred in minibeam therapy to obtain optimized tissue sparing. The gradual increase of radiation toxicity with beam size shows that also larger beams are capable of healthy tissue sparing in spatial fractionation. © 2019 Sammer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sammer2019,
	  author = {Sammer, M. and Teiluf, K. and Girst, S. and Greubel, C. and Reindl, J. and Ilicic, K. and Walsh, D. W. M. and Aichler, M. and Walch, A. and Combs, S. E. and Wilkens, J. J. and Dollinger, G. and Schmid, T. E.},
	  title = {Beam size limit for pencil minibeam radiotherapy determined from side effects in an in-vivo mouse ear model},
	  journal = {PLoSONE},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {e0221454},
	  pages = {e0221454},
	  url = {https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221454},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221454}
	}
	
Proton pencil minibeam irradiation of an in-vivo mouse ear model spares healthy tissue dependent on beam size
M. Sammer, E. Zahnbrecher, S. Dobiasch, S. Girst, C. Greubel, K. Ilicic, J. Reindl, B. Schwarz, C. Siebenwirth, D.W.M. Walsh, S.E. Combs, G. Dollinger and T.E. Schmid; PLoSONE 14 (2019) e0224873.
Abstract: Side effects caused by radiation are a limiting factor to the amount of dose that can be applied to a tumor volume. A novel method to reduce side effects in radiotherapy is the use of spatial fractionation, in which a pattern of sub-millimeter beams (minibeams) is applied to spare healthy tissue. In order to determine the skin reactions in dependence of single beam sizes, which are relevant for spatially fractionated radiotherapy approaches, single pencil beams of submillimeter to 6 millimeter size were applied in BALB/c mice ears at a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) with a plateau dose of 60 Gy. Radiation toxicities in the ears were observed for 25 days after irradiation. Severe radiation responses were found for beams ≥ 3 mm diameter. The larger the beam diameter the stronger the observed reactions. No ear swelling and barely reddening or desquamation were found for the smallest beam sizes (0.5 and 1 mm). The findings were confirmed by histological sections. Sub-millimeter beams are preferred in minibeam therapy to obtain optimized tissue sparing. The gradual increase of radiation toxicity with beam size shows that also larger beams are capable of healthy tissue sparing in spatial fractionation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sammer2019a,
	  author = {Sammer, Matthias and Zahnbrecher, Esther and Dobiasch, Sophie and Girst, Stefanie and Greubel, Christoph and Ilicic, Katarina and Reindl, Judith and Schwarz, Benjamin and Siebenwirth, Christian and Walsh, Dietrich W. M. and Combs, Stephanie E. and Dollinger, Günther and Schmid, Thomas E.},
	  title = {Proton pencil minibeam irradiation of an in-vivo mouse ear model spares healthy tissue dependent on beam size},
	  journal = {PLoSONE},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {14},
	  pages = {e0224873},
	  url = {https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224873},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224873}
	}
	
Nanoscopic analysis of 53BP1, BRCA1 and Rad51 reveals new insights in temporal progression of DNA-repair and pathway choice
B. Schwarz, A.A. Friedl, S. Girst, G. Dollinger and J. Reindl; Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 816-818 (2019) 111675.
Abstract: The accumulation and spatial distribution of 53BP1, BRCA1 and Rad51, key proteins in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, was investigated with high temporal resolution over a time span of 24 h, using STED nanoscopy. DNA lesions were induced by irradiation with high-LET (linear energy transfer) α-particles. We show that 53BP1 IRIF formation occurs quickly in almost all cells and after about 6 h the fraction of 53BP1 IRIF positive cells slowly declines. Against the expectations BRCA1 and Rad51 IRIF formation is only shortly delayed but with the maximum of cells showing foci after 6 and 8 h after irradiation. At this stage, almost all IRIF in a given Rad51-positive cell show Rad51 accumulation, suggesting that repair via homologous recombination is attempted at almost all residual DSB sites. The frequency of BRCA1 IRIF positive cells increases much earlier and remains high after Rad51 positive cells start to decline, supporting models claiming that functional roles of BRCA1 change over time. Correlation analysis showed a high degree of correlation of Rad51 with BRCA1, while the exclusion of 53BP1 from the actual resection-zone is demonstrated by anti-correlation of Rad51 and 53BP1. Interestingly, these correlation and anti-correlation patterns exhibit complementary temporal variation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schwarz2019,
	  author = {Schwarz, Benjamin and Friedl, Anna A. and Girst, Stefanie and Dollinger, Günther and Reindl, Judith},
	  title = {Nanoscopic analysis of 53BP1, BRCA1 and Rad51 reveals new insights in temporal progression of DNA-repair and pathway choice},
	  journal = {Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {816-818},
	  pages = {111675},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0027510719300272},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2019.111675}
	}
	
Local inhibition of rRNA transcription without nucleolar segregation after targeted ion irradiation of the nucleolus
C. Siebenwirth, C. Greubel, G.A. Drexler, J. Reindl, D.W.M. Walsh, B. Schwarz, M. Sammer, I. Baur, H. Pospiech, T.E. Schmid, G. Dollinger and A.A. Friedl; Journal of cell science 132 (19) (2019) 232181.
Abstract: Nucleoli have attracted interest for their role as cellular stress sensors and as potential targets for cancer treatment. The effect of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in nucleoli on rRNA transcription and nucleolar organisation appears to depend on the agent used to introduce DSBs, DSB frequency and the presence (or not) of DSBs outside the nucleoli. To address the controversy, we targeted nucleoli with carbon ions at the ion microbeam SNAKE. Localized ion irradiation with 1-100 carbon ions per point (about 0.3-30 Gy per nucleus) did not lead to overall reduced ribonucleotide incorporation in the targeted nucleolus or other nucleoli of the same cell. However, both 5-ethynyluridine incorporation and Parp1 protein levels were locally decreased at the damaged nucleolar chromatin regions marked by γH2AX, suggesting localized inhibition of rRNA transcription. This locally restricted transcriptional inhibition was not accompanied by nucleolar segregation, a structural reorganisation observed after inhibition of rRNA transcription by treatment with actinomycin D or UV irradiation. The presented data indicate that even multiple complex DSBs do not lead to a pan-nucleolar response if they affect only a subnucleolar region.
BibTeX:
	@article{Siebenwirth2019,
	  author = {Siebenwirth, C. and Greubel, C. and Drexler, G. A. and Reindl, J. and Walsh, D. W. M. and Schwarz, B. and Sammer, M. and Baur, I. and Pospiech, H. and Schmid, T. E. and Dollinger, G. and Friedl, A. A.},
	  title = {Local inhibition of rRNA transcription without nucleolar segregation after targeted ion irradiation of the nucleolus},
	  journal = {Journal of cell science},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther ; Reindl, Judith},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {132},
	  number = {19},
	  pages = {232181},
	  url = {https://jcs.biologists.org/content/132/19/jcs232181},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.232181}
	}
	
APEX – Newly implemented functionalities towards the first magnetically confined electron-positron pair plasma
M. Singer, C. Hugenschmidt, E.V. Stenson, U. Hergenhahn, J. Horn-Stanja, S. Nissl, T.S. Pedersen, H. Saitoh, M. Dickmann, M.R. Stoneking, J.R. Danielson and C.M. Surko; AIP Conference Proceedings 2182 (1) (2019) 030005.
Abstract: The APEX (A Positron Electron eXperiment) collaboration aims to magnetically confine a low-temperature electron-positron pair plasma. By using a pair of ExB plates, positrons generated by the NEPOMUC facility are drift-injected into the confinement field created by a supported permanent magnet. Fine-tuning the fields generated by electrodes and magnetic coils increased the injection efficiency to 100% and positron confinement times to more than 1s. A newly installed electron gun has been used to inject electrons, guided alongside the positron beam, into the confinement volume. This contribution describes the recent upgrades required for the first dual species experiments.
BibTeX:
	@article{Singer2019,
	  author = {Singer, Markus and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Stenson, Eve V. and Hergenhahn, Uwe and Horn-Stanja, Juliane and Nissl, Stefan and Pedersen, Thomas Sunn and Saitoh, Haruhiko and Dickmann, Marcel and Stoneking, Matthew R. and Danielson, James R. and Surko, Clifford M.},
	  title = {APEX – Newly implemented functionalities towards the first magnetically confined electron-positron pair plasma},
	  journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
	  publisher = {AIP Publishing},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {2182},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {030005},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5135828},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5135828}
	}
	
Bipyridine-based UiO-67 as novel filler in mixed-matrix membranes for CO2-selective gas separation
R. Thür, N.V. Velthoven, S. Slootmaekers, J. Didden, R. Verbeke, S. Smolders, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, D.D. Vos and I.F.J. Vankelecom; Journal of Membrane Science 576 (2019) 78 - 87.
Abstract: Bipyridine-based UiO-67 Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are for the first time successfully applied as filler material in Matrimid mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs). Extensive characterization of fillers (via XRD, NMR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, CO2 and N2 physisorption) and membranes (via XRD, SEM, ATR-FTIR, DSC, TGA and PALS) were performed to gain insight in the MMM separation behavior. Lewis basic sites in the MMMs function as CO2-carriers, doubling CO2/CH4 selectivity (from 38 for pristine Matrimid to 75 for the MMM with 10 wt% UiO-67-33), while the CO2 permeability was simultaneously improved from 16 Barrer (Matrimid) up till 26 Barrer for the MMM with 10 wt% UiO-67-33 (+63%). Gas permeation experiments suggested a facilitated transport mechanism to be responsible for these high mixed-gas selectivities. The concentration of the filler inside the membrane could be increased to 30 wt%, resulting in a permeability increase of 350% without losing selectivity compared to the Matrimid membrane. Use of N-heterocyclic ligands proved to be an interesting strategy and good alternative for functionalization of MOF surfaces to obtain improved membrane performance.
BibTeX:
	@article{Thuer2019,
	  author = {Thür, Raymond and Velthoven, Niels Van and Slootmaekers, Sam and Didden, Jeroen and Verbeke, Rhea and Smolders, Simon and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Vos, Dirk De and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.},
	  title = {Bipyridine-based UiO-67 as novel filler in mixed-matrix membranes for CO2-selective gas separation},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {576},
	  pages = {78 - 87},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738819300122},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2019.01.016}
	}
	
Reversible Optical Writing and Data Storage in an Anthracene-loaded Metal–organic Framework
M. Tu, H. Reinsch, S. Rodríguez-Hermida, R. Verbeke, T. Stassin, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, B. Dieu, J. Hofkens, I.F.J. Vankelecom, N. Stock and R. Ameloot; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 58 (0) (2019) 2423-2427.
Abstract: Abstract Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) enable the design of host–guest systems with specific properties. In this work, we show how the confinement of anthracene in a well-chosen MOF host leads to reversible yellow-to-purple photoswitching of the fluorescence emission. This behavior has not been observed before for anthracene, either in pure form or adsorbed in other porous hosts. The photoresponse of the host–guest system is caused by the photodimerization of anthracene, which is greatly facilitated by the pore geometry, connectivity, and volume as well as the structural flexibility of the MOF host. The photoswitching behavior was used to fabricate photopatternable and erasable surfaces that, in combination with data encryption and decryption, hold promise in product authentication and secure communication applications.
BibTeX:
	@article{Tu2019,
	  author = {Tu, Min and Reinsch, Helge and Rodríguez-Hermida, Sabina and Verbeke, Rhea and Stassin, Timothée and Egger, Werner and Dickmann, Marcel and Dieu, Bjorn and Hofkens, Johan and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J. and Stock, Norbert and Ameloot, Rob},
	  title = {Reversible Optical Writing and Data Storage in an Anthracene-loaded Metal–organic Framework},
	  journal = {Angewandte Chemie International Edition},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {58},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {2423-2427},
	  url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/anie.201813996},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201813996}
	}
	
Effect of illumination on positron states in wide bandgap semiconductors
A. Uedono, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt and S. Ishibashi; In: , F. Selim (Ed.), THE 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POSITRON ANNIHILATION (ICPA-18): Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy-Fundamentals, Techniques ad Applications , AIP Conference Proceedings 2182 (2019) 050006 .
Abstract: Vacancy-type defects in Mg-implanted GaN were probed using monoenergetic positron beams. For the samples after annealing at 1300°C, the line shape parameter S and the positron lifetime increased under illumination with a 325-nm He-Cd laser. The observed increase in the trapping rate of positrons by vacancies was associated with the trapping of the excited electrons by the defects. Native defects in GaN grown on Si substrate were also studied. A similar illumination effect on the positron annihilation parameters was observed for GaN with the carbon concentration of 2×1016 cm−3. From the relationship between S and the photon energy, it was found that the transition of an electron from a carbon atom to the vacancies plays an important role in the charge shift of the vacancies under illumination.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Uedono2019,
	  author = {Uedono, Akira and Egger, Werner and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Ishibashi, Shoji},
	  title = {Effect of illumination on positron states in wide bandgap semiconductors},
	  booktitle = {THE 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POSITRON ANNIHILATION (ICPA-18): Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy-Fundamentals, Techniques ad Applications},
	  journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {2182},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {050006},
	  editor = {Farida Selim},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5135849},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5135849}
	}
	
Annealing Behavior of Vacancy-Type Defects in Mg- and H-Implanted GaN Studied Using Monoenergetic Positron Beams
A. Uedono, H. Iguchi, T. Narita, K. Kataoka, W. Egger, T. Koschine, C. Hugenschmidt, M. Dickmann, K. Shima, K. Kojima, S.F. Chichibu and S. Ishibashi; physica status solidi (b) 256 (10) (2019) 1900104.
Abstract: Vacancy-type defects in Mg-implanted GaN with and without hydrogen (H) implantation are probed by using monoenergetic positron beams. Mg+ and H+ ions are implanted into GaN(0001¯) to obtain 0.1 and 0.7-µm-deep box profiles with Mg and H concentrations of 1 × 1019 and 2 × 1020 cm−3, respectively. For the as-implanted samples, the major defect species is determined to be Ga-vacancy (VGa) related defects such as VGa, divacancy (VGaVN), and their complexes with impurities. For Mg-implanted samples, an agglomeration of vacancies starts at 800 °C annealing, leading to the formation of vacancy clusters such as (VGaVN)3. For the samples annealed above 1000 °C, the trapping rate of positrons by vacancies is increased by illumination of a He–Cd laser. This is attributed to the capture of photon-excited electrons by the defects and their charge transition. For Mg- and H-implanted samples, the hydrogenation of vacancy-type defects starts after 800 °C annealing. Comparing with the annealing behavior of defects for the samples without H-implantation, the clustering of vacancy-type defects is suppressed, which can be attributed to the interaction between Mg, H, and vacancies.
BibTeX:
	@article{Uedono2019a,
	  author = {Uedono, Akira and Iguchi, Hiroko and Narita, Tetsuo and Kataoka, Keita and Egger, Werner and Koschine, Tönjes and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Dickmann, Marcel and Shima, Kohei and Kojima, Kazunobu and Chichibu, Shigefusa F. and Ishibashi, Shoji},
	  title = {Annealing Behavior of Vacancy-Type Defects in Mg- and H-Implanted GaN Studied Using Monoenergetic Positron Beams},
	  journal = {physica status solidi (b)},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {256},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {1900104},
	  url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pssb.201900104},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssb.201900104}
	}
	
Full Elemental Depth-profiling with Nanoscale Resolution: The Potential of Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) in Membrane Science
R. Verbeke, A. Bergmaier, S. Eschbaumer, H. Mariën, G. Dollinger and I.F.J. Vankelecom; Journal of Membrane Science 572 (2019) 102-109.
Abstract: Extensive characterization is needed to understand how the physicochemical properties of polymeric membranes are related to their transport properties and to allow optimization of membrane design. Currently, most techniques characterize the (near)-surface region of the membrane, even though its bulk obviously also plays a significant role in the final membrane performance. To achieve depth-profiles of the elemental composition of both integrally skinned asymmetric (ISA) and thin-film composite (TFC) membranes, elastic recoil detection (ERD), an ion beam analysis technique, is now introduced to the field as a potentially highly valuable tool to complement for instance XPS, EDX or RBS. The determination of the complete elemental composition, importantly also including hydrogen, as function of the membrane thickness allows to gain knowledge about its depth-heterogeneity at an impressive combination of ca. 15 nm resolution with ppm-range sensitivity. This very low detection limit additionally allows the analytical quantification of e.g. remnants from synthesis conditions. The potential as well as the pitfalls of ERD as a novel, valuable technique for membrane characterization are critically discussed and illustrated by the determination of the thickness of polyamide-based top-layers of TFC membranes.
BibTeX:
	@article{Verbeke2019,
	  author = {Verbeke, R. and Bergmaier, A. and Eschbaumer, S. and Mariën, H. and Dollinger, G. and Vankelecom, I. F. J.},
	  title = {Full Elemental Depth-profiling with Nanoscale Resolution: The Potential of Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) in Membrane Science},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {572},
	  pages = {102-109},
	  note = {cited By 0},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738818322476?via%3Dihub},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2018.10.045}
	}
	
Elemental Depth Profiling of Chlorinated Polyamide-Based Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Elastic Recoil Detection
R. Verbeke, A. Bergmaier, S. Eschbaumer, V. Gómez, G. Dollinger and I. Vankelecom; Environ. Sci. Technol. 53 (15) (2019) 8640-8648.
Abstract: The chlorine resistance of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes is of high importance in the water treatment industry. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) is now presented as a powerful tool to uniquely provide elemental depth profiles, including hydrogen, of NaOCl-treated polyamide-based thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. The influence of pressure, pH, and chlorine feed concentration on the volume-averaged Cl uptake, the location of chlorine throughout the membrane, and the z-gradient in the Cl/N ratio is demonstrated. The results suggest that (i) higher volume-averaged Cl uptakes are achieved at higher chlorine doses and at acidic pH; (ii) chlorination is mostly restricted to the top layer; (iii) a gradient in the Cl/N ratio exists along the membrane depth; and (iv) the shape of this gradient is influenced by the chlorination pH and the applied pressure. Conclusions on the chlorination mechanisms could also be deduced. Conversely, no conclusive relationships between H fractions and Cl uptake could be drawn, even though changes in the H content after chlorination were observed. To corroborate these results and fully exploit the potential of ERD, the exact microstructure of the (chlorinated) TFC membranes should be better understood.
The chlorine resistance of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes is of high importance in the water treatment industry. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) is now presented as a powerful tool to uniquely provide elemental depth profiles, including hydrogen, of NaOCl-treated polyamide-based thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. The influence of pressure, pH, and chlorine feed concentration on the volume-averaged Cl uptake, the location of chlorine throughout the membrane, and the z-gradient in the Cl/N ratio is demonstrated. The results suggest that (i) higher volume-averaged Cl uptakes are achieved at higher chlorine doses and at acidic pH; (ii) chlorination is mostly restricted to the top layer; (iii) a gradient in the Cl/N ratio exists along the membrane depth; and (iv) the shape of this gradient is influenced by the chlorination pH and the applied pressure. Conclusions on the chlorination mechanisms could also be deduced. Conversely, no conclusive relationships between H fractions and Cl uptake could be drawn, even though changes in the H content after chlorination were observed. To corroborate these results and fully exploit the potential of ERD, the exact microstructure of the (chlorinated) TFC membranes should be better understood.
BibTeX:
	@article{Verbeke2019a,
	  author = {Verbeke, Rhea and Bergmaier, Andreas and Eschbaumer, Stephan and Gómez, Verónica and Dollinger, Günther and Vankelecom, Ivo},
	  title = {Elemental Depth Profiling of Chlorinated Polyamide-Based Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Elastic Recoil Detection},
	  journal = {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
	  publisher = {American Chemical Society},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {53},
	  number = {15},
	  pages = {8640--8648},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.8b07226},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b07226}
	}
	
Transferring bulk chemistry to interfacial synthesis of TFC-membranes to create chemically robust poly(epoxyether) films
R. Verbeke, W. Arts, E. Dom, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, G. Koeckelberghs, A. Szymczyk and I.F.J. Vankelecom; Journal of Membrane Science 582 (2019) 442 - 453.
Abstract: Membrane technology is currently still excluded from separations in more aggressive feeds due to limited chemical robustness. To extent its applicability, a novel thin-film composite (TFC) membrane was synthesized via the homopolymerization of epoxide monomers, resulting in robust poly(epoxyether) top-layers with >90% rose bengal (MW = 1017 Da) and 70% methyl orange (MW = 327 Da) retention with reasonable water fluxes (>2 L m-2 h−1 bar−1). The superior chemical stability of this novel nanofiltration membrane type was proven via treatments in pH 1 and 500 ppm NaOCl (pH 4) for, respectively, 48 h and 2.5 h, after which an unchanged or even improved membrane performance was observed. Additionally, the synthesis of the thin top-layer occurred via an interfacial initiation of the polymerization (IIP), rather than via state-of-the-art interfacial polymerization (IP). This IIP approach allowed to convert well-known monophasic bulk epoxide polymerization (commonly used in e.g. the automotive and coating industry), into the synthesis of thin, yet cross-linked top-layers.
BibTeX:
	@article{Verbeke2019b,
	  author = {Verbeke, Rhea and Arts, Wouter and Dom, Elke and Dickmann, Marcel and Egger, Werner and Koeckelberghs, Guy and Szymczyk, Anthony and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.},
	  title = {Transferring bulk chemistry to interfacial synthesis of TFC-membranes to create chemically robust poly(epoxyether) films},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {582},
	  pages = {442 - 453},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738818325948},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2019.02.016}
	}
	
Requirements for Gesture-Controlled Remote Operation to Facilitate Human-Technology Interaction in the Living Environment of Elderly People
S. Vorwerg, C. Eicher, H. Ruser, F. Piela, F. Obée, A. Kaltenbach and L. Mechold; In: , S.G. Zhou J. (Ed.), Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Design for the Elderly and Technology Acceptance. HCII 2019. , Lecture Notes in Computer Science 11592 (2019) 551-569 , Springer.
Abstract: The “SmartPointer” (SP) technology comprises a universal buttonless gesture-controlled handheld remote device with a simple quasi-intuitive operating structure. With this handset, elderly people will be able to control various household devices in their living environment. In order to develop an age-appropriate SP system, the aim of the study was to determine the requirements of elderly people and people with tremor. For this purpose, a mixed-method design, involving several assessments, a guideline-based interview, a task-based investigation and a questionnaire using a gesture catalog, was applied. The whole sample included 20 seniors being 60 years and older. In the process, qualitative requirements were collected on the topics of device use, operating problems, desired devices for gesture control, receiver unit, gestures, feedback and safety. The interview results emphasized the elderly participants’ needs to an easy and intuitive system use. Furthermore, concerns should be prioritized in order to the development of the system. In the quantitative evaluation, the use of various technical devices was analyzed and the frequency of used gestures was determined based the gesture catalog and the task-based investigation. The most frequently used gestures were horizontal, vertical, circular and targeting gestures. In summary, the elderly people were very interested in, and open-minded towards, the SP-system. In a comparison between healthy persons and persons with tremor, the results demonstrated only minimal differences regarding the requirements.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Vorwerg2019,
	  author = {Vorwerg, S. and Eicher, C. and Ruser, H. and Piela, F. and Obée, F. and Kaltenbach, A. and Mechold, L.},
	  title = {Requirements for Gesture-Controlled Remote Operation to Facilitate Human-Technology Interaction in the Living Environment of Elderly People},
	  booktitle = {Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Design for the Elderly and Technology Acceptance. HCII 2019.},
	  journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
	  publisher = {Springer},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {11592},
	  pages = {551--569},
	  editor = {Zhou J., Salvendy G.},
	  note = {including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-22012-9_39},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22012-9_39}
	}
	
Deuterium trapping by deformation-induced defects in tungsten
M. Zibrov, M. Balden, M. Dickmann, A. Dubinko, W. Egger, M. Mayer, D. Terentyev and M. Wirtz; Nuclear Fusion 59 (10) (2019) 106056.
Abstract: The influence of defects induced by plastic deformation of tungsten (W) on deuterium (D) retention has been studied. Recrystallized W samples were subjected to tensile deformations at temperatures of 573 K and 873 K to strains in the range of 3%–38%. The dislocation density measured by transmission electron microscopy increased by about 40 times after deformation to the highest strain. The introduced defects were decorated with D by exposure to a low-flux D plasma at sample temperatures of 370 K and 450 K. D retention in the samples was studied using nuclear reaction analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The trapped D concentrations after the plasma exposures were low (up to a few times 10−4 at. fr.) and increased more slowly with strain than the dislocation density. Small vacancy-like defects and large vacancy clusters were detected in the samples by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Their concentrations also increased with strain more weakly than the dislocation density. It was concluded that these defects governed the D retention under plasma exposure at 450 K, while dislocations gave only a small contribution. It was also found that deformation already to the lowest strains significantly facilitates the formation of blister-like structures under D plasma exposure at 370 K. The defects associated with blister-like structures presumably gave a substantial contribution to D retention at 370 K.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zibrov2019,
	  author = {M. Zibrov and M. Balden and M. Dickmann and A. Dubinko and W. Egger and M. Mayer and D. Terentyev and M. Wirtz},
	  title = {Deuterium trapping by deformation-induced defects in tungsten},
	  journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {59},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {106056},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/ab3c7e},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab3c7e}
	}
	
Erratum: Deuterium trapping by deformation-induced defects in tungsten (2019 Nucl. Fusion 59 106056)
M. Zibrov, M. Balden, M. Dickmann, A. Dubinko, W. Egger, M. Mayer, D. Terentyev and M. Wirtz; Nuclear Fusion 59 (12) (2019) 129601.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zibrov2019a,
	  author = {M. Zibrov and M. Balden and M. Dickmann and A. Dubinko and W. Egger and M. Mayer and D. Terentyev and M. Wirtz},
	  title = {Erratum: Deuterium trapping by deformation-induced defects in tungsten (2019 Nucl. Fusion 59 106056)},
	  journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
	  publisher = {IOP Publishing},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2019},
	  volume = {59},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {129601},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/ab472b},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab472b}
	}
	

2018

Physics at the Munich Tandem Accelerator Laboratory
G. Dollinger and T. Faestermann; Nuclear Physics News 28 (1) (2018) 5-12.
Abstract: The Tandem accelerator situated in Garching, just 20 km north of Munich, is of the “Emperor” (MP) series manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Corporation (HVEC). It delivered the first beams for experiments in 1970 and came close to its design voltage of 10 MV. In 1991 the tubes were exchanged to the extended version of HVEC. Routine operation at a terminal voltage of 14 MV was then possible.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2018,
	  author = {Günther Dollinger and Thomas Faestermann},
	  title = {Physics at the Munich Tandem Accelerator Laboratory},
	  journal = {Nuclear Physics News},
	  publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {28},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {5-12},
	  url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10619127.2018.1427405},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/10619127.2018.1427405}
	}
	
Modeling Studies on Dicentrics Induction After Sub-micrometer Focused Ion Beam Grid Irradiation
W. Friedland, P. Kundrát, E. Schmitt, J. Becker, K. Ilicic, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, T.E. Schmid and G. Dollinger; rpd 183 (1-2) (2018) 40-44.
Abstract: The biophysical simulation tool PARTRAC contains modules for DNA damage response representing non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and the formation of chromosomal aberrations. Individual DNA ends from the induced DSB are followed regarding both their enzymatic processing and spatial mobility, as is needed for chromosome aberrations to arise via ligating broken ends from different chromosomes. In particular, by tracking the genomic locations of the ligated fragments and the positions of centromeres, the induction of dicentrics can be modeled. In recent experiments, the impact of spatial clustering of DNA damage on dicentric yields has been assessed in AL human-hamster hybrid cells: Defined numbers of 20 MeV protons (linear energy transfer, LET 2.6 keV/μm), 45 MeV Li ions (60 keV/μm) and 55 MeV C ions (310 keV/μm) focused to sub-μm spot sizes were applied with the ion microbeam SNAKE in diverse grid modes, keeping the absorbed dose constant. The impact of the μm-scaled spatial distribution of DSB (focusing effect) has thus been separated from nm-scaled DSB complexity (LET effect). The data provide a unique benchmark for the model calculations. Model and parameter refinements are described that enabled the simulations to largely reproduce both the LET-dependence and the focusing effect as well as the usual biphasic rejoining kinetics. The predictive power of the refined model has been benchmarked against dicentric yields for photon irradiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Fiedland2018,
	  author = {Friedland, W. and Kundrát, P. and Schmitt, E. and Becker, J. and Ilicic, K. and Greubel, C. and Reindl, J. and Siebenwirth, C. and Schmid, T. E. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Modeling Studies on Dicentrics Induction After Sub-micrometer Focused Ion Beam Grid Irradiation},
	  journal = {rpd},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {183},
	  number = {1-2},
	  pages = {40--44},
	  url = {https://academic.oup.com/rpd/article/183/1-2/40/5307683},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncy266}
	}
	
DNA damage interactions on both nanometer and micrometer scale determine overall cellular damage
T. Friedrich, K. Ilicic, C. Greubel, S. Girst, J. Reindl, M. Sammer, B. Schwarz, C. Siebenwirth, D.W.M. Walsh, T.E. Schmid, M. Scholz and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 8 (1) (2018) 16063.
Abstract: DNA double strand breaks (DSB) play a pivotal role for cellular damage, which is a hazard encountered in toxicology and radiation protection, but also exploited e.g. in eradicating tumors in radiation therapy. It is still debated whether and in how far clustering of such DNA lesions leads to an enhanced severity of induced damage. Here we investigate - using focused spots of ionizing radiation as damaging agent - the spatial extension of DNA lesion patterns causing cell inactivation. We find that clustering of DNA damage on both the nm and µm scale leads to enhanced inactivation compared to more homogeneous lesion distributions. A biophysical model interprets these observations in terms of enhanced DSB production and DSB interaction, respectively. We decompose the overall effects quantitatively into contributions from these lesion formation processes, concluding that both processes coexist and need to be considered for determining the resulting damage on the cellular level.
BibTeX:
	@article{Friedrich2018,
	  author = {Friedrich, Thomas and Ilicic, Katarina and Greubel, Christoph and Girst, Stefanie and Reindl, Judith and Sammer, Matthias and Schwarz, Benjamin and Siebenwirth, Christian and Walsh, Dietrich W. M. and Schmid, Thomas E. and Scholz, Michael and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {DNA damage interactions on both nanometer and micrometer scale determine overall cellular damage},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {8},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {16063},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-34323-9#auth-6},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34323-9}
	}
	
Radiation hardness testing of super-junction power mosfets by heavy ion induced see mapping
M. Gerold, A. Bergmaier, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, G. Dollinger and M. Rüb; In: 2018 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA) , Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits, IPFA 2018-July (2018) .
Abstract: In this work direct heavy ion mapping of Single Event Effect (SEE) and Single Event Burnout (SEB) of super-junction power MOSFETs utilizing a high energy (55MeV) carbon micro-beam is presented. The resulting maps are sub-structurally resolved. Effect location, signal level and possible connections to cosmic radiation events are discussed.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Gerold2018,
	  author = {Gerold, M. and Bergmaier, A. and Greubel, C. and Reindl, J. and Dollinger, G. and Rüb, M.},
	  title = {Radiation hardness testing of super-junction power mosfets by heavy ion induced see mapping},
	  booktitle = {2018 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)},
	  journal = {Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits, IPFA},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {2018-July},
	  note = {cited By 0},
	  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8452587},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/IPFA.2018.8452587}
	}
	
UV radiation enhanced oxygen vacancy formation caused by the PLD plasma plume
F.V.E. Hensling, D.J. Keeble, J. Zhu, S. Brose, C. Xu, F. Gunkel, S. Danylyuk, S.S. Nonnenmann, W. Egger and R. Dittmann; Scientific Reports 8 (1) (2018) 8846.
Abstract: Pulsed Laser Deposition is a commonly used non-equilibrium physical deposition technique for the growth of complex oxide thin films. A wide range of parameters is known to influence the properties of the used samples and thin films, especially the oxygen-vacancy concentration. One parameter has up to this point been neglected due to the challenges of separating its influence from the influence of the impinging species during growth: the UV-radiation of the plasma plume. We here present experiments enabled by a specially designed holder to allow a separation of these two influences. The influence of the UV-irradiation during pulsed laser deposition on the formation of oxygen-vacancies is investigated for the perovskite model material SrTiO3. The carrier concentration of UV-irradiated samples is nearly constant with depth and time. By contrast samples not exposed to the radiation of the plume show a depth dependence and a decrease in concentration over time. We reveal an increase in Ti-vacancy–oxygen-vacancy-complexes for UV irradiated samples, consistent with the different carrier concentrations. We find a UV enhanced oxygen-vacancy incorporation rate as responsible mechanism. We provide a complete picture of another influence parameter to be considered during pulsed laser depositions and unravel the mechanism behind persistent-photo-conductivity in SrTiO3.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hensling2018,
	  author = {Hensling, Felix V. E. and Keeble, David J. and Zhu, Jiaxin and Brose, Sascha and Xu, Chencheng and Gunkel, Felix and Danylyuk, Serhiy and Nonnenmann, Stephen S. and Egger, Werner and Dittmann, Regina},
	  title = {UV radiation enhanced oxygen vacancy formation caused by the PLD plasma plume},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {8},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {8846},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27207-5},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27207-5}
	}
	
Positron Annihilation Studies on the Damp Heat Degradation of ZnO : Al Transparent Conductive Oxide Layers for CIGS Solar Cells
W. Shi, M.J. Theelen, V.S. Gevaerts, A. Illiberi, N. Barreau, M. Butterling, H. Schut, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, C.P. Hugenschmidt, M. Zeman, E. Brück and S.W.H. Eijt; IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 8 (6) (2018) 1847 - 1851.
Abstract: Positron annihilation depth-profiling is used as an innovative tool to monitor the evolution of vacancy defects in two series of ZnO:Al transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells under accelerated degradation at 85 °C/85% relative humidity. The first series of ZnO:Al layers are deposited directly on flat glass substrates, leading to low densities of (extended) grain boundaries in the ZnO:Al. These ZnO:Al layers only show an increase in open volume upon degradation in the near-surface range. The second series of ZnO:Al layers are deposited on the more corrugated surface of CdS/CIGS/Mo solar cells, and show, on the other hand, a pronounced formation of open volume throughout the layer. Its depth-dependence is consistent with in-diffusion of molecules such as H2O and CO2 into the ZnO:Al layer via the grain boundaries, as primary driver for the degradation. The detected time-dependence of the growth of open volume at the grain boundaries in the ZnO:Al TCO layer matches the time scale of the observed reduction in solar cell efficiency and series resistance, suggesting that the generated open volume induces a significant barrier against charge carrier transport.
BibTeX:
	@article{Shi2018,
	  author = {Shi, Wenqin and Theelen, Mirjam J. and Gevaerts, Veronique S. and Illiberi, Andrea and Barreau, Nicolas and Butterling, Maik and Schut, Henk and Egger, Werner and Dickmann, Marcel and Hugenschmidt, Christoph P. and Zeman, Miro and Brück, Ekkes and Eijt, Stephan W. H.},
	  title = {Positron Annihilation Studies on the Damp Heat Degradation of ZnO : Al Transparent Conductive Oxide Layers for CIGS Solar Cells},
	  journal = {IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics},
	  publisher = {IEEE},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {8},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {1847 - 1851},
	  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8437251},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2018.2863788}
	}
	
Increasing Membrane Permeability by Increasing the Polymer Crystallinity: The Unique Case of Polythiophenes
C. Van Goethem, M. Mulunda, R. Verbeke, T. Koschine, M. Wübbenhorst, Z. Zhang, E. Nies, M. Dickmann, W. Egger, I. Vankelecom and G. Koeckelberghs; Macromolecules 51 (23) (2018) 9943-9950.
Abstract: It is generally accepted in membrane technology that crystalline zones in polymeric membranes do not contribute to transport of liquids or gases. In the current study, poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (P3ATs), i.e., homopolymers and random copolymers, were synthesized to study the influence of the supramolecular organization on membrane gas separations. The monomers were polymerized via KCTCP, and GPC analysis shows that the polymers have a narrow dispersity. DSC analysis of the polymers reveals that the homopolymers, in contrast to the copolymers, crystallized, confirming their higher degree of supramolecular organization. This was supported by UV-vis absorption spectra of the polymer films, where a red-shift and a characteristic shoulder absorption peak around 600 nm were observed for the homopolymers, while absent for the copolymers. More surprisingly, the homopolymers were found to be 2 orders of magnitude more permeable to CO2 than the copolymers and also more selective.
BibTeX:
	@article{VanGoethem2018,
	  author = {Van Goethem, C. and Mulunda, M.M. and Verbeke, R. and Koschine, T. and Wübbenhorst, M. and Zhang, Z. and Nies, E. and Dickmann, M. and Egger, W. and Vankelecom, I.F.J. and Koeckelberghs, G.},
	  title = {Increasing Membrane Permeability by Increasing the Polymer Crystallinity: The Unique Case of Polythiophenes},
	  journal = {Macromolecules},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {51},
	  number = {23},
	  pages = {9943-9950},
	  note = {cited By 0},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.macromol.8b01635},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.8b01635}
	}
	
The role of MOFs in Thin-Film Nanocomposite (TFN) membranes
C. Van Goethem, R. Verbeke, M. Pfanmöller, T. Koschine, M. Dickmann, T. Timpel-Lindner, W. Egger, S. Bals and I. Vankelecom; Journal of Membrane Science 563 (2018) 938-948.
Abstract: Incorporation of MOFs in interfacially polymerized Thin-Film Nanocomposite (TFN) membranes has widely been shown to result in increased membrane performance. However, the exact functioning of these membranes is poorly understood as large variability in permeance increase, filler incorporation and rejection changes can be observed in literature. The synthesis and functioning of TFN membranes (herein exemplified by ZIF-8 filled polyamide (PA) membranes prepared via the EFP method) was investigated via targeted membrane synthesis and thorough characterization via STEM-EDX, XRD and PALS. It is hypothesized that the acid generated during the interfacial polymerization (IP) at least partially degrades the crystalline, acid-sensitive ZIF-8 and that this influences the membrane formation (through so-called secondary effects, i.e. not strictly linked to the pore morphology of the MOF). Nanoscale HAADF-STEM imaging and STEM-EDX Zn-mapping revealed no ZIF-8 particles but rather the presence of randomly shaped regions with elevated Zn-content. Also XRD failed to show the presence of crystalline areas in the composite PA films. As the addition of the acid-quenching TEA led to an increase in the diffraction signal observed in XRD, the role of the acid was confirmed. The separate addition of dissolved Zn2+ to the synthesis of regular TFC membranes showed an increase in permeance while losing some salt retention, similar to observations regularly made for TFN membranes. While the addition of a porous material to a TFC membrane is a straightforward concept, all obtained results indicate that the synthesis and performance of such composite membranes is often more complex than commonly accepted. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
	@article{VanGoethem2018a,
	  author = {Van Goethem, C. and Verbeke, R. and Pfanmöller, M. and Koschine, T. and Dickmann, M. and Timpel-Lindner, T. and Egger, W. and Bals, S. and Vankelecom, I.F.J.},
	  title = {The role of MOFs in Thin-Film Nanocomposite (TFN) membranes},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {563},
	  pages = {938-948},
	  note = {cited By 3},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738818306239},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2018.06.040}
	}
	
Real-scale chlorination at pH4 of BW30 TFC membranes and their physicochemical characterization
R. Verbeke, V. Gómez, T. Koschine, S. Eyley, A. Szymczyk, M. Dickmann, T. Stimpel-Lindner, W. Egger, W. Thielemans and I. Vankelecom; Journal of Membrane Science 551 (2018) 123-135.
Abstract: Chlorination remains a big hurdle in membrane technology as the most commonly used membranes for water purification consist of a polyamide top-layer, which is not fully resistant towards chlorine-induced oxidation. In this work, DOW FILMTEC™ BW30 membrane elements were systematically chlorinated with NaOCl at pilot-scale under acidic conditions (pH4) at 10 bar for 2.5 h. Variations in membrane performance and their physicochemical properties were determined by ATR-FTIR, XPS, WD-XRF, SEM, AFM and zeta-potential measurements. With increasing bleaching concentration, both membrane roughness and chlorine incorporation via N- and ring-chlorination increased, while surface charge remained quasi unaltered. Both water flux and salt passage decreased proportionally over the whole concentration range. Accordingly, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) revealed a decrease in the size of the top-layer free-volume elements as chlorine concentration increased, confirming, for the first time in a quantitative manner, the so-called tightening effect. The obtained results also show that thin-film composite (TFC) membranes are altered differently when chlorinated under pressure than via simple immersion, as conventionally performed in literature.
BibTeX:
	@article{Verbeke2018,
	  author = {Verbeke, R. and Gómez, V. and Koschine, T. and Eyley, S. and Szymczyk, A. and Dickmann, M. and Stimpel-Lindner, T. and Egger, W. and Thielemans, W. and Vankelecom, I.F.J.},
	  title = {Real-scale chlorination at pH4 of BW30 TFC membranes and their physicochemical characterization},
	  journal = {Journal of Membrane Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {551},
	  pages = {123-135},
	  note = {cited By 4},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376738817327813},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2018.01.019}
	}
	
Evaluation of radiation-related invasion in primary patient-derived glioma cells and validation with established cell lines: impact of different radiation qualities with differing LET
M. Wank, D. Schilling, J. Reindl, B. Meyer, J. Gempt, S. Motov, F. Alexander, J.J. Wilkens, J. Schlegel, T.E. Schmid and S.E. Combs; Journal of Neuro-Oncology 139 (3) (2018) 583-590.
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor and has a very poor overall prognosis. Multimodal treatment is still inefficient and one main reason is the invasive nature of GBM cells, enabling the tumor cells to escape from the treatment area causing tumor progression. This experimental study describes the effect of low- and high-LET irradiation on the invasion of primary GBM cells with a validation in established cell systems.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wank2018,
	  author = {Wank, M. and Schilling, D. and Reindl, J. and Meyer, B. and Gempt, J. and Motov, S. and Alexander, F. and Wilkens, J. J. and Schlegel, J. and Schmid, T. E. and Combs, S. E.},
	  title = {Evaluation of radiation-related invasion in primary patient-derived glioma cells and validation with established cell lines: impact of different radiation qualities with differing LET},
	  journal = {Journal of Neuro-Oncology},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {139},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {583--590},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11060-018-2923-4},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-2923-4}
	}
	
Hydrogen concentration analysis in clinopyroxene using proton--proton scattering analysis
F.A. Weis, L. Ros, P. Reichart, H. Skogby, P. Kristiansson and G. Dollinger; Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 45 (2018) 669-678.
Abstract: Traditional methods to measure water in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) are, for example, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy or secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both well-established methods provide a low detection limit as well as high spatial resolution yet may require elaborate sample orientation or destructive sample preparation. Here we analyze the water content in erupted volcanic clinopyroxene phenocrysts by proton--proton scattering and reproduce water contents measured by FTIR spectroscopy. We show that this technique provides significant advantages over other methods as it can provide a three-dimensional distribution of hydrogen within a crystal, making the identification of potential inclusions possible as well as elimination of surface contamination. The sample analysis is also independent of crystal structure and orientation and independent of matrix effects other than sample density. The results are used to validate the accuracy of wavenumber-dependent vs. mineral-specific molar absorption coefficients in FTIR spectroscopy. In addition, we present a new method for the sample preparation of very thin crystals suitable for proton--proton scattering analysis using relatively low accelerator potentials.
BibTeX:
	@article{Weis2018,
	  author = {Weis, Franz A. and Ros, Linus and Reichart, Patrick and Skogby, Henrik and Kristiansson, Per and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Hydrogen concentration analysis in clinopyroxene using proton--proton scattering analysis},
	  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of Minerals},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2018},
	  volume = {45},
	  pages = {669-678},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00269-018-0953-2},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00269-018-0953-2}
	}
	

2017

Point defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques
J. Čížek, M. Vlček, P. Hruška, F. Lukáč, O. Melikhova, W. Anwand, F. Selim, C. Hugenschmidt and W. Egger; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 791 (1) (2017) 012017.
Abstract: In the present work point defects in ZnO crystals were characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with back-diffusion measurement of slow positrons. Defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques were compared. Hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain defects characterized by lifetime of ≈181 ps. These defects were attributed to Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen. ZnO crystals prepared by other techniques (Bridgman, pressurized melt growth, and seeded chemical vapour transport) exhibit shorter lifetime of ≈165 ps. Positron back-diffusion studies revealed that hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain higher density of defects than the crystals grown by other techniques. The lowest concentration of defects was detected in the crystal grown by seeded chemical vapor transport.
BibTeX:
	@article{Cizek2017,
	  author = {J Čížek and M Vlček and P Hruška and F Lukáč and O Melikhova and W Anwand and F Selim and Ch Hugenschmidt and W Egger},
	  title = {Point defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {791},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012017},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1742-6596/791/i=1/a=012017},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/791/1/012017}
	}
	
New insights into the nanostructure of innovative thin film solar cells gained by positron annihilation spectroscopy
S.W.H. Eijt, W. Shi, A. Mannheim, M. Butterling, H. Schut, W. Egger, M. Dickmann, C. Hugenschmidt, B. Shakeri, R.W. Meulenberg, V. Callewaert, R. Saniz, B. Partoens, B. Barbiellini, A. Bansil, J. Melskens, M. Zeman, A.H.M. Smets, M. Kulbak, G. Hodes, D. Cahen and E. Brück; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 791 (1) (2017) 012021.
Abstract: Recent studies showed that positron annihilation methods can provide key insights into the nanostructure and electronic structure of thin film solar cells. In this study, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is applied to investigate CdSe quantum dot (QD) light absorbing layers, providing evidence of positron trapping at the surfaces of the QDs. This enables one to monitor their surface composition and electronic structure. Further, 2D-Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation (2D-ACAR) is used to investigate the nanostructure of divacancies in photovoltaic-high-quality a-Si:H films. The collected momentum distributions were converted by Fourier transformation to the direct space representation of the electron-positron autocorrelation function. The evolution of the size of the divacancies as a function of hydrogen dilution during deposition of a-Si:H thin films was examined. Finally, we present a first positron Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) study of the emerging class of highly efficient thin film solar cells based on perovskites.
BibTeX:
	@article{Eijt2017,
	  author = {S W H Eijt and W Shi and A Mannheim and M Butterling and H Schut and W Egger and M Dickmann and C Hugenschmidt and B Shakeri and R W Meulenberg and V Callewaert and R Saniz and B Partoens and B Barbiellini and A Bansil and J Melskens and M Zeman and A H M Smets and M Kulbak and G Hodes and D Cahen and E Brück},
	  title = {New insights into the nanostructure of innovative thin film solar cells gained by positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {791},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012021},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1742-6596/791/i=1/a=012021},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/791/1/012021}
	}
	
Time of flight assisted ΔE-E method for enhanced isotope separation capabilities in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis
S. Eschbaumer, A. Bergmaier, D. Seiler and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 406 (2017) 10 - 14.
Abstract: The time of flight energy (TOF-E) setup installed at the scattering chamber of the Q3D magnetic spectrograph to perform heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis at the 14 MV Munich Tandem Accelerator has recently been upgraded. Now, the energy detector of the TOF-E setup is additionally capable of performing ΔE-E measurements for high energy recoil ions obtained from e.g. a 170 MeV 127I projectile beam. Time of flight information is simultaneously acquired with the ΔE-E data for each detected ion. The combination of the TOF-E and the ΔE-E data gives the opportunity to set effective filter conditions to select for both, the elemental and the mass of the detected ion. As an example a boron doped carbon layer is analyzed and 10B and 11B is separated with the help of the combination of both methods.
BibTeX:
	@article{Eschbaumer2017,
	  author = {S. Eschbaumer and A. Bergmaier and D. Seiler and G. Dollinger},
	  title = {Time of flight assisted ΔE-E method for enhanced isotope separation capabilities in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {406},
	  pages = {10 - 14},
	  note = {Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART12)},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X17301751},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2017.02.056}
	}
	
Low LET proton microbeam to understand high-LET RBE by shaping spatial dose distribution
C. Greubel, K. Ilicic, T. Rösch, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, M. Moser, S. Girst, D.W. Walsh, T.E. Schmid and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 404 (Supplement C) (2017) 155 - 161.
Abstract: High LET radiation, like heavy ions, are known to have a higher biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to low LET radiation, like X- or γ-rays. Theories and models attribute these higher effectiveness mostly to their extremely inhomogeneous dose deposition, which is concentrated in only a few micron sized spots. At the ion microprobe SNAKE, low LET 20 MeV protons (LET in water of 2.6 keV/μm) can be applied to cells either randomly distributed or focused to submicron spots, approximating heavy ion dose deposition. Thus, the transition between low and high LET energy deposition is experimentally accessible and the effect of different spatial dose distributions can be analysed. Here, we report on the technical setup to cultivate and irradiate 104 cells with submicron spots of low LET protons to measure cell survival in unstained cells. In addition we have taken special care to characterise the beam spot of the 20 MeV proton microbeam with fluorescent nuclear track detectors.
BibTeX:
	@article{Greubel2017,
	  author = {Christoph Greubel and Katarina Ilicic and Thomas Rösch and Judith Reindl and Christian Siebenwirth and Marcus Moser and Stefanie Girst and Dietrich W.M. Walsh and Thomas E. Schmid and Günther Dollinger},
	  title = {Low LET proton microbeam to understand high-LET RBE by shaping spatial dose distribution},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {404},
	  number = {Supplement C},
	  pages = {155 - 161},
	  note = {Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X16305109},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2016.11.032}
	}
	
Micrometer positron beam characterization at the Scanning Positron Microscope Interface
J. Mitteneder, M. Dickmann, G. Kögel, W. Egger, P. Sperr and G. Dollinger; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 791 (1) (2017) 012006.
Abstract: For the investigation of inhomogeneous defect distributions the Scanning Positron Microscope (SPM) of the Universität der Bundeswehr München provides a pulsed positron beam with a diameter of about 1 µm and a time resolution of 250 ps (FWHM). To increase the count-rate the SPM is currently transferred to the intense positron source NEPOMUC. To connect the SPM to the NEPOMUC source a special interface was build, which transforms the NEPOMUC beam to the requirements of the SPM. In this contribution we will give an overview of the SPM interface, and its performance. The beam is characterized at the finale stage of the interface, the positron elevator, where the potential energy of the beam is increased, without altering other beam parameters. From our measurements we are able to predict the performance of the SPM at NEPOMUC. In future position resolved measurements will be possible with an improved spatial resolution of about 0.3 µm and an event rate of about 3.7 kHz.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mitteneder2017,
	  author = {Johannes Mitteneder and Marcel Dickmann and Gottfried Kögel and Werner Egger and Peter Sperr and Günther Dollinger},
	  title = {Micrometer positron beam characterization at the Scanning Positron Microscope Interface},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {791},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012006},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1742-6596/791/i=1/a=012006},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/791/1/012006}
	}
	
Chromatin organization revealed by nanostructure of irradiation induced γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 foci
J. Reindl, S. Girst, D.W.M. Walsh, C. Greubel, B. Schwarz, C. Siebenwirth, G.A. Drexler, A.A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 7 (2017) 40616.
Abstract: The spatial distribution of DSB repair factors γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 in ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) in HeLa cells using super resolution STED nanoscopy after low and high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation was investigated. 53BP1 and γH2AX form IRIF with same mean size of (540 ± 40) nm after high LET irradiation while the size after low LET irradiation is significantly smaller. The IRIF of both repair factors show nanostructures with partial anti-correlation. These structures are related to domains formed within the chromatin territories marked by γH2AX while 53BP1 is mainly situated in the perichromatin region. The nanostructures have a mean size of (129 ± 6) nm and are found to be irrespective of the applied LET and the labelled damage marker. In contrast, Rad51 shows no nanostructure and a mean size of (143 ± 13) nm independent of LET. Although Rad51 is surrounded by 53BP1 it strongly anti-correlates meaning an exclusion of 53BP1 next to DSB when decision for homologous DSB repair happened.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reindl2017,
	  author = {Reindl, Judith and Girst, Stefanie and Walsh, Dietrich W. M. and Greubel, Christoph and Schwarz, Benjamin and Siebenwirth, Christian and Drexler, Guido A. and Friedl, Anna A. and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Chromatin organization revealed by nanostructure of irradiation induced γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 foci},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {7},
	  pages = {40616},
	  url = {http://www.nature.com/articles/srep40616},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40616}
	}
	
Cellulose Nanofibrils Films: Molecular Diffusion through Elongated Sub-Nano Cavities
D. Roilo, C.A. Maestri, M. Scarpa, P. Bettotti, W. Egger, T. Koschine, R.S. Brusa and R. Checchetto; The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121 (28) (2017) 15437-15447.
Abstract: We have studied the kinetics of gas transport through films made of self-assembled cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) by a time-resolved mass spectroscopy technique. Few micrometers thick films deposited on polylactic acid (PLA) substrates act as impermeable barriers for CO2, O2, and N2 and reduce the 2H2 (deuterium) and He permeation flux by a factor of  103 with respect to the uncoated substrate. Penetrant transport is controlled by the solution-diffusion mechanism and the coating acts as a diffusive barrier. 2H2 and He diffusivity values are in the 10–10 and 10–9 cm2 s-1 range, respectively, and their migration occurs by thermally activated process with 39 ± 1 and 33 ± 2 kJ mol–1 activation energy. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy analysis indicates that the diffusive path between the packed nanofibrils consists of elongated cavities with cross-sectional size &ap;0.31 nm. Results evidence that the selective transport of the small size penetrants is due to sieving effects and that small penetrant transport occurs in configurational diffusion regime.
BibTeX:
	@article{Roilo2017,
	  author = {Roilo, David and Maestri, Cecilia Ada and Scarpa, Marina and Bettotti, Paolo and Egger, Werner and Koschine, Tönjes and Brusa, Roberto Sennen and Checchetto, Riccardo},
	  title = {Cellulose Nanofibrils Films: Molecular Diffusion through Elongated Sub-Nano Cavities},
	  journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry C},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {121},
	  number = {28},
	  pages = {15437-15447},
	  url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02895},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02895}
	}
	
Optimization of beam arrangements in proton minibeam radiotherapy by cell survival simulations
M. Sammer, C. Greubel, S. Girst and G. Dollinger; Medical Physics 44 (11) (2017) 6096-6104.
Abstract: Purpose: Proton minibeam radiotherapy using submillimeter beam dimensions allows to enhance tissue sparing in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation additionally to advantageous proton depth dose distribution. In the entrance channel, spatial fractionation leads to reduced side effects compared to conventional proton therapy. The submillimeter sized beams widen with depth due to small angle scattering and enable therefore, in contrary to x-ray microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), the homogeneous irradiation of a tumor. Proton minibeams can either be applied as planar minibeams or pencil shaped with an additional possibility to vary between a quadratic and a hexagonal arrangement for pencil minibeams. The purpose of this work is to deduce interbeam distances to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution for different tumor depths and tumor thicknesses. Furthermore, we aim for a better understanding of the sparing effect on the basis of surviving cells calculated by the linear-quadratic model.

Methods: Two-dimensional dose distributions are calculated for proton minibeams of different shapes and arrangements. For a tumor in 10-15 cm depth, treatment plans are calculated with initial beam size of σ0 = 0.2 mm in a water phantom. Proton minibeam depth dose distributions are finally converted into cell survival using a linear-quadratic model.

Results: Inter proton beam distances are maximized under the constraint of dose homogeneity in the tumor for tumor depths ranging from 4 to 15 cm and thickness ranging from 0.5 to 10 cm. Cell survival calculations for a 5 cm thick tumor covered by 10 cm healthy tissue show less cell death by up to 85%, especially in the superficial layers, while keeping the cell death in the tumor as in conventional therapy. In the entrance channel, the pencil minibeams result in higher cell survival in comparison to the planar minibeams while all proton minibeam irradiations show higher cell survival than conventional broadbeam irradiation.

Conclusion: The deduced constraints for interbeam distances simplify treatment planning for proton minibeam radiotherapy applications in future studies. The cell survival results indicate that proton minibeam radiotherapy reduces side effects but keeps tumor control as in conventional proton therapy. It makes proton minibeam, especially pencil minibeam radiotherapy a potentially attractive new approach for radiation therapy.

BibTeX:
	@article{Sammer2017,
	  author = {Sammer, M. and Greubel, C. and Girst, S. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Optimization of beam arrangements in proton minibeam radiotherapy by cell survival simulations},
	  journal = {Medical Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {44},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {6096-6104},
	  note = {cited By 0},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mp.12566/abstract;jsessionid=36AD12B1DEFB0CD51C862B75F5B5EF5D.f02t01},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/mp.12566}
	}
	
The influence of reference radiation photon energy on high-LET RBE: comparison of human peripheral lymphocytes and human--hamster hybrid AL cells
T.E. Schmid, C. Greubel, G. Dollinger and E. Schmid; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 56 (2017) 79-87.
Abstract: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) based on the induction of dicentrics in any cell type is principally an important information for the increasing application of high-LET radiation in cancer therapy. Since the standard system of human lymphocytes for measuring dicentrics are not compatible with our microbeam irradiation setup where attaching cells are essential, we used human--hamster hybrid AL cells which do attach on foils and fulfil the special experimental requirement for microbeam irradiations. In this work, the dose--response of AL cells to photons of different energy, 70 and 200 kV X-rays and 60Co γ-rays, is characterized and compared to human lymphocytes. The total number of induced dicentrics in AL cells is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. Despite the smaller α and β parameters of the measured linear--quadratic dose--response relationship, the α/β-ratio versus photon energy dependence is identical within the accuracy of measurement for AL cells and human lymphocytes. Thus, the influence of the reference radiation used for RBE determination is the same. For therapy relevant doses of 2 Gy (60Co equivalent), the difference in RBE is around 20% only. These findings indicate that the biological effectiveness in AL cells can give important information for human cells, especially for studies where attaching cells are essential.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2017,
	  author = {Schmid, T. E. and Greubel, C. and Dollinger, G. and Schmid, E.},
	  title = {The influence of reference radiation photon energy on high-LET RBE: comparison of human peripheral lymphocytes and human--hamster hybrid AL cells},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {56},
	  pages = {79--87},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-016-0680-3},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-016-0680-3}
	}
	
Electron capture by vacancy-type defects in carbon-doped GaN studied using monoenergetic positron beams
A. Uedono, T. Tanaka, N. Ito, K. Nakahara, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt, S. Ishibashi and M. Sumiya; Thin Solid Films 639 (2017) 78 - 83.
Abstract: Vacancy-type defects in GaN with different carbon concentrations ([C]=2×1016−1×1018cm−3) were probed using monoenergetic positron beams. 1.5-μm-thick GaN layers were grown on Si substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra and positron lifetimes indicated that the major defect species in the GaN layers was a Ga vacancy coupled with nitrogen vacancies. The positron trapping rate of the defects decreased with increasing [C], which was attributed to the downward shift of the Fermi level position due to C acceptor and the resultant change in the defect charge state (neutral to positive). Under illumination, the defect charge state was changed from positive to neutral, which was attributed to the trapping of the excited electrons by the defects (V++e→V0). The effect of illumination was suppressed for the GaN layer with [C]≤1018cm−3, which was ascribed to the excellent electron trapping property of C in GaN.
BibTeX:
	@article{Uedono2017,
	  author = {Akira Uedono and Taketoshi Tanaka and Norikazu Ito and Ken Nakahara and Werner Egger and Christoph Hugenschmidt and Shoji Ishibashi and Masatomo Sumiya},
	  title = {Electron capture by vacancy-type defects in carbon-doped GaN studied using monoenergetic positron beams},
	  journal = {Thin Solid Films},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {639},
	  pages = {78 - 83},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609017306016},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2017.08.021}
	}
	
Live cell imaging of mitochondria following targeted irradiation in situ reveals rapid and highly localized loss of membrane potential
D.W.M. Walsh, C. Siebenwirth, C. Greubel, K. Ilicic, J. Reindl, S. Girst, G. Muggiolu, M. Simon, P. Barberet, H. Seznec, H. Zischka, G. Multhoff, T.E. Schmid and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 7 (2017) 46684.
Abstract: The reliance of all cell types on the mitochondrial function for survival makes mitochondria an interesting target when trying to understand their role in the cellular response to ionizing radiation. By harnessing highly focused carbon ions and protons using microbeams, we have performed in situ live cell imaging of the targeted irradiation of individual mitochondria stained with Tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), a cationic fluorophore which accumulates electrophoretically in polarized mitochondria. Targeted irradiation with both carbon ions and protons down to beam spots of <1 μm induced a near instant loss of mitochondrial TMRE fluorescence signal in the targeted area. The loss of TMRE after targeted irradiation represents a radiation induced change in mitochondrial membrane potential. This is the first time such mitochondrial responses have been documented in situ after targeted microbeam irradiation. The methods developed and the results obtained have the ability to shed new light on not just mitochondria’s response to radiation but to further elucidate a putative mechanism of radiation induced depolarization and mitochondrial response.
BibTeX:
	@article{Walsh2017,
	  author = {Walsh, Dietrich W. M. and Siebenwirth, Christian and Greubel, Christoph and Ilicic, Katarina and Reindl, Judith and Girst, Stefanie and Muggiolu, Giovanna and Simon, Marina and Barberet, Philippe and Seznec, Hervé and Zischka, Hans and Multhoff, Gabriele and Schmid, Thomas E. and Dollinger, Guenther},
	  title = {Live cell imaging of mitochondria following targeted irradiation in situ reveals rapid and highly localized loss of membrane potential},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2017},
	  volume = {7},
	  pages = {46684},
	  url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/srep46684},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46684}
	}
	

2016

Position and time resolution measurements with a microchannel plate image intensifier: A comparison of monolithic and pixelated CeBr3 scintillators
U. Ackermann, S. Eschbaumer, A. Bergmaier, W. Egger, P. Sperr, C. Greubel, B. Löwe, P. Schotanus and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 823 (2016) 56 - 64.
Abstract: Abstract To perform Four Dimensional Age Momentum Correlation measurements in the near future, where one obtains the positron lifetime in coincidence with the three dimensional momentum of the electron annihilating with the positron, we have investigated the time and position resolution of two CeBr3 scintillators (monolithic and an array of pixels) using a Photek IPD340/Q/BI/RS microchannel plate image intensifier. The microchannel plate image intensifier has an active diameter of 40 mm and a stack of two microchannel plates in chevron configuration. The monolithic CeBr3 scintillator was cylindrically shaped with a diameter of 40 mm and a height of 5 mm. The pixelated scintillator array covered the whole active area of the microchannel plate image intensifier and the shape of each pixel was 2.5⋅2.5⋅8 mm3 with a pixel pitch of 3.3 mm. For the monolithic setup the measured mean single time resolution was 330 ps (FWHM) at a gamma energy of 511 keV. No significant dependence on the position was detected. The position resolution at the center of the monolithic scintillator was about 2.5 mm (FWHM) at a gamma energy of 662 keV. The single time resolution of the pixelated crystal setup reached 320 ps (FWHM) in the region of the center of the active area of the microchannel plate image intensifier. The position resolution was limited by the cross-section of the pixels. The gamma energy for the pixel setup measurements was 511 keV.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ackermann2016,
	  author = {Ulrich Ackermann and Stephan Eschbaumer and Andreas Bergmaier and Werner Egger and Peter Sperr and Christoph Greubel and Benjamin Löwe and Paul Schotanus and Günther Dollinger},
	  title = {Position and time resolution measurements with a microchannel plate image intensifier: A comparison of monolithic and pixelated CeBr3 scintillators},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {823},
	  pages = {56 -- 64},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016890021630153X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2016.03.110}
	}
	
Four-dimensional positron age-momentum correlation
U. Ackermann, B. Löwe, M. Dickmann, J. Mitteneder, P. Sperr, W. Egger, M. Reiner and G. Dollinger; New Journal of Physics 18 (11) (2016) 113030.
Abstract: We have performed first four-dimensional age-momentum correlation (4D-AMOC) measurements at a pulsed high intensity positron micro beam and determined the absolute value of the three-dimensional momentum of the electrons annihilating with the positrons in coincidence with the positron age in the sample material. We operated two position sensitive detectors in coincidence to measure the annihilation radiation: a pixelated HPGe-detector and a microchannel plate image intensifier with a CeBr 3 scintillator pixel array. The transversal momentum resolution of the 4D-AMOC setup was measured to be about 17×10-3 (FWHM) and was circa 3.5 times larger than the longitudinal momentum resolution. The total time resolution was 540 ps (FWHM). We measured two samples: a gold foil and a carbon tape at a positron implantation energy of 2 keV. For each sample discrete electron momentum states and their respective positron lifetimes were extracted.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ackermann2016a,
	  author = {Ulrich Ackermann and Benjamin Löwe and Marcel Dickmann and Johannes Mitteneder and Peter Sperr and Werner Egger and Markus Reiner and Günther Dollinger},
	  title = {Four-dimensional positron age-momentum correlation},
	  journal = {New Journal of Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {18},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {113030},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/18/i=11/a=113030},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/18/11/113030}
	}
	
A New Nanobody-Based Biosensor to Study Endogenous PARP1 In Vitro and in Live Human Cells
A. Buchfellner, L. Yurlova, S. Nüske, A.M. Scholz, J. Bogner, B. Ruf, K. Zolghadr, S.E. Drexler, G.A. Drexler, S. Girst, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, T. Romer, A.A. Friedl and U. Rothbauer; PLOS ONE 11 (3) (2016) 1-23.
Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a key player in DNA repair, genomic stability and cell survival and it emerges as a highly relevant target for cancer therapies. To deepen our understanding of PARP biology and mechanisms of action of PARP1-targeting anti-cancer compounds, we generated a novel PARP1-affinity reagent, active both in vitro and in live cells. This PARP1-biosensor is based on a PARP1-specific single-domain antibody fragment (  15 kDa), termed nanobody, which recognizes the N-terminus of human PARP1 with nanomolar affinity. In proteomic approaches, immobilized PARP1 nanobody facilitates quantitative immunoprecipitation of functional, endogenous PARP1 from cellular lysates. For cellular studies, we engineered an intracellularly functional PARP1 chromobody by combining the nanobody coding sequence with a fluorescent protein sequence. By following the chromobody signal, we were for the first time able to monitor the recruitment of endogenous PARP1 to DNA damage sites in live cells. Moreover, tracing of the sub-nuclear translocation of the chromobody signal upon treatment of human cells with chemical substances enables real-time profiling of active compounds in high content imaging. Due to its ability to perform as a biosensor at the endogenous level of the PARP1 enzyme, the novel PARP1 nanobody is a unique and versatile tool for basic and applied studies of PARP1 biology and DNA repair.
BibTeX:
	@article{Buchfellner2016,
	  author = {Buchfellner, Andrea AND Yurlova, Larisa AND Nüske, Stefan AND Scholz, Armin M. AND Bogner, Jacqueline AND Ruf, Benjamin AND Zolghadr, Kourosh AND Drexler, Sophie E. AND Drexler, Guido A. AND Girst, Stefanie AND Greubel, Christoph AND Reindl, Judith AND Siebenwirth, Christian AND Romer, Tina AND Friedl, Anna A. AND Rothbauer, Ulrich},
	  title = {A New Nanobody-Based Biosensor to Study Endogenous PARP1 In Vitro and in Live Human Cells},
	  journal = {PLOS ONE},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {11},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {1-23},
	  url = {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151041},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151041}
	}
	
Radio frequency elevator for a pulsed positron beam
M. Dickmann, J. Mitteneder, G. Kögel, W. Egger, P. Sperr, U. Ackermann, C. Piochacz and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 821 (2016) 40 - 43.
Abstract: Abstract An elevator increases the potential energy of a particle beam with respect to ground potential without any alteration of kinetic energy and other beam parameters. This elevator is necessary for the implementation of the Munich Scanning Positron Microscope (SPM) at the intense positron source NEPOMUC at the research reactor FRM II in Munich. The principles of the rf elevator for pure electrostatically guided positrons are described. Measurements of beam quality behind the elevator are reported, which confirm that after the implementation of elevator and SPM at NEPOMUC the SPM can be operated at a considerably improved resolution (  0.3 μm) and event rate ( 3.7 kHz) compared to the laboratory based β+-source.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dickmann2016,
	  author = {Marcel Dickmann and Johannes Mitteneder and Gottfried Kögel and Werner Egger and Peter Sperr and Ulrich Ackermann and Christian Piochacz and Günther Dollinger},
	  title = {Radio frequency elevator for a pulsed positron beam},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {821},
	  pages = {40 -- 43},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900216300298},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2016.03.011}
	}
	
An apparatus for determining an energy deposition of an ion beam
G. Dollinger, K. Parodi, W. Assmann, V. Nitziachristos and S. Kellnberger; Patent, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80539 München, EP 2974 771, 2016.
BibTeX:
	@patent{Dollinger2016,
	  author = {Dollinger, Günther and Parodi, Katia and Assmann, Walter and Nitziachristos, Vasilis and Kellnberger, Stephan},
	  title = {An apparatus for determining an energy deposition of an ion beam},
	  type = {Patent},
	  holder = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80539 München},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {EP 2974 771},
	  url = {https://register.epo.org/application?number=EP14182487}
	}
	
A position sensitive time of flight detector for heavy ion ERD
S. Eschbaumer, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 371 (2016) 125-131.
Abstract: Abstract A new 2D position sensitive time of flight detector for heavy ion ERD has been developed. The detector features separate time and position measurement in a straight geometry. An electrostatic lens focuses the secondary electrons ejected from a carbon foil onto a channel plate stack maintaining the position information despite the electron momentum distribution. For position readout a 2D Backgammon anode is used. A position resolution of <0.6 mm (FWHM) and a time resolution of 96 ps (FWHM) is demonstrated.
BibTeX:
	@article{Eschbaumer2016,
	  author = {Eschbaumer, S. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {A position sensitive time of flight detector for heavy ion ERD},
	  booktitle = {The 22nd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA 2015)},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {371},
	  pages = {125--131},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X15008952},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.09.036}
	}
	
Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model
S. Girst, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, O. Zlobinskaya, D. Walsh, K. Ilicic, M. Aichler, A. Walch, J. Wilkens, G. Multhoff, G. Dollinger and T. Schmid; International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics 95 (2016) 234-241.
Abstract: Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model.

Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm2) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm2, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area.

Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields.

Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

BibTeX:
	@article{Girst2016,
	  author = {Girst, S. and Greubel, C. and Reindl, J. and Siebenwirth, C. and Zlobinskaya, O. and Walsh, D.W.M. and Ilicic, K. and Aichler, M. and Walch, A. and Wilkens, J.J. and Multhoff, G. and Dollinger, G. and Schmid, T.E.},
	  title = {Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model},
	  journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {95},
	  pages = {234--241},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360301615265856},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.10.020}
	}
	
Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of Kapton thin foils
G.S. Kanda, L. Ravelli, B. Löwe, W. Egger and D.J. Keeble; Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 49 (2) (2016) 025305.
Abstract: Variable energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (VE-PALS) experiments on polyimide material Kapton are reported. Thin Kapton foils are widely used in a variety of mechanical, electronic applications. PALS provides a sensitive probe of vacancy-related defects in a wide range of materials, including open volume in polymers. Varying the positron implantation energy enables direct measurement of thin foils. Thin Kapton foils are also commonly used to enclose the positron source material in conventional PALS measurements performed with unmoderated radionuclide sources. The results of depth-profiled positron lifetime measurements on 7.6 μm and 25 μm Kapton foils are reported and determine a dominant 385(1) ps lifetime component. The absence of significant nanosecond lifetime component due to positronium formation is confirmed.
BibTeX:
	@article{Kanda2016,
	  author = {Gurmeet S Kanda and Luca Ravelli and Benjamin Löwe and Werner Egger and David J Keeble},
	  title = {Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of Kapton thin foils},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {49},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {025305},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/49/i=2/a=025305},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/49/2/025305}
	}
	
Ionoacoustic tomography of the proton Bragg peak in combination with ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging
S. Kellnberger, W. Assmann, S. Lehrack, S. Reinhardt, P. Thirolf, D. Queirós, G. Sergiadis, G. Dollinger, K. Parodi and V. Ntziachristos; Scientific Reports 6 (2016) 29305.
Abstract: Ions provide a more advantageous dose distribution than photons for external beam radiotherapy, due to their so-called inverse depth dose deposition and, in particular a characteristic dose maximum at their end-of-range (Bragg peak). The favorable physical interaction properties enable selective treatment of tumors while sparing surrounding healthy tissue, but optimal clinical use requires accurate monitoring of Bragg peak positioning inside tissue. We introduce ionoacoustic tomography based on detection of ion induced ultrasound waves as a technique to provide feedback on the ion beam profile. We demonstrate for 20 MeV protons that ion range imaging is possible with submillimeter accuracy and can be combined with clinical ultrasound and optoacoustic tomography of similar precision. Our results indicate a simple and direct possibility to correlate, in-vivo and in real-time, the conventional ultrasound echo of the tumor region with ionoacoustic tomography. Combined with optoacoustic tomography it offers a well suited pre-clinical imaging system.
BibTeX:
	@article{Kellnberger2016,
	  author = {Kellnberger, Stephan and Assmann, Walter and Lehrack, Sebastian and Reinhardt, Sabine and Thirolf, Peter and Queirós, Daniel and Sergiadis, George and Dollinger, Günther and Parodi, Katia and Ntziachristos, Vasilis},
	  title = {Ionoacoustic tomography of the proton Bragg peak in combination with ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {6},
	  pages = {29305},
	  url = {http://www.nature.com/articles/srep29305},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29305}
	}
	
Material selection for hybrid floating gate NAND memory applications
J.G. Lisoni, L. Breuil, P. Blomme, J. Meersschaut, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, G. Van den Bosch and J. Van Houdt; physica status solidi (a) 213 (2) (2016) 237-244.
Abstract: This article discusses the materials aspects involved in the successful integration of hybrid floating gate (HFG) devices for NAND applications. In HFG, a Si(n type)p type) stack replaces the standard poly-Si FG. The high work function metal helps to enlarge the program window by limiting the leakage through the high-k intergate dielectric (IGD); the use of high-k IGD enables to scale the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the HFG cell. Our recent progresses in the understanding of the materials characteristics (IGD crystallinity and HFG-IGD thermal stability) that influence memory performance have allowed to demonstrate that HFG can be a solution to scale planar flash beyond the 20 nm node with the best preferable hybrid floating gate structure being a Ru-based HFG and a 3-layers IGD stack of HfAlO\Al2O3\HfAlO. Indeed, through the correct selection and combination of materials for process conditions that are relevant in flash memory fabrication flows, we will show that program windows can be suitably engineered. Finally, the materials challenges for keeping acceptable memory retention characteristics are also highlighted.
BibTeX:
	@article{Lisoni2016,
	  author = {Lisoni, Judit G. and Breuil, Laurent and Blomme, Pieter and Meersschaut, Johan and Bergmaier, Andreas and Dollinger, Günther and Van den Bosch, Geert and Van Houdt, Jan},
	  title = {Material selection for hybrid floating gate NAND memory applications},
	  journal = {physica status solidi (a)},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {213},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {237--244},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.201532829/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201532829}
	}
	
Hydrogen analysis depth calibration by CORTEO Monte-Carlo simulation
M. Moser, P. Reichart, A. Bergmaier, C. Greubel, F. Schiettekatte and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 371 (2016) 161-166.
Abstract: Abstract Hydrogen imaging with sub-μm lateral resolution and sub-ppm sensitivity has become possible with coincident proton-proton (pp) scattering analysis (Reichart et al., 2004). Depth information is evaluated from the energy sum signal with respect to energy loss of both protons on their path through the sample. In first order, there is no angular dependence due to elastic scattering. In second order, a path length effect due to different energy loss on the paths of the protons causes an angular dependence of the energy sum. Therefore, the energy sum signal has to be de-convoluted depending on the matrix composition, i.e. mainly the atomic number Z, in order to get a depth calibrated hydrogen profile. Although the path effect can be calculated analytically in first order, multiple scattering effects lead to significant deviations in the depth profile. Hence, in our new approach, we use the CORTEO Monte-Carlo code (Schiettekatte, 2008) in order to calculate the depth of a coincidence event depending on the scattering angle. The code takes individual detector geometry into account. In this paper we show, that the code correctly reproduces measured pp-scattering energy spectra with roughness effects considered. With more than 100 μm thick Mylar-sandwich targets (Si, Fe, Ge) we demonstrate the deconvolution of the energy spectra on our current multistrip detector at the microprobe SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator lab. As a result, hydrogen profiles can be evaluated with an accuracy in depth of about 1% of the sample thickness.
BibTeX:
	@article{Moser2016,
	  author = {Moser, M. and Reichart, P. and Bergmaier, A. and Greubel, C. and Schiettekatte, F. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Hydrogen analysis depth calibration by CORTEO Monte-Carlo simulation},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {371},
	  pages = {161-166},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X15009428},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.09.069}
	}
	
Depletion of Histone Demethylase Jarid1A Resulting in Histone Hyperacetylation and Radiation Sensitivity Does Not Affect DNA Double-Strand Break Repair
C. Penterling, G.A. Drexler, C. Böhland, R. Stamp, C. Wilke, H. Braselmann, R.B. Caldwell, J. Reindl, S. Girst, C. Greubel, C. Siebenwirth, W.Y. Mansour, K. Borgmann, G. Dollinger, K. Unger and A.A. Friedl; PLoS ONE 11 (6) (2016) e0156599.
Abstract: Histone demethylases have recently gained interest as potential targets in cancer treatment and several histone demethylases have been implicated in the DNA damage response. We investigated the effects of siRNA-mediated depletion of histone demethylase Jarid1A (KDM5A, RBP2), which demethylates transcription activating tri- and dimethylated lysine 4 at histone H3 (H3K4me3/me2), on growth characteristics and cellular response to radiation in several cancer cell lines. In unirradiated cells Jarid1A depletion lead to histone hyperacetylation while not affecting cell growth. In irradiated cells, depletion of Jarid1A significantly increased cellular radiosensitivity. Unexpectedly, the hyperacetylation phenotype did not lead to disturbed accumulation of DNA damage response and repair factors 53BP1, BRCA1, or Rad51 at damage sites, nor did it influence resolution of radiation-induced foci or rejoining of reporter constructs. We conclude that the radiation sensitivity observed following depletion of Jarid1A is not caused by a deficiency in repair of DNA double-strand breaks.
BibTeX:
	@article{Penterling2016,
	  author = {Penterling, Corina and Drexler, Guido A. and Böhland, Claudia and Stamp, Ramona and Wilke, Christina and Braselmann, Herbert and Caldwell, Randolph B. and Reindl, Judith and Girst, Stefanie and Greubel, Christoph and Siebenwirth, Christian and Mansour, Wael Y. and Borgmann, Kerstin and Dollinger, Günther and Unger, Kristian and Friedl, Anna A.},
	  title = {Depletion of Histone Demethylase Jarid1A Resulting in Histone Hyperacetylation and Radiation Sensitivity Does Not Affect DNA Double-Strand Break Repair},
	  journal = {PLoS ONE},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {11},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {e0156599},
	  url = {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156599},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156599}
	}
	
Superresolution light microscopy shows nanostructure of carbon ion radiation-induced DNA double-strand break repair foci
R.L. Perez, G. Best, N.H. Nicolay, C. Greubel, S. Rossberger, J. Reindl, G. Dollinger, K.-J. Weber, C. Cremer and P.E. Huber; Faseb 30 (2016) 2767-2776.
Abstract: Carbon ion radiation is a promising new form of radiotherapy for cancer, but the central question about the biologic effects of charged particle radiation is yet incompletely understood. Key to this question is the understanding of the interaction of ions with DNA in the cell’s nucleus. Induction and repair of DNA lesions including double-strand breaks (DSBs) are decisive for the cell. Several DSB repair markers have been used to investigate these processes microscopically, but the limited resolution of conventional microscopy is insufficient to provide structural insights. We have applied superresolution microscopy to overcome these limitations and analyze the fine structure of DSB repair foci. We found that the conventionally detected foci of the widely used DSB marker γH2AX (Ø700-1000 nm) were composed of elongated subfoci with a size of  100 nm consisting of even smaller subfoci elements (Ø40-60 nm). The structural organization of the subfoci suggests that they could represent the local chromatin structure of elementary DSB repair units at the DSB damage sites. Subfoci clusters may indicate induction of densely spaced DSBs, which are thought to be associated with the high biologic effectiveness of carbon ions. Superresolution microscopy might emerge as a powerful tool to improve our knowledge of interactions of ionizing radiation with cells.
BibTeX:
	@article{Perez2016,
	  author = {Ramon Lopez Perez and Gerrit Best and Nils H. Nicolay and Christoph Greubel and Sabrina Rossberger and Judith Reindl and Günther Dollinger and Klaus-Josef Weber and Christoph Cremer and Peter E. Huber},
	  title = {Superresolution light microscopy shows nanostructure of carbon ion radiation-induced DNA double-strand break repair foci},
	  journal = {Faseb},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {30},
	  pages = {2767-2776},
	  url = {http://www.fasebj.org/content/30/8/2767},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201500106R}
	}
	
Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron-deuteron scattering
P. Reichart, M. Moser, C. Greubel, K. Peeper and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 371 (2016) 178-184.
Abstract: Abstract Using 17 MeV deuterons as a micrometer focused primary beam, we performed deuterium microscopy by using the deuteron-deuteron (dd) scattering reaction. We describe our new box like detector setup consisting of four double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) with 16 strips on each side, each covering up to 0.5 sr solid angle for coincidence detection. This method becomes a valuable tool for studies of hydrogen incorporation or dynamic processes using deuterium tagging. The background from natural hydrocarbon or water contamination is reduced by the factor 150 ppm of natural abundance of deuterium in hydrogen. Deuterium energies of up to 25 MeV, available at the microprobe SNAKE, are ideal for the analysis of thin freestanding samples so that the scattered particles are transmitted to the detector. The differential cross section for the elastic scattering reaction is about the same as for pp-scattering ( 100 mb/sr). The main background due to nuclear reactions is outside the energy window of interest. Deuteron-proton (dp) scattering events give an additional signal for hydrogen atoms, so the H/D-ratio can be monitored in parallel.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reichart2016,
	  author = {Reichart, Patrick and Moser, Marcus and Greubel, Christoph and Peeper, Katrin and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron-deuteron scattering},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2016},
	  volume = {371},
	  pages = {178-184},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X15009489},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.09.075}
	}
	

2015

Time- and energy-resolution measurements of BaF2, BC-418, LYSO and CeBr3 scintillators
U. Ackermann, W. Egger, P. Sperr and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 786 (0) (2015) 5-11.
Abstract: We have investigated the time and energy resolution (TTiming, ∆E/E) of four different scintillator materials BaF2, BC-418, LYSO and CeBr3 at a gamma energy of 511&#xa0;keV in views of their possible usage for time, energy and position resolution for positron annihilation experiments. The shape of each scintillator was a cylinder with a diameter of 25&#xa0;mm and a height of 10&#xa0;mm readout by a Photonis XP2020/URQ photomultiplier tube. The best single time resolution was determined for each photomultiplier–scintillator setup in a three step optimization process. The optimized single time resolutions (FWHM) for BaF2, BC-418, LYSO and CeBr3 were 119&#xa0;ps, 117&#xa0;ps, 269&#xa0;ps and 127&#xa0;ps, respectively. We measured the energy resolution of the photomultiplier–scintillator setups which show a photopeak in the energy spectrum. The energy resolutions ∆E/E of BaF2, LYSO and CeBr3 were 9.8%, 9.7% and 5.4%, respectively. The overall most promising material for measuring simultaneously time, energy and position resolution for positron annihilation experiments seems to be CeBr3 due to its very good time and energy resolution characteristics.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ackermann2015,
	  author = {Ackermann, Ulrich and Egger, Werner and Sperr, Peter and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Time- and energy-resolution measurements of BaF2, BC-418, LYSO and CeBr3 scintillators},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {786},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {5--11},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900215003101},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2015.03.016}
	}
	
Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy
W. Assmann, S. Kellnberger, S. Reinhardt, S. Lehrack, A. Edlich, P.G. Thirolf, M. Moser, G. Dollinger, M. Omar, V. Ntziachristos and K. Parodi; Medical Physics 42 (2) (2015) 567-574.
Abstract: Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam.

Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE.

Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10e12 eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations.

Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound imaging. This acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical ultrasound and Bragg peak imaging, but further studies are required for translation of these findings to clinical application.

BibTeX:
	@article{Assmann2015,
	  author = {Assmann, W. and Kellnberger, S. and Reinhardt, S. and Lehrack, S. and Edlich, A. and Thirolf, P. G. and Moser, M. and Dollinger, G. and Omar, M. and Ntziachristos, V. and Parodi, K.},
	  title = {Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy},
	  journal = {Medical Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {42},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {567--574},
	  url = {http://scitation.aip.org/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/2/10.1118/1.4905047},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1118/1.4905047}
	}
	
Determination of molecular stopping cross section of 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl, 58Ni, 79Br, and 127I in silicon nitride
N. Barradas, A. Bergmaier, K. Mizohata, M. Msimanga, J. Räisänen, T. Sajavaara and A. Simon; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 360 (2015) 90-96.
Abstract: Silicon nitride is a technologically important material in a range of applications due to a combination of important properties. Ion beam analysis techniques, and in particular, heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis can be used to determine the stoichiometry of silicon nitride films, which often deviates from the ideal Si3N4, as well as the content of impurities such as hydrogen, even in the presence of other materials or in a matrix containing heavier elements. Accurate quantification of IBA results depends on the basic data used in the data analysis. Quantitative depth profiling relies on the knowledge of the stopping power cross sections of the materials studied for the ions involved, which in the case of HI-ERDA is both the primary beam, and the recoiled species. We measured the stopping cross section of 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl, 58Ni, 79Br, and 127I in a well-characterised silicon nitride membrane. The measurements were made by independent groups utilising different experimental setups and methods. In some cases there is extensive overlap of the energy range in different experiments, allowing a comparison of the different results. The four independent data sets reported in this work are in excellent agreement with each other, in the cases where similar energy ranges were measured. On the other hand, the data are in most cases higher than calculations made with the interpolative schemes SRIM and MSTAR together with the Bragg rule. Bett © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Barradas2015,
	  author = {Barradas, N.P. and Bergmaier, A. and Mizohata, K. and Msimanga, M. and Räisänen, J. and Sajavaara, T. and Simon, A.},
	  title = {Determination of molecular stopping cross section of 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl, 58Ni, 79Br, and 127I in silicon nitride},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {360},
	  pages = {90-96},
	  note = {cited By 2},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X15007697?via%3Dihub},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.08.034}
	}
	
Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE - a status report
G.A. Drexler, C. Siebenwirth, S.E. Drexler, S. Girst, C. Greubel, G. Dollinger and A.A. Friedl; Radiation Oncology 10 (2015) 42.
Abstract: Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins.
BibTeX:
	@article{Drexler2015,
	  author = {Drexler, Guido A. and Siebenwirth, Christian and Drexler, Sophie E. and Girst, Stefanie and Greubel, Christoph and Dollinger, Günther and Friedl, Anna A.},
	  title = {Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE - a status report},
	  journal = {Radiation Oncology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {10},
	  pages = {42},
	  url = {http://ro-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-015-0350-7},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-015-0350-7}
	}
	
Improved normal tissue protection by proton and X-ray microchannels compared to homogeneous field irradiation
S. Girst, C. Marx, E. Bräuer-Krisch, A. Bravin, S. Bartzsch, U. Oelfke, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, O. Zlobinskaya, G. Multhoff, G. Dollinger, T. Schmid and J. Wilkens; Physica Medica 31 (0) (2015) 615-620.
Abstract: The risk of developing normal tissue injuries often limits the radiation dose that can be applied to the tumour in radiation therapy. Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), a spatially fractionated photon radiotherapy is currently tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) to improve normal tissue protection. MRT utilizes an array of microscopically thin and nearly parallel X-ray beams that are generated by a synchrotron. At the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich focused proton microbeams (“proton microchannels”) are studied to improve normal tissue protection. Here, we comparatively investigate microbeam/microchannel irradiations with sub-millimetre X-ray versus proton beams to minimize the risk of normal tissue damage in a human skin model, in vitro. Skin tissues were irradiated with a mean dose of 2 Gy over the irradiated area either with parallel synchrotron-generated X-ray beams at the ESRF or with 20 MeV protons at SNAKE using four different irradiation modes: homogeneous field, parallel lines and microchannel applications using two different channel sizes. Normal tissue viability as determined in an MTT test was significantly higher after proton or X-ray microchannel irradiation compared to a homogeneous field irradiation. In line with these findings genetic damage, as determined by the measurement of micronuclei in keratinocytes, was significantly reduced after proton or X-ray microchannel compared to a homogeneous field irradiation. Our data show that skin irradiation using either X-ray or proton microchannels maintain a higher cell viability and DNA integrity compared to a homogeneous irradiation, and thus might improve normal tissue protection after radiation therapy.
BibTeX:
	@article{Girst2015,
	  author = {Girst, S. and Marx, C. and Bräuer-Krisch, E. and Bravin, A. and Bartzsch, S. and Oelfke, U. and Greubel, C. and Reindl, J. and Siebenwirth, C. and Zlobinskaya, O. and Multhoff, G. and Dollinger, G. and Schmid, T.E. and Wilkens, J.J.},
	  title = {Improved normal tissue protection by proton and X-ray microchannels compared to homogeneous field irradiation},
	  journal = {Physica Medica},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {31},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {615--620},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1120179715000952},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2015.04.004}
	}
	
The influence of the channel size on the reduction of side effects in microchannel proton therapy
S. Girst, C. Greubel, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, O. Zlobinskaya, G. Dollinger and T.E. Schmid; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 54 (3) (2015) 335-342.
Abstract: The potential of proton microchannel radiotherapy to reduce radiation effects in the healthy tissue but to keep tumor control the same as in conventional proton therapy is further elucidated. The microchannels spread on their way to the tumor tissue resulting in different fractions of the healthy tissue covered with doses larger than the tumor dose, while the tumor gets homogeneously irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing channel width on potential side effects in the normal tissue. A rectangular 180 × 180 µm2 and two Gaussian-type dose distributions of σ = 260 µm and σ = 520 µm with an interchannel distance of 1.8 mm have been applied by 20-MeV protons to a 3D human skin model in order to simulate the widened channels and to compare the irradiation effects at different endpoints to those of a homogeneous proton irradiation. The number of protons applied was kept constant at all irradiation modes resulting in the same average dose of 2 Gy. All kinds of proton microchannel irradiation lead to higher cell viability and produce significantly less genetic damage than homogeneous proton irradiation, but the reduction is lower for the wider channel sizes. Our findings point toward the application of microchannel irradiation for clinical proton or heavy ion therapy to further reduce damage of normal tissues while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose distribution inside the tumor.
BibTeX:
	@article{Girst2015a,
	  author = {Girst, Stefanie and Greubel, Christoph and Reindl, Judith and Siebenwirth, Christian and Zlobinskaya, Olga and Dollinger, Günther and Schmid, Thomas E.},
	  title = {The influence of the channel size on the reduction of side effects in microchannel proton therapy},
	  booktitle = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {54},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {335--342},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-015-0600-y},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-015-0600-y}
	}
	
Free Volume and Gas Permeation in Anthracene Maleimide-Based Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity
M.M. Khan, V. Filiz, T. Emmler, V. Abetz, T. Koschine, K. Rätzke, F. Faupel, W. Egger and L. Ravelli; Membranes 5 (2) (2015) 214.
Abstract: High free-volume copolymers were prepared via polycondensation with 2,3,5,6,-tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile (TFTPN) in which a portion of the 3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl- 1,1'-spirobisindane (TTSBI) of PIM-1 was replaced with dibutyl anthracene maleimide (4bIII). An investigation of free volume using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and gas permeation measurements was carried out for the thin film composite copolymer membranes and compared to PIM-1. The average free volume hole size and the gas permeance of the copolymer membranes increased with decreasing TTSBI content in the copolymer.
BibTeX:
	@article{Khan2015,
	  author = {Khan, Muntazim Munir and Filiz, Volkan and Emmler, Thomas and Abetz, Volker and Koschine, Toenjes and Rätzke, Klaus and Faupel, Franz and Egger, Werner and Ravelli, Luca},
	  title = {Free Volume and Gas Permeation in Anthracene Maleimide-Based Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity},
	  journal = {Membranes},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {5},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {214},
	  url = {http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0375/5/2/214},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes5020214}
	}
	
Correlation of gas permeation and free volume in new and used high free volume thin film composite membranes
T. Koschine, K. Rätzke, F. Faupel, M. Khan, T. Emmler, V. Filiz, V. Abetz, L. Ravelli and W. Egger; Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics 53 (3) (2015) 213-217.
Abstract: Polymeric gas separation membranes frequently undergo the phenomenon of aging, that is, performance parameters like permeability decrease with storage or usage time. Here, we report on a new approach of reducing aging by incorporation of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes into a polymer of intrinsic microporosity. Free volume and permeability measurements clearly show a reduced aging with incorporation of the carbon nantubes.
BibTeX:
	@article{Koschine2015,
	  author = {Koschine, T. and Rätzke, K. and Faupel, F. and Khan, M.M. and Emmler, T. and Filiz, V. and Abetz, V. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W.},
	  title = {Correlation of gas permeation and free volume in new and used high free volume thin film composite membranes},
	  journal = {Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {53},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {213--217},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/polb.23616/abstract;jsessionid=794C1386DED7BBED63EA824F50C74C4F.f03t01},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.23616}
	}
	
Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator
M. Moser, C. Greubel, W. Carli, K. Peeper, P. Reichart, B. Urban, T. Vallentin and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 348 (0) (2015) 34-42.
Abstract: Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction.
BibTeX:
	@article{Moser2015,
	  author = {Moser, M. and Greubel, C. and Carli, W. and Peeper, K. and Reichart, P. and Urban, B. and Vallentin, T. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {348},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {34--42},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X14009495},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2014.11.068}
	}
	
Nanoscopic exclusion between Rad51 and 53BP1 after ion irradiation in human HeLa cells
J. Reindl, G.A. Drexler, S. Girst, C. Greubel, C. Siebenwirth, S.E. Drexler, G. Dollinger and A.A. Friedl; Physical Biology 12 (6) (2015) 066005.
Abstract: Many proteins involved in detection, signalling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) accumulate in large number in the vicinity of DSB sites, forming so called foci. Emerging evidence suggests that these foci are sub-divided in structural or functional domains. We use stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to investigate localization of mediator protein 53BP1 and recombination factor Rad51 after irradiation of cells with low linear energy transfer (LET) protons or high LET carbon ions. With a resolution better than 100 nm, STED microscopy and image analysis using a newly developed analyzing algorithm, the reduced product of the differences from the mean, allowed us to demonstrate that with both irradiation types Rad51 occupies spherical regions of about 200 nm diameter. These foci locate within larger 53BP1 accumulations in regions of local 53BP1 depletion, similar to what has been described for the localization of Brca1, CtIP and RPA. Furthermore, localization relative to 53BP1 and size of Rad51 foci was not different after irradiation with low and high LET radiation. As expected, 53BP1 foci induced by low LET irradiation mostly contained one Rad51 focal structure, while after high LET irradiation, most foci contained >1 Rad51 accumulation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reindl2015,
	  author = {Judith Reindl and Guido A Drexler and Stefanie Girst and Christoph Greubel and Christian Siebenwirth and Sophie E Drexler and Günther Dollinger and Anna A Friedl},
	  title = {Nanoscopic exclusion between Rad51 and 53BP1 after ion irradiation in human HeLa cells},
	  journal = {Physical Biology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {12},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {066005},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1478-3975/12/i=6/a=066005},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1478-3975/12/6/066005}
	}
	
Investigation of EBT2 and EBT3 films for proton dosimetry in the 4–20 MeV energy range
S. Reinhardt, M. Würl, C. Greubel, N. Humble, J. Wilkens, M. Hillbrand, A. Mairani, W. Assmann and K. Parodi; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 54 (1) (2015) 71-79.
Abstract: Radiochromic films such as Gafchromic EBT2 or EBT3 films are widely used for dose determination in radiation therapy because they offer a superior spatial resolution compared to any other digital dosimetric 2D detector array. The possibility to detect steep dose gradients is not only attractive for intensity-modulated radiation therapy with photons but also for intensity-modulated proton therapy. Their characteristic dose rate-independent response makes radiochromic films also attractive for dose determination in cell irradiation experiments using laser-driven ion accelerators, which are currently being investigated as future medical ion accelerators. However, when using these films in ion beams, the energy-dependent dose response in the vicinity of the Bragg peak has to be considered. In this work, the response of these films for low-energy protons is investigated. To allow for reproducible and background-free irradiation conditions, the films were exposed to mono-energetic protons from an electrostatic accelerator, in the 4–20 MeV energy range. For comparison, irradiation with clinical photons was also performed. It turned out that in general, EBT2 and EBT3 films show a comparable performance. For example, dose–response curves for photons and protons with energies as low as 11 MeV show almost no differences. However, corrections are required for proton energies below 11 MeV. Care has to be taken when correction factors are related to an average LET from depth–dose measurements, because only the dose-averaged LET yields similar results as obtained in mono-energetic measurements.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reinhardt2015,
	  author = {Reinhardt, S. and Würl, M. and Greubel, C. and Humble, N. and Wilkens, J.J. and Hillbrand, M. and Mairani, A. and Assmann, W. and Parodi, K.},
	  title = {Investigation of EBT2 and EBT3 films for proton dosimetry in the 4–20 MeV energy range},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {54},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {71--79},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-014-0581-2},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-014-0581-2}
	}
	
Sub-micrometer 20 MeV protons or 45 MeV lithium spot irradiation enhances yields of dicentric chromosomes due to clustering of DNA double-strand breaks
T. Schmid, W. Friedland, C. Greubel, S. Girst, J. Reindl, C. Siebenwirth, K. Ilicic, E. Schmid, G. Multhoff, E. Schmitt, P. Kundrát and G. Dollinger; Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 793 (2015) 30-40.
Abstract: Abstract In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, micrometer-scale double-strand break (DSB) clustering is inherently interlinked with clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale relevant for DSB induction. Due to this limitation, the role of the micrometer and nanometer scales in diverse biological endpoints cannot be fully separated. To address this issue, hybrid human-hamster AL cells have been irradiated with 45 MeV (60 keV/μm) lithium ions or 20 MeV (2.6 keV/μm) protons quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5 × 1 μm2 spots on regular matrix patterns (point distances up to 10.6 × 10.6 μm), with pre-defined particle numbers per spot to provide the same mean dose of 1.7 Gy. The yields of dicentrics and their distribution among cells have been scored. In parallel, track-structure based simulations of DSB induction and chromosome aberration formation with PARTRAC have been performed. The results show that the sub-micrometer beam focusing does not enhance DSB yields, but significantly affects the DSB distribution within the nucleus and increases the chance to form DSB pairs in close proximity, which may lead to increased yields of chromosome aberrations. Indeed, the experiments show that focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6 μm grid induces two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a quasi-homogenous irradiation. The simulations reproduce the data in part, but in part suggest more complex behavior such as saturation or overkill not seen in the experiments. The direct experimental demonstration that sub-micrometer clustering of DSB plays a critical role in the induction of dicentrics improves the knowledge on the mechanisms by which these lethal lesions arise, and indicates how the assumptions of the biophysical model could be improved. It also provides a better understanding of the increased biological effectiveness of high-LET radiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2015,
	  author = {Schmid, T.E. and Friedland, W. and Greubel, C. and Girst, S. and Reindl, J. and Siebenwirth, C. and Ilicic, K. and Schmid, E. and Multhoff, G. and Schmitt, E. and Kundrát, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Sub-micrometer 20 MeV protons or 45 MeV lithium spot irradiation enhances yields of dicentric chromosomes due to clustering of DNA double-strand breaks},
	  booktitle = {Insights into formation and consequences of chromosome aberrations: Report on the 11th International Symposium on Chromosomal Aberrations (ISCA 11), Rhodes , Greece, September 12-14, 2014},
	  journal = {Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {793},
	  pages = {30--40},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383571815002053},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.07.015}
	}
	
Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE
C. Siebenwirth, C. Greubel, S. Drexler, S. Girst, J. Reindl, D. Walsh, G. Dollinger, A. Friedl, T. Schmid and G. Drexler; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 348 (0) (2015) 137-142.
Abstract: In the last 10 years the ion microbeam SNAKE, installed at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, has been successfully used for radiobiological experiments by utilizing pattern irradiation without targeting single cells. Now for targeted irradiation of cellular substructures a precise irradiation device was added to the live cell irradiation setup at SNAKE. It combines a sub-micrometer single ion irradiation facility with a high resolution optical fluorescence microscope. Most systematic errors can be reduced or avoided by using the same light path in the microscope for beam spot verification as well as for and target recognition. In addition online observation of the induced cellular responses is possible. The optical microscope and the beam delivering system are controlled by an in-house developed software which integrates the open-source image analysis software, CellProfiler, for semi-automatic target recognition.
BibTeX:
	@article{Siebenwirth2015,
	  author = {Siebenwirth, C. and Greubel, C. and Drexler, S.E. and Girst, S. and Reindl, J. and Walsh, D.W.M. and Dollinger, G. and Friedl, A.A. and Schmid, T.E. and Drexler, G.A.},
	  title = {Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {348},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {137--142},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X15000865},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.01.064}
	}
	
Quantification of water in hydrous ringwoodite
S.-M. Thomas, S.D. Jacobsen, C.R. Bina, P. Reichart, M. Moser, E.H. Hauri, M. Koch-Müller, J.R. Smyth and G. Dollinger; Frontiers in Earth Science 2 (2015) 38/1-10.
Abstract: Ringwoodite, γ-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4, in the lower 150 km of Earth's mantle transition zone (410–660 km depth) can incorporate up to 1.5–2 wt% H2O as hydroxyl defects. We present a mineral-specific IR calibration for the absolute water content in hydrous ringwoodite by combining results from Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and proton-proton (pp)-scattering on a suite of synthetic Mg- and Fe-bearing hydrous ringwoodites. H2O concentrations in the crystals studied here range from 0.46 to 1.7 wt% H2O (absolute methods), with the maximum H2O in the same sample giving 2.5 wt% by SIMS calibration. Anchoring our spectroscopic results to absolute H-atom concentrations from pp-scattering measurements, we report frequency-dependent integrated IR-absorption coefficients for water in ringwoodite ranging from 78,180 to 158,880 Lmol−1cm−2, depending upon frequency of the OH absorption. We further report a linear wavenumber IR calibration for H2O quantification in hydrous ringwoodite across the Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO4 solid solution, which will lead to more accurate estimations of the water content in both laboratory-grown and naturally occurring ringwoodites. Re-evaluation of the IR spectrum for a natural hydrous ringwoodite inclusion in diamond from the study of Pearson et al. (2014) indicates the crystal contains 1.43 ± 0.27 wt% H2O, thus confirming near-maximum amounts of H2O for this sample from the transition zone.
BibTeX:
	@article{Thomas2015,
	  author = {Thomas, Sylvia-Monique and Jacobsen, Steven D. and Bina, Craig R. and Reichart, Patrick and Moser, Marcus and Hauri, Erik H. and Koch-Müller, Monika and Smyth, Joseph R. and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Quantification of water in hydrous ringwoodite},
	  journal = {Frontiers in Earth Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {2},
	  pages = {38/1-10},
	  url = {http://www.frontiersin.org/earth_and_planetary_materials/10.3389/feart.2014.00038/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2014.00038}
	}
	
A microbeam slit system for high beam currents
T. Vallentin, M. Moser, S. Eschbaumer, C. Greubel, T. Haase, P. Reichart, T. Rösch and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 348 (0) (2015) 43-47.
Abstract: A new microbeam slit system for high beam currents of 10 μA was built up to improve the brightness transport of a proton beam with a kinetic energy of up to 25 MeV into the microprobe SNAKE. The new slit system features a position accuracy of less than 1 μm under normal operating conditions and less than 2 μm if the beam is switched on and off. The thermal management with a powerful watercooling and potential-free thermocouple feedback controlled heating cables is optimized for constant slit aperture at thermal power input of up to 250 W. The transparent zone is optimized to 0.7 μm due to the use of tungsten formed to a cylindrical surface with a radius r = 100 mm and mechanically lapped surface to minimize small angle scattering effects and to minimize the number of ions passing the slits with low energy loss. Electrical isolation of the slit tip enables slit current monitoring, e.g. for tandem accelerator feedback control. With the ability to transport up to 10 μA of protons with the new microslit system, the brightness B_exp transported into the microprobe was increased by a factor of 2 compared to low current injection using the old slit system.
BibTeX:
	@article{Vallentin2015,
	  author = {Vallentin, T. and Moser, M. and Eschbaumer, S. and Greubel, C. and Haase, T. and Reichart, P. and Rösch, T. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {A microbeam slit system for high beam currents},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2015},
	  volume = {348},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {43--47},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X14010313},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2014.12.015}
	}
	

2014

Interphase of a polymer at a solid interface
H.J. Butt, H. Duran, W. Egger, F. Faupel, V. Harmandaris, S. Harms, K. Johnston, K. Kremer, F.Y. Lin, L. Lue, C. Ohrt, K. Rätzke, L. Ravelli, W. Steffen and S.D.B. Vianna; Macromolecules 47 (23) (2014) 8459-8465.
Abstract: Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model of atactic short-chain polystyrene between gold surfaces (111) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy experiments on similar polystyrene thin films on gold were performed. Results from both approaches show that the free volume voids in the film have a slightly smaller average size than in bulk polystyrene. In agreement to that the existence of an interphase of higher density at the polymer-solid substrate interface is shown both by the simulation as well as in the experiment. The average shape of the voids is similar in the bulk and the film.
BibTeX:
	@article{Butt2014,
	  author = {Butt, H. J. and Duran, H. and Egger, W. and Faupel, F. and Harmandaris, V. and Harms, S. and Johnston, K. and Kremer, K. and Lin, F. Y. and Lue, L. and Ohrt, C. and Rätzke, K. and Ravelli, L. and Steffen, W. and Vianna, S. D. B.},
	  title = {Interphase of a polymer at a solid interface},
	  journal = {Macromolecules},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {47},
	  number = {23},
	  pages = {8459-8465},
	  url = {http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ma501747j},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/ma501747j}
	}
	
Interphases in polymer solid-contacts and nanocomposites probed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy
C. Ohrt, T. Koschine, S. Harms, F. Faupel, K. Rätzke, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, L. Willner and G. Schneider; Soft Materials 12 (2014) S135-S141.
Abstract: At polymer-solid contacts with thermoplastic polymers, the chain characteristics can deviate from the bulk on a length-scale of several nanometer in the so-called interphase. Such an interphase depends on the interaction between respective macromolecule and substrate, and affects the free volume in the polymer. Here, we review our experiments on the characterization of the free volume by positron lifetime spectroscopy at planar and curved interfaces. For Teflon AF on silicon, we identify a layer of increased density, corresponding to an interphase width of some 10 nm. PEP based nanocomposites with functionalized silica show no interphase, whereas for functionalized POSS an interphase is detected.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ohrt2014,
	  author = {Ohrt, C. and Koschine, T. and Harms, S. and Faupel, F. and Rätzke, K. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Willner, L. and Schneider, G.J.},
	  title = {Interphases in polymer solid-contacts and nanocomposites probed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Soft Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {12},
	  pages = {S135-S141},
	  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1539445X.2014.957835},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/1539445X.2014.957835}
	}
	
Three-dimensional microscopy of deuterium in tungsten
K. Peeper, M. Moser, P. Reichart, E. Markina, S. Elgeti (Lindig), M. Balden, T. Schwarz-Selinger, M. Mayer and G. Dollinger; Physica Scripta T159 (2014) 014070.
Abstract: The hydrogen isotope retention in tungsten is an important issue for fusion devices. In this paper we study the possibility of using a μ m-focused deuterium beam in order to quantify deuterium distributions in microscopic dimensions. Due to the lack of cross-section data for deuteron-deuteron-scattering (dd-scattering) a validated reference sample is needed. For this purpose we used a15 μ m thick aluminum foil covered by a-C:D-layers that have been deposited in a CD 4 plasma discharge from both sides. At the SNAKE facility of the Munich tandem accelerator we already established a three-dimensional microscopy of hydrogen using protons within an energy range between 17 and 25 MeV. Now, we have tested the possibility for deuteron microscopy. As a first application we analyzed a25 μ m foil implanted with 2.0 × 10 20 atom cm −2 deuterons.
BibTeX:
	@article{Peeper2014,
	  author = {Peeper, K. and Moser, M. and Reichart, P. and Markina, E. and Elgeti (Lindig), S. and Balden, M. and Schwarz-Selinger, Th. and Mayer, M. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Three-dimensional microscopy of deuterium in tungsten},
	  journal = {Physica Scripta},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {T159},
	  pages = {014070},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1402-4896/2014/i=T159/a=014070},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-8949/2014/T159/014070}
	}
	
New experimental molecular stopping cross section data of Al 2O3, for heavy ions
A. Simon, N. Pessoa Barradas, A. Bergmaier, M. Msimanga, I. Bogdanovic Radovic, J. Räisänen and T. Sajavaara; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 332 (2014) 341-345.
Abstract: Molecular stopping cross section data of Al2O3, for heavy ions of 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl, 79Br within the energy range of 0.01-1.0 MeV/nucleon were measured. Both direct transmission and bulk analysis methods were applied. Stopping cross sections were calculated both with the SRIM and MSTAR codes. Evaluation and intercomparison of the new data with the calculated and previously measured ones are reported in this paper.
BibTeX:
	@article{Simon2014,
	  author = {Simon, A. and Pessoa Barradas, N. and Bergmaier, A. and Msimanga, M. and Bogdanovic Radovic, I. and Räisänen, J. and Sajavaara, T.},
	  title = {New experimental molecular stopping cross section data of Al 2O3, for heavy ions},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {332},
	  pages = {341-345},
	  note = {cited By 5},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X14003498?via%3Dihub},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.092}
	}
	
PLEPS study of ions implanted RAFM steels
S. Sojak, V. Slugeň, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, M. Petriska, J. Veterníková, M. Stacho and V. Sabelová; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 505 (1) (2014) 012016.
Abstract: Current nuclear power plants (NPP) require radiation, heat and mechanical resistance of their structural materials with the ability to stay operational during NPP planned lifetime. Radiation damage much higher, than in the current NPP, is expected in new generations of nuclear power plants, such as Generation IV and fusion reactors. Investigation of perspective structural materials for new generations of nuclear power plants is among others focused on study of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. These steels have good characteristics as reduced activation, good resistance to volume swelling, good radiation, and heat resistance. Our experiments were focused on the study of microstructural changes of binary Fe-Cr alloys with different chromium content after irradiation, experimentally simulated by ion implantations. Fe-Cr alloys were examined, by Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) at FRM II reactor in Garching (Munich), after helium ion implantations at the dose of 0.1 C/cm(2). The investigation was focused on the chromium effect and the radiation defects resistivity. In particular, the vacancy type defects (monovacancies, vacancy clusters) have been studied. Based on our previous results achieved by conventional lifetime technique, the decrease of the defects size with increasing content of chromium is expected also for PLEPS measurements.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sojak2014,
	  author = {Sojak, S. and Slugeň, V. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Petriska, M. and Veterníková, J. and Stacho, M. and Sabelová, V.},
	  title = {PLEPS study of ions implanted RAFM steels},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {505},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012016},
	  editor = {Hugenschmidt, C and Piochacz, C},
	  note = {13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS), Tech Univ Munchen, Munich, GERMANY, SEP 15-20, 2013},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/505/1/012016/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/505/1/012016}
	}
	
Structural evolution and medium range order in permanently densified vitreous SiO2
M. Zanatta, G. Baldi, R.S. Brusa, W. Egger, A. Fontana, E. Gilioli, S. Mariazzi, G. Monaco, L. Ravelli and F. Sacchetti; Physical Review Letters 112 (4) (2014) 045501.
Abstract: Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is employed to measure the size of the interstitial void spaces characterizing the structure of a set of permanently densified SiO2 glasses. The average volume of the voids is markedly affected by the densification process and linearly shrinks by almost an order of magnitude after a relative density variation of 22%. In addition, x-ray diffraction shows that this change of density does not modify appreciably the short range order, which remains organized in SiO4 tetrahedra. These results strongly suggest a porous medium description for v-SiO2 glasses where the compressibility and the medium range order are dominated by the density variation of the voids volume up to densities close to that of α-quartz. © 2014 American Physical Society.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zanatta2014,
	  author = {Zanatta, M. and Baldi, G. and Brusa, R. S. and Egger, W. and Fontana, A. and Gilioli, E. and Mariazzi, S. and Monaco, G. and Ravelli, L. and Sacchetti, F.},
	  title = {Structural evolution and medium range order in permanently densified vitreous SiO2},
	  journal = {Physical Review Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {112},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {045501},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.045501},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.045501}
	}
	
The Effects of Ultra-High Dose Rate Proton Irradiation on Growth Delay in the Treatment of Human Tumor Xenografts in Nude Mice
O. Zlobinskaya, C. Siebenwirth, C. Greubel, V. Hable, R. Hertenberger, N. Humble, S. Reinhardt, D. Michalski, B. Röper, G. Multhoff, G. Dollinger, J. Wilkens and T. Schmid; Radiation Research 181 (2) (2014) 177-183.
Abstract: The new technology of laser-driven ion acceleration (LDA) has shown the potential for driving highly brilliant particle beams. Laser-driven ion acceleration differs from conventional proton sources by its ultra-high dose rate, whose radiobiological impact should be investigated thoroughly before adopting current clinical dose concepts. The growth of human FaDu tumors transplanted onto the hind leg of nude mice was measured sonographically. Tumors were irradiated with 20 Gy of 23 MeV protons at pulsed mode with single pulses of 1 ns duration or continuous mode (?100 ms) in comparison to controls and to a dose-response curve for 6 MV photons. Tumor growth delay and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were calculated for all irradiation modes. The mean target dose reconstructed from Gafchromic films was 17.4 ± 0.8 Gy for the pulsed and 19.7 ± 1.1 Gy for the continuous irradiation mode. The mean tumor growth delay was 34 ± 6 days for pulsed, 35 ± 6 days for continuous protons, and 31 ± 7 days for photons 20 ± 1.2 Gy, resulting in RBEs of 1.22 ± 0.19 for pulsed and 1.10 ± 0.18 for continuous protons, respectively. In summary, protons were found to be significantly more effective in reducing the tumor volume than photons (P < 0.05). Together with the results of previous in vitro experiments, the in vivo data reveal no evidence for a substantially different radiobiology that is associated with the ultra-high dose rate of protons that might be generated from advanced laser technology in the future.
The new technology of laser-driven ion acceleration (LDA) has shown the potential for driving highly brilliant particle beams. Laser-driven ion acceleration differs from conventional proton sources by its ultra-high dose rate, whose radiobiological impact should be investigated thoroughly before adopting current clinical dose concepts. The growth of human FaDu tumors transplanted onto the hind leg of nude mice was measured sonographically. Tumors were irradiated with 20 Gy of 23 MeV protons at pulsed mode with single pulses of 1 ns duration or continuous mode (?100 ms) in comparison to controls and to a dose-response curve for 6 MV photons. Tumor growth delay and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were calculated for all irradiation modes. The mean target dose reconstructed from Gafchromic films was 17.4 ± 0.8 Gy for the pulsed and 19.7 ± 1.1 Gy for the continuous irradiation mode. The mean tumor growth delay was 34 ± 6 days for pulsed, 35 ± 6 days for continuous protons, and 31 ± 7 days for photons 20 ± 1.2 Gy, resulting in RBEs of 1.22 ± 0.19 for pulsed and 1.10 ± 0.18 for continuous protons, respectively. In summary, protons were found to be significantly more effective in reducing the tumor volume than photons (P < 0.05). Together with the results of previous in vitro experiments, the in vivo data reveal no evidence for a substantially different radiobiology that is associated with the ultra-high dose rate of protons that might be generated from advanced laser technology in the future.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zlobinskaya2014,
	  author = {Zlobinskaya, O. and Siebenwirth, C. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Hertenberger, R. and Humble, N. and Reinhardt, S. and Michalski, D. and Röper, B. and Multhoff, G. and Dollinger, G. and Wilkens, J.J. and Schmid, T.E.},
	  title = {The Effects of Ultra-High Dose Rate Proton Irradiation on Growth Delay in the Treatment of Human Tumor Xenografts in Nude Mice},
	  booktitle = {Radiation Research},
	  journal = {Radiation Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2014},
	  volume = {181},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {177--183},
	  url = {http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/abs/10.1667/RR13464.1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1667/RR13464.1}
	}
	

2013

Development of a new time and position resolving detector for the pulsed low energy positron system PLEPS
U. Ackermann, W. Egger, P. Sperr, B. Löwe, L. Ravelli, G. Kögel, G. Dollinger and O. Jagutzki; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 443 (1) (2013) 012095.
Abstract: The pulsed low energy positron system PLEPS at the Munich research reactor FRM-II is a user facility for depth resolved positron lifetime measurements. Besides positron lifetime measurements 2D-AMOC (Two Dimensional Age Momentum Correlation) experiments are also possible. 2D-AMOC provides in coincidence the lifetime of the positron and the longitudinal momentum distribution of the annihilated electron. It would be of great scientific concern to measure simultaneously the entire 3D-momentum distribution of the electron annihilating with the positron and the corresponding lifetime of the positron (4D-AMOC). To perform 4D-AMOC measurements a time and position resolving detector is required in coincidence with a pixelated Germanium detector. Therefore a time and spatially resolving detector is currently developed at our institute with envisaged time resolution of 100 ps (FWHM) and a spatial resolution of about 2.6 mm (FWHM) over an area of 12 cm2. First test measurements have been carried out with a 25 mm diameter MCP (Micro Channel Plate) image intensifier and with special delay-line anode readout for the spatial information. Up to now 178 ps (FWHM) time resolution and on average 3.4 mm (FWHM) position resolution have been achieved with BaF2 as scintillator material and a 60Co source.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ackermann2013,
	  author = {Ackermann, U. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Löwe, B. and Ravelli, L. and Kögel, G. and Dollinger, G. and Jagutzki, O.},
	  title = {Development of a new time and position resolving detector for the pulsed low energy positron system PLEPS},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {443},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012095},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/443/1/012095/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012095}
	}
	
Surfaces of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals probed by thin-film positron annihilation spectroscopy
L. Chai, W. Al-Sawai, Y. Gao, A. Houtepen, P. Mijnarends, B. Barbiellini, H. Schut, L. Van Schaarenburg, M. Van Huis, L. Ravelli, W. Egger, S. Kaprzyk, A. Bansil and S. Eijt; APL Materials 1 (2) (2013) 022111.
Abstract: Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron-electron momentum density (PEMD) studies on multilayers of PbSe nanocrystals (NCs), supported by transmission electron microscopy, show that positrons are strongly trapped at NC surfaces, where they provide insight into the surface composition and electronic structure of PbSe NCs. Our analysis indicates abundant annihilation of positrons with Se electrons at the NC surfaces and with O electrons of the oleic ligands bound to Pb ad-atoms at the NC surfaces, which demonstrates that positrons can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface physics and chemistry of nanocrystals inside multilayers. Ab initio electronic structure calculations provide detailed insight in the valence and semi-core electron contributions to the positron-electron momentum density of PbSe. Both lifetime and PEMD are found to correlate with changes in the particle morphology characteristic of partial ligand removal.
BibTeX:
	@article{Chai2013,
	  author = {Chai, L. and Al-Sawai, W. and Gao, Y. and Houtepen, A.J. and Mijnarends, P.E. and Barbiellini, B. and Schut, H. and Van Schaarenburg, L.C. and Van Huis, M.A. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W. and Kaprzyk, S. and Bansil, A. and Eijt, S.W.H.},
	  title = {Surfaces of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals probed by thin-film positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  journal = {APL Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {1},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {022111},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4818001},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4818001}
	}
	
Subdiffusion Supports Joining Of Correct Ends During Repair Of DNA Double-Strand Breaks
S. Girst, V. Hable, G.A. Drexler, C. Greubel, C. Siebenwirth, M. Haum, A.A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; Scientific Reports 3 (2013) 2511.
Abstract: The mobility of damaged chromatin regions in the nucleus may affect the probability of mis-repair. In this work, live-cell observation and distance tracking of GFP-tagged DNA damage response protein MDC1 was used to study the random-walk behaviour of chromatin domains containing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Our measurements indicate a subdiffusion-type random walk process with similar time dependence for isolated and clustered DSBs that were induced by 20 MeV proton or 43 MeV carbon ion micro-irradiation. As compared to normal diffusion, subdiffusion enhances the probability that both ends of a DSB meet, thus promoting high efficiency DNA repair. It also limits their probability of long-range movements and thus lowers the probability of mis-rejoining and chromosome aberrations.
BibTeX:
	@article{Girst2013,
	  author = {Girst, S. and Hable, V. and Drexler, G. A. and Greubel, C. and Siebenwirth, C. and Haum, M. and Friedl, A. A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Subdiffusion Supports Joining Of Correct Ends During Repair Of DNA Double-Strand Breaks},
	  journal = {Scientific Reports},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {3},
	  pages = {2511},
	  url = {http://www.nature.com/articles/srep02511},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02511}
	}
	
Nonstoichiometry accommodation in SrTiO3 thin films studied by positron annihilation and electron microscopy
D. Keeble, S. Wicklein, L. Jin, C. Jia, W. Egger and R. Dittmann; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 87 (19) (2013) 195409.
Abstract: Accommodation of nonstoichiometry in SrTiO3 pulsed laser deposited (PLD) films was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Increasing PLD laser fluence changed the stoichiometry from Ti to Sr deficient. Cation vacancy defects were detected, and the concentration ratio of Sr to Ti vacancies, [VSr]/[VTi], was observed to increase systematically in the Sr-deficient region, although no change in the electron microscopy lattice images was detected. Increasing Ti deficiency resulted in the accommodation of SrO layers in planar defects, and in the formation of vacancy cluster defects. A change from VTi to VSr defect positron trapping was also detected.
BibTeX:
	@article{Keeble2013,
	  author = {Keeble, D.J. and Wicklein, S. and Jin, L. and Jia, C.L. and Egger, W. and Dittmann, R.},
	  title = {Nonstoichiometry accommodation in SrTiO3 thin films studied by positron annihilation and electron microscopy},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {87},
	  number = {19},
	  pages = {195409},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.195409},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.195409}
	}
	
Accurate determination of optical bandgap and lattice parameters of Zn 1-xMgxO epitaxial films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire
B. Laumer, F. Schuster, M. Stutzmann, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger and M. Eickhoff; Journal of Applied Physics 113 (23) (2013) 233512.
Abstract: Zn1-xMgxO epitaxial films with Mg concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire substrates. Precise determination of the Mg concentration x was performed by elastic recoil detection analysis. The bandgap energy was extracted from absorption measurements with high accuracy taking electron-hole interaction and exciton-phonon complexes into account. From these results a linear relationship between bandgap energy and Mg concentration is established for x ≤ 0.3. Due to alloy disorder, the increase of the photoluminescence emission energy with Mg concentration is less pronounced. An analysis of the lattice parameters reveals that the epitaxial films grow biaxially strained on a-plane sapphire.
BibTeX:
	@article{Laumer2013,
	  author = {Laumer, B. and Schuster, F. and Stutzmann, M. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Eickhoff, M.},
	  title = {Accurate determination of optical bandgap and lattice parameters of Zn 1-xMgxO epitaxial films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {113},
	  number = {23},
	  pages = {233512},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)1},
	  url = {http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4811693},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4811693}
	}
	
A position sensitive germanium detector for the measurement of angular deviation of annihilation radiation
B. Löwe, M. Reiner, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt and G. Dollinger; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 443 (1) (2013) 012098.
Abstract: To improve electron momentum sensitivity in Coincidence Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (CDBS) measurements it is envisaged to measure the angular correlation of annihilation radiation along with the energy of both annihilation photons. For this purpose two position sensitive 36-fold pixelated, planar germanium detectors will be utilized. The position sensitivity of one of those detectors has been tested with a collimated gamma source. A data acquisition system consisting of 37 sampling analogue-to-digital converters with PC based online/off-line processing has been installed. A position sensitivity of 1.6 mm has been achieved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Loewe2013,
	  author = {Löwe, B. and Reiner, M. and Egger, W. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {A position sensitive germanium detector for the measurement of angular deviation of annihilation radiation},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {443},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012098},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/443/1/012098/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012098}
	}
	
Study of Positronium formation in nano-channelled silicon as a function of sample temperature
S. Mariazzi, L. Dinoto, L. Ravelli, W. Egger and R. Brusa; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 443 (1) (2013) 012061.
Abstract: Oxidized nanochannel in silicon have been demonstrated to be suitable for positronium (Ps) formation and cooling also at low sample temperature. To investigate the Ps yield and to clarify the Ps formation mechanism we studied, by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS), nanochanneled Si p-type samples in the 150-430 K temperature range. Ps yield was found to be constant in the 150-300 K temperature range, then it increases up to ∼50% of its value from 350-400 K. This effect is associated to a decrease of the fraction of positrons annihilating in Si and in the SiO2 layer on the nanochannels surface. This finding is compatible with the thermal decrease of the positive charge distribution at the Si/SiO2 interface limiting e+ reaching the SiO2 layer and to a charge rearrangement at the SiO2 surfaces.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mariazzi2013,
	  author = {Mariazzi, S. and Dinoto, L. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W. and Brusa, R.S.},
	  title = {Study of Positronium formation in nano-channelled silicon as a function of sample temperature},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {443},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012061},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012061/meta;jsessionid=D1DE141D0665C855F0EED9CB9570D8E4.c1.iopscience.cld.iop.org},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012061}
	}
	
High-accuracy fluence determination in ion beams using fluorescent nuclear track detectors
J.-M. Osinga, M. Akselrod, R. Herrmann, V. Hable, G. Dollinger, O. Jäkel and S. Greilich; Radiation Measurements 56 (2013) 294-298.
Abstract: We present an approach to use Al2O3:C,Mg-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) and confocal laser scanning microscopy as a semiautomatic tool for fluence measurements in clinical ion beams. The method was found to cover a linear energy transfer (LET) range from at least L∞(Al2O3) = 0.5 keV/μm to 61,000 keV/μm with a detection efficiency ≥99.83% (20 MeV protons) at particle fluences up to at least 5 × 107 per cm2. Our technique allows to determine the spatial fluence distribution on a microscopic scale and enables detailed track-by-track comparison studies between different fluence detectors.
BibTeX:
	@article{Osinga2013,
	  author = {Osinga, J.-M. and Akselrod, M.S. and Herrmann, R. and Hable, V. and Dollinger, G. and Jäkel, O. and Greilich, S.},
	  title = {High-accuracy fluence determination in ion beams using fluorescent nuclear track detectors},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Luminescent Detectors and Transformers of Ionizing Radiation (LUMDETR 2012)},
	  journal = {Radiation Measurements},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {56},
	  pages = {294--298},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350448713000589},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2013.01.035}
	}
	
3D-microscopy of hydrogen in tungsten
K. Peeper, M. Moser, P. Reichart, E. Markina, M. Mayer, S. Lindig, M. Balden and G. Dollinger; Journal of Nuclear Materials 438, Supplement (0) (2013) S887-S890.
Abstract: The mapping of hydrogen distributions in 3 dimensions and its correlation with structural features allow further insight into mechanisms of hydrogen trapping in tungsten. We studied hydrogen distributions in 25 μm thick polycrystalline tungsten foils by 3D hydrogen microscopy using a proton-proton-scattering method. Two types of tungsten samples were prepared: (i) at 1200 K annealed foils and using 1.8 MeV implantation energy (ii) at 2000 K annealed foils using 200 eV implantation energy. It has been found that large variations of surface hydrogen contamination occur within different samples. Nevertheless, a statistically significant variation of the hydrogen content across grain boundaries has been observed.
BibTeX:
	@article{Peeper2013,
	  author = {Peeper, K. and Moser, M. and Reichart, P. and Markina, E. and Mayer, M. and Lindig, S. and Balden, M. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {3D-microscopy of hydrogen in tungsten},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices},
	  journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {438, Supplement},
	  number = {0},
	  pages = {S887--S890},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311513002006},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.192}
	}
	
Geant4 simulation of the effect of backscattered positrons on the lifetime spectra of PLEPS
L. Ravelli, B. Löwe, W. Egger, G. Kögel, P. Sperr and G. Dollinger; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 443 (1) (2013) 012096.
Abstract: The Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) allows the measurement of positron lifetime spectra of very high quality with peak-to-background ratios up to 3 · 104. At those peak-to-background ratios small structures appear in the lifetime spectra due to backscattered positrons. Despite their small overall contribution-less than 2 % of the total events in the spectrum even with backscattering coefficient as high as 40 %-those satellite structures can render the data analysis difficult. To understand the origin of those satellite structures and to further improve the performance of the system, comprehensive simulations of the target chamber of PLEPS have been undertaken. The results reproduce fairly well the background of the lifetime spectrum. It is now possible to identify the origin of the background structures and also plan some additional countermeasures.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ravelli2013,
	  author = {Ravelli, L. and Löwe, B. and Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Geant4 simulation of the effect of backscattered positrons on the lifetime spectra of PLEPS},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {443},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012096},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/443/1/012096/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012096}
	}
	
Transport behaviour of boron delta-doped diamond
J. Scharpf, A. Denisenko, C. Pakes, S. Rubanov, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, C. Pietzka and E. Kohn; Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science 210 (10) (2013) 2028-2034.
Abstract: The electrical transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) boron-doped delta layers were investigated by a comprehensive analysis of physical, electrochemical and microscopic methods. The boron concentration profile was determined physically by elastic recoil detection (ERD) and compared to the doping (acceptor) profile extracted from capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements, giving a boron concentration of 2-4 × 1013 cm-2. Corresponding field effect transistor (FET) characteristics, based on the boron-doped delta channel concept, measured in electrolyte, show good modulation behaviour but field effect mobilities in the range of 10-2-10 -1 cm2 V-1 s-1 that are far below expected values. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis was employed to shed new light on the transport behaviour of boron-doped delta layers, revealing an inhomogeneous and interrupted morphology. Based on this finding, a hypothesis is proposed, modelling the delta layer transport behaviour via hopping and tunnelling processes between boron clusters.
BibTeX:
	@article{Scharpf2013,
	  author = {Scharpf, J. and Denisenko, A. and Pakes, C.I. and Rubanov, S. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Pietzka, C. and Kohn, E.},
	  title = {Transport behaviour of boron delta-doped diamond},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {210},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {2028-2034},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)0},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.201300093/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201300093}
	}
	
Microstructural examination of reactor pressure vessel steels by positron annihilation point of view
V. Slugeň, H. Hein, S. Sojak, W. Egger, M. Pavúk, J. Veterníková, M. Petriska, V. Sabelová and R. Hinca; Progress in Nuclear Energy 62 (2013) 1-7.
Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of commercially used German and Russian reactor pressure vessel steels from the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) point of view, having in mind knowledge obtained also from other techniques from the last decades. The second generations of Russian RPV steels seems to be fully comparable with German steels and their quality enables prolongation of NPP operating lifetime over projected 40 years. The embrittlement of CrMoV steel is very low due to the dynamic recovery of radiation-induced defects at reactor operating temperatures. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2013,
	  author = {Slugeň, V. and Hein, H. and Sojak, S. and Egger, W. and Pavúk, M. and Veterníková, J. and Petriska, M. and Sabelová, V. and Hinca, R.},
	  title = {Microstructural examination of reactor pressure vessel steels by positron annihilation point of view},
	  journal = {Progress in Nuclear Energy},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {62},
	  pages = {1--7},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149197012001023},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2012.08.002}
	}
	
PLEPS study of ion implanted and annealed Fe-11.62% Cr alloys
S. Sojak, V. Sluge, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, M. Petriska, S. Stanek, M. Sahul, M. Skarba, P. Priputen, M. Stacho, J. Veterníková, R. Hinca and V. Sabelová; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 443 (1) (2013) 012036.
Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are one of the candidate structural materials for application in future nuclear facilities. These steels fulfill demands on radiation, thermal, and mechanical resistance during their operational lifetime. Our experiments were focused on study of microstructural changes of binary Fe-Cr alloys after annealing and irradiation, experimentally simulated by ion implantations. Alloys with 11.62% Cr were examined after helium ion implantations at different doses (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 C/cm2). Thermal annealing, motivated by literature and our previous work in the field of reactor steels [1,2], was performed at temperatures of 400, 475, 525 and 600 °C after implantations with aim to study changes of the defect size/amount. The Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) at FRM II reactor in Garching (Munich) was applied for lifetime studies [3]. Damage introduced into the microstructure caused problems with defect interpretations by the PLEPS technique and therefore SEM was applied as well. Positron lifetimes measured at annealing temperatures in range of 400-525 °C did not show an expected decrease. Only in the case of temperature of 600 °C the mean lifetime (MLT) decreased significantly and assumptions about the defect size decrease were made according to the literature [2].
BibTeX:
	@article{Sojak2013,
	  author = {Sojak, S. and Sluge, V. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Petriska, M. and Stanek, S. and Sahul, M. and Skarba, M. and Priputen, P. and Stacho, M. and Veterníková, J. and Hinca, R. and Sabelová, V.},
	  title = {PLEPS study of ion implanted and annealed Fe-11.62% Cr alloys},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {443},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012036},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012036/meta},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/443/1/012036}
	}
	
Thermal annealing influence on ions implanted Fe-Cr model alloys
S. Sojak, V. Slugeň, V. Kršjak, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, M. Petriska, S. Stanček, M. Skarba, P. Priputen, K. Vitázek, M. Stacho, J. Veterníková and V. Sabelová; Materials Science Forum 733 (2013) 274-277.
Abstract: Binary Fe-11.62wt%Cr alloys were investigated in as-received state as well as after a two step helium ion implantation at different energies (100 keV and 250 keV) with doses up to 3.12×1018 cm-2. In order to study changes in alloys in dependence on the temperature, thermal annealing was performed at temperatures of 400, 475, 525 and 600 oC and specimens were afterwards measured by a pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS). Annealing out of defects at lower temperatures was not as significant as expected, and we also encountered difficulties with defect identification. However, an apparent decrease of defect size was observed in the specimen annealed at a temperature of 600 oC. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sojak2013a,
	  author = {Sojak, S. and Slugeň, V. and Kršjak, V. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Petriska, M. and Stanček, S. and Skarba, M. and Priputen, P. and Vitázek, K. and Stacho, M. and Veterníková, J. and Sabelová, V.},
	  title = {Thermal annealing influence on ions implanted Fe-Cr model alloys},
	  booktitle = {POSITRON AND POSITRONIUM CHEMISTRY X},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {733},
	  pages = {274--277},
	  editor = {Kristiak, J and Kuriplach, J and Pujari, PK},
	  note = {10th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-10), Smolenice, SLOVAKIA, SEP 05-09, 2011},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.733.274},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.733.274}
	}
	
Hydrogen microscopy - Distribution of hydrogen in buckled niobium hydrogen thin films
S. Wagner, M. Moser, C. Greubel, K. Peeper, P. Reichart, A. Pundt and G. Dollinger; International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38 (31) (2013) 13822-13830.
Abstract: Hydrogen absorption in thin metal films clamped to rigid substrates results in mechanical stress that changes the hydrogen's chemical potential by ΔμH(σ) = −1.124σ kJ/molH for σ measured in [GPa]. In this paper we show that local stress relaxation by the detachment of niobium hydrogen thin films from the substrate affects the chemical potential on the local scale: using coincident proton-proton scattering at a proton microprobe, the hydrogen concentration is determined with μm resolution, revealing that hydrogen is not homogenously distributed in the film. The local hydrogen solubility of the film changes with its local stress state, mapping the buckled film fraction. In niobium hydrogen thin films loaded up to nominal concentrations in the two-phase coexistence region, the clamped film fraction remains in the solid solution phase, while the buckles represent the hydride phase. These results are compared to a simple model taking the stress impact on the chemical potential into account.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wagner2013,
	  author = {Wagner, Stefan and Moser, Marcus and Greubel, Christoph and Peeper, Katrin and Reichart, Patrick and Pundt, Astrid and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Hydrogen microscopy - Distribution of hydrogen in buckled niobium hydrogen thin films},
	  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {38},
	  number = {31},
	  pages = {13822--13830},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319913019137},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.08.006}
	}
	
Absolute partial decay branching-ratios in 16O
C. Wheldon, N. Ashwood, M. Barr, N. Curtis, M. Freer, T. Kokalova, J. Malcolm, S. Spencer, V. Ziman, T. Faestermann, R. Krücken, H.-F. Wirth, R. Hertenberger, R. Lutter and A. Bergmaier; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 436 (1) (2013) 012017.
Abstract: The α-transfer reaction 6 12C(3 6Li, d)8 16O* has been performed at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV to populate excited states in 13C and 16O. Absolute branching ratios have been unambiguously determined for states in the excitation energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV and reduced widths are extracted.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wheldon2013,
	  author = {Wheldon, C. and Ashwood, N.I. and Barr, M. and Curtis, N. and Freer, M. and Kokalova, Tz. and Malcolm, J.D. and Spencer, S.J. and Ziman, V.A. and Faestermann, Th. and Krücken, R. and Wirth, H.-F. and Hertenberger, R. and Lutter, R. and Bergmaier, A.},
	  title = {Absolute partial decay branching-ratios in 16O},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {436},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012017},
	  note = {cited By 1},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/436/1/012017/meta},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/436/1/012017}
	}
	
Reduced side effects by proton microchannel radiotherapy: Study in a human skin model
O. Zlobinskaya, S. Girst, C. Greubel, V. Hable, C. Siebenwirth, D. Walsh, G. Multhoff, J. Wilkens, T. Schmid and G. Dollinger; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 52 (1) (2013) 123-133.
Abstract: The application of a microchannel proton irradiation was compared to homogeneous irradiation in a three-dimensional human skin model. The goal is to minimize the risk of normal tissue damage by microchannel irradiation, while preserving local tumor control through a homogeneous irradiation of the tumor that is achieved because of beam widening with increasing track length. 20 MeV protons were administered to the skin models in 10- or 50-μm-wide irradiation channels on a quadratic raster with distances of 500 μm between each channel (center to center) applying an average dose of 2 Gy. For comparison, other samples were irradiated homogeneously at the same average dose. Normal tissue viability was significantly enhanced after microchannel proton irradiation compared to homogeneous irradiation. Levels of inflammatory parameters, such as Interleukin-6, TGF-Beta, and Pro-MMP1, were significantly lower in the supernatant of the human skin tissue after microchannel irradiation than after homogeneous irradiation. The genetic damage as determined by the measurement of micronuclei in keratinocytes also differed significantly. This difference was quantified via dose modification factors (DMF) describing the effect of each irradiation mode relative to homogeneous X-ray irradiation, so that the DMF of 1.21 ± 0.20 after homogeneous proton irradiation was reduced to 0.23 ± 0.11 and 0.40 ± 0.12 after microchannel irradiation using 10- and 50-μm-wide channels, respectively. Our data indicate that proton microchannel irradiation maintains cell viability while significantly reducing inflammatory responses and genetic damage compared to homogeneous irradiation, and thus might improve protection of normal tissue after irradiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zlobinskaya2013,
	  author = {Zlobinskaya, O. and Girst, S. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Siebenwirth, C. and Walsh, D.W.M. and Multhoff, G. and Wilkens, J.J. and Schmid, T.E. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Reduced side effects by proton microchannel radiotherapy: Study in a human skin model},
	  booktitle = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {52},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {123--133},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-012-0450-9},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-012-0450-9}
	}
	
On the interplay of point defects and Cd in non-polar ZnCdO films
A. Zubiaga, F. Reurings, F. Tuomisto, F. Plazaola, J. García, A. Kuznetsov, W. Egger, J. Zúñiga-Pérez and V. Muñoz-Sanjosé; Journal of Applied Physics 113 (2) (2013) 023512.
Abstract: Non-polar ZnCdO films, grown over m- and r-sapphire with a Cd concentration ranging between 0.8% and 5%, have been studied by means of slow positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) combined with chemical depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford back-scattering. Vacancy clusters and Zn vacancies with concentrations up to 1017 cm-3 and 1018 cm-3, respectively, have been measured inside the films. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results show that most Cd stays inside the ZnCdO film but the diffused atoms can penetrate up to 1.3 μm inside the ZnO buffer. PAS results give an insight to the structure of the meta-stable ZnCdO above the thermodynamical solubility limit of 2%. A correlation between the concentration of vacancy clusters and Cd has been measured. The concentration of Zn vacancies is one order of magnitude larger than in as-grown non-polar ZnO films and the vacancy cluster are, at least partly, created by the aggregation of smaller Zn vacancy related defects. The Zn vacancy related defects and the vacancy clusters accumulate around the Cd atoms as a way to release the strain induced by the substitutional CdZn in the ZnO crystal.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zubiaga2013,
	  author = {Zubiaga, A. and Reurings, F. and Tuomisto, F. and Plazaola, F. and García, J.A. and Kuznetsov, A.Yu. and Egger, W. and Zúñiga-Pérez, J. and Muñoz-Sanjosé, V.},
	  title = {On the interplay of point defects and Cd in non-polar ZnCdO films},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2013},
	  volume = {113},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {023512},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4775396},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4775396}
	}
	

2012

A laser-driven nanosecond proton source for radiobiological studies
J. Bin, K. Allinger, W. Assmann, G. Dollinger, G.A. Drexler, A.A. Friedl, D. Habs, P. Hilz, R. Hoerlein, N. Humble, S. Karsch, K. Khrennikov, D. Kiefer, F. Krausz, W. Ma, D. Michalski, M. Molls, S. Raith, S. Reinhardt, B. Roeper, T.E. Schmid, T. Tajima, J. Wenz, O. Zlobinskaya, J. Schreiber and J.J. Wilkens; Applied Physics Letters 101 (24) (2012) 243701.
Abstract: Ion beams are relevant for radiobiological studies and for tumor therapy. In contrast to conventional accelerators, laser-driven ion acceleration offers a potentially more compact and cost-effective means of delivering ions for radiotherapy. Here, we show that by combining advanced acceleration using nanometer thin targets and beam transport, truly nanosecond quasi-monoenergetic proton bunches can be generated with a table-top laser system, delivering single shot doses up to 7Gy to living cells. Although in their infancy, laser-ion accelerators allow studying fast radiobiological processes as demonstrated here by measurements of the relative biological effectiveness of nanosecond proton bunches in human tumor cells.
BibTeX:
	@article{Bin2012,
	  author = {Bin, Jianhui and Allinger, Klaus and Assmann, Walter and Dollinger, Guenther and Drexler, Guido A. and Friedl, Anna A. and Habs, Dieter and Hilz, Peter and Hoerlein, Rainer and Humble, Nicole and Karsch, Stefan and Khrennikov, Konstantin and Kiefer, Daniel and Krausz, Ferenc and Ma, Wenjun and Michalski, Doerte and Molls, Michael and Raith, Sebastian and Reinhardt, Sabine and Roeper, Barbara and Schmid, Thomas E. and Tajima, Toshiki and Wenz, Johannes and Zlobinskaya, Olga and Schreiber, Joerg and Wilkens, Jan J.},
	  title = {A laser-driven nanosecond proton source for radiobiological studies},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {101},
	  number = {24},
	  pages = {243701},
	  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.4769372},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4769372}
	}
	
Characterization of vacancy-type defects in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced vapor phase epitaxy
A. Calloni, R. Ferragut, A. Dupasquier, H. von Känel, A. Guiller, A. Rutz, L. Ravelli and W. Egger; Journal of Applied Physics 112 (2) (2012) 024510.
Abstract: The defect concentration in thin GaN layers was estimated by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy. Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation were used. A comparative study of GaN films grown with different techniques was performed. Specific attention has been given to the new low energy plasma enhanced vapor phase epitaxy (LEPEVPE) growth technique. A very high Ga vacancy density (10 19 cm -3) was found in a thin GaN layer directly grown by LEPEVPE on a sapphire substrate. However, when a GaN substrate (commercial sample grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) is used as a template for LEPEVPE deposition, the vacancy density of the film is low (about 10 16 cm -3). This fact provides evidences that the LEPEVPE technique is able to produce high quality GaN layers.
BibTeX:
	@article{Calloni2012,
	  author = {Calloni, A. and Ferragut, R. and Dupasquier, A. and von Känel, H. and Guiller, A. and Rutz, A. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W.},
	  title = {Characterization of vacancy-type defects in heteroepitaxial GaN grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced vapor phase epitaxy},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {112},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {024510},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4737402},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4737402}
	}
	
Thin layer composition profiling with angular resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Factors affecting quantitative results
T. Conard, W. Vandervorst, A. Bergmaier and K. Kimura; Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 30 (3) (2012) 031509.
Abstract: Composition profiling of thin films in the nanometer range is critical to the development of future electronic devices. However, the number of techniques with such depth resolution is limited. Among them, angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) can be used for thin layers up to a few nanometers, but it is not yet a fully established method. In order to evaluate its capabilities for use as a routine and general method, the authors evaluate both its intrinsic capabilities in comparison with other methods and the factors affecting quantification by analyzing its variability when applied at various laboratory locations with different tools and data treatments. For this purpose, dedicated samples based on multilayers of HfO 2 and SiON were produced with a well-determined layer structure. The results show that ARXPS, including depth profiling reconstruction, is very efficient and compares favorably with nuclear analysis techniques. It allows the separation of the surface contamination signal from the interfacial layer signal and allows determination of the coverage quantitatively. An accuracy of ±10 is achieved for most elements except for nitrogen, where strong peak interference with hafnium and a low intensity increase the inaccuracy up to 20. This study also highlights several technique limitations. First, the quality of the retrieved profile is strongly dependent upon the exact determination of each photoemission peak intensity. Also it demonstrates that, while favorable for chemical identification, very high resolution spectra may lead to larger errors in profile reconstruction due to larger statistical errors in the intensities, though this is true mainly for deeper layers. Finally, it points out the importance of the physical parameters used in the final obtained results.
BibTeX:
	@article{Conard2012,
	  author = {Conard, T. and Vandervorst, W. and Bergmaier, A. and Kimura, K.},
	  title = {Thin layer composition profiling with angular resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Factors affecting quantitative results},
	  journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {30},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {031509},
	  note = {cited By 9},
	  url = {https://avs.scitation.org/doi/10.1116/1.4704603},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1116/1.4704603}
	}
	
Growth sector dependence and mechanism of stress formation in epitaxial diamond growth
M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck and A. Bergmaier; Applied Physics Letters 100 (4) (2012) 041906.
Abstract: Stress generation in epitaxial diamond growth was investigated by μ-Raman spectroscopy and high resolution x-ray diffraction. Intrinsic stress could be varied systematically from compressive to tensile covering a huge range of 5 GPa. The temperature-stress curve for growth on 111-sectors as compared to 001 shows a shift of -200 °C or +2 GPa. A crucial role of hydrogen in the stress formation process is excluded. Due to the absence of grain boundaries, a model is proposed which is based on the "effective climb" of individual dislocations. The controlled generation of stress profiles offers a powerful concept for strengthening diamond mechanical devices.
BibTeX:
	@article{Fischer2012,
	  author = {Fischer, M. and Gsell, S. and Schreck, M. and Bergmaier, A.},
	  title = {Growth sector dependence and mechanism of stress formation in epitaxial diamond growth},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {100},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {041906},
	  note = {cited By 13},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3679611},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3679611}
	}
	
Recruitment kinetics of DNA repair proteins Mdc1 and Rad52 but not 53BP1 depend on damage complexity
V. Hable, G.A. Drexler, T. Brüning, C. Burgdorf, C. Greubel, A. Derer, J. Seel, H. Strickfaden, T. Cremer, A.A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; PLoS One 7 (7) (2012) e41943.
Abstract: The recruitment kinetics of double-strand break (DSB) signaling and repair proteins Mdc1, 53BP1 and Rad52 into radiation-induced foci was studied by live-cell fluorescence microscopy after ion microirradiation. To investigate the influence of damage density and complexity on recruitment kinetics, which cannot be done by UV laser irradiation used in former studies, we utilized 43 MeV carbon ions with high linear energy transfer per ion (LET = 370 keV/μm) to create a large fraction of clustered DSBs, thus forming complex DNA damage, and 20 MeV protons with low LET (LET = 2.6 keV/μm) to create mainly isolated DSBs. Kinetics for all three proteins was characterized by a time lag period T0 after irradiation, during which no foci are formed. Subsequently, the proteins accumulate into foci with characteristic mean recruitment times τ1. Mdc1 accumulates faster (T0 = 17±2 s, τ1 = 98±11 s) than 53BP1 (T0 = 77±7 s, τ1 = 310±60 s) after high LET irradiation. However, recruitment of Mdc1 slows down (T0 = 73±16 s, τ1 = 1050±270 s) after low LET irradiation. The recruitment kinetics of Rad52 is slower than that of Mdc1, but exhibits the same dependence on LET. In contrast, the mean recruitment time τ1 of 53BP1 remains almost constant when varying LET. Comparison to literature data on Mdc1 recruitment after UV laser irradiation shows that this rather resembles recruitment after high than low LET ionizing radiation. So this work shows that damage quality has a large influence on repair processes and has to be considered when comparing different studies.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hable2012,
	  author = {Hable, Volker and Drexler, Guido A. and Brüning, Tino and Burgdorf, Christian and Greubel, Christoph and Derer, Anja and Seel, Judith and Strickfaden, Hilmar and Cremer, Thomas and Friedl, Anna A. and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Recruitment kinetics of DNA repair proteins Mdc1 and Rad52 but not 53BP1 depend on damage complexity},
	  journal = {PLoS One},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {7},
	  number = {7},
	  pages = {e41943},
	  url = {http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041943},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041943}
	}
	
Aging and free volume in a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1)
S. Harms, K. Rätzke, F. Faupel, N. Chaukura, P. Budd, W. Egger and L. Ravelli; Journal of Adhesion 88 (7) (2012) 608-619.
Abstract: There is a growing market for polymeric gas separation membranes for applications such as air separation and carbon dioxide capture. One of the key properties dominating transport is the free volume between atoms, allowing gas diffusion. However, thin films, in particular, undergo aging, decreasing free volume, and, hence, performance with time. We have measured the change in free volume during aging of thin films of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) by depth-resolved positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. For films with thickness, d, smaller than 1m, aging is nearly complete after 3 months, whereas for films with d>1 μm aging continues even after several months. Aging is thickness-and time-dependent and the free volume diffuses through the film to the free surface.
BibTeX:
	@article{Harms2012,
	  author = {Harms, S. and Rätzke, K. and Faupel, F. and Chaukura, N. and Budd, P.M. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L.},
	  title = {Aging and free volume in a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1)},
	  journal = {Journal of Adhesion},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {88},
	  number = {7},
	  pages = {608--619},
	  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00218464.2012.682902},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00218464.2012.682902}
	}
	
Ultrahigh gain AlGaN/GaN high energy radiation detectors
J.D. Howgate, M. Hofstetter, S.J. Schoell, M. Schmid, S. Schäfer, I. Zizak, V. Hable, C. Greubel, G. Dollinger, S. Thalhammer, M. Stutzmann and I.D. Sharp; physica status solidi (a) 209 (8) (2012) 1562-1567.
Abstract: Due to its remarkable tolerance to high energy ionizing radiation, GaN has recently attracted attention as a promising material for dosimetry applications. However, materials issues that lead to persistent photoconductivity, poor sensitivity, and requirements for large operational voltages have been hurdles to realization of the full potential of this material. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of a two-dimensional electron gas channel, through the addition of AlGaN/GaN heterointerfaces, can be used to create intrinsic amplification of the number of electrons that can be collected from single ionization events, yielding exceptionally large sensitivities in ultralow dose rate regimes. Furthermore, anomalous photo-responses, which severely limit response times of GaN-based devices, can be eliminated using these heterostructures. Measurements using focused monochromatic synchrotron radiation at 1-20 keV, as well as focused 20 MeV protons, reveal that these devices provide the capability for high sensitivity and resolution real time monitoring, which is competitive with and complementary to state-of-the-art detectors. Therefore, AlGaN/GaN heterostructure devices are extremely promising for future applications in fields ranging from high energy physics to medical imaging.
BibTeX:
	@article{Howgate2012,
	  author = {Howgate, J. D. and Hofstetter, M. and Schoell, S. J. and Schmid, M. and Schäfer, S. and Zizak, I. and Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Dollinger, G. and Thalhammer, S. and Stutzmann, M. and Sharp, I. D.},
	  title = {Ultrahigh gain AlGaN/GaN high energy radiation detectors},
	  journal = {physica status solidi (a)},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {209},
	  number = {8},
	  pages = {1562--1567},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.201228097/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201228097}
	}
	
Growth study of nonpolar Zn 1-xMg xO epitaxial films on a-plane bulk ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
B. Laumer, F. Schuster, M. Stutzmann, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, S. Vogel, K. Gries, K. Volz and M. Eickhoff; Applied Physics Letters 101 (12) (2012) 122106.
Abstract: Nonpolar Zn 1-x Mg x O epitaxial films were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane ZnO substrates. A smooth surface morphology was accomplished under oxygen-rich growth conditions. The benefits of the use of ZnO substrates on the structural properties are reflected by a low-density of threading dislocations. Furthermore, no indications for the generation of basal plane stacking faults are found. The pseudomorphic growth on a-plane ZnO substrates efficiently locks the epitaxial Zn 1-x Mg x O films to the wurtzite structure up to x = 0.25. The Mg concentration is not constant and increases with larger thickness. The optical properties reflect the influence of alloy disorder.
BibTeX:
	@article{Laumer2012,
	  author = {Laumer, B. and Schuster, F. and Stutzmann, M. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Vogel, S. and Gries, K.I. and Volz, K. and Eickhoff, M.},
	  title = {Growth study of nonpolar Zn 1-xMg xO epitaxial films on a-plane bulk ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {101},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {122106},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)1},
	  url = {https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4754076},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4754076}
	}
	
Niobium aggregation and vacancylike defect evolution in nanostructured Nb-doped Mg: Their role in the kinetics of the hydride-to-metal phase transformation
C. Macchi, C. Maurizio, R. Checchetto, S. Mariazzi, L. Ravelli, W. Egger, P. Mengucci, N. Bazzanella, A. Miotello, A. Somoza and R. Brusa; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 85 (21) (2012) 214117.
Abstract: The structural evolution of nanostructured Nb-doped magnesium film samples and its correlation with the change of the H 2 desorption kinetics after successive H 2 sorption cycles at 623 K was investigated by different techniques. The variation of the dispersed Nb fraction and the Nb clusterization was followed by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), while the progressive Mg nanostructuring was monitored by x-ray diffraction. The presence of vacancylike defects and their evolution was studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectroscopies. It was found that, with successive H 2 sorption cycles: (i) the H 2 desorption kinetics progressively becomes slower until stationary conditions are reached and (ii) the Nb dopant atoms, dispersed in the nanocrystalline Mg layers, aggregate, forming nanoclusters. Our results show that the progressive Nb aggregation drives the H 2 desorption kinetics. EXAFS analysis show that fast desorption kinetics is due to the presence of small (∼1 nm) Nb aggregates rather than Nb atoms dispersed into the Mg matrix. With cycling, the Nb aggregates progressively grow, forming larger bcc Nb nanoclusters and the H 2 desorption kinetics becomes slower. In the as-deposited Nb-doped Mg samples, analysis of the positron data reveals the presence of intragranular vacancylike defects and of vacancy clusters which are inferred to be mainly located at the grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline Mg layers. With H 2 cycling: (i) a decrease of the atomic fraction of the intragranular vacancylike defects after the first two sorption cycles was observed, and (ii) an increase of the atomic fraction of vacancy clusters at grain boundaries and the appearance of vacancylike defects located at the interface between the Nb aggregates and the Mg matrix was probed. It was also found that the kinetics follows a nucleation and growth mechanism and, under stationary conditions, the Mg nucleation is controlled by vacancy-decorated bcc Nb nanoclusters rather than by vacancy clusters, as in undoped Mg samples.
BibTeX:
	@article{Macchi2012,
	  author = {Macchi, C. and Maurizio, C. and Checchetto, R. and Mariazzi, S. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W. and Mengucci, P. and Bazzanella, N. and Miotello, A. and Somoza, A. and Brusa, R.S.},
	  title = {Niobium aggregation and vacancylike defect evolution in nanostructured Nb-doped Mg: Their role in the kinetics of the hydride-to-metal phase transformation},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {85},
	  number = {21},
	  pages = {214117},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.85.214117},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.85.214117}
	}
	
High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE
M. Moser, P. Reichart, W. Carli, C. Greubel, K. Peeper, P. Hartung and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 273 (2012) 226-230.
Abstract: In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m -2 rad -2 eV -1 directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 μA mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H --current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 μA because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 μA mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1 in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.
BibTeX:
	@article{Moser2012,
	  author = {Moser, M. and Reichart, P. and Carli, W. and Greubel, C. and Peeper, K. and Hartung, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE},
	  booktitle = {20th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {273},
	  pages = {226--230},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X11007257},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2011.07.081}
	}
	
Non-Rutherford backscattering microscopy using 25 MeV protons
K. Peeper, M. Moser, P. Reichart and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 273 (2012) 254-257.
Abstract: Protons at energies between 10 and 25 MeV are a very sensitive probe for hydrogen using coincident proton-proton scattering with the possibility for depth profiling samples up to several 100 μm thickness. At the Munich microprobe SNAKE we have developed this method for sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy [1]. In parallel to sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering we introduce a non-Rutherford backscattering analysis utilizing 25 MeV protons in order to obtain 3D depth profiles of all major elements. We present energy spectra of backscattered protons at various thin and thick film samples of pure elements which we use as fingerprints to analyse more complex materials like minerals or metals. It is due to the low stopping power of the high energy protons that the depth profiles of several elements do not or do only partially overlap when analysing freestanding samples with thicknesses in the 100 μm range. The merit of our method is that signals of the light elements may not be affected by heavier matrix elements. Analysing thin films smaller than 5 μm we have achieved a mass resolution of ΔA/A≤1/28 for non-overlapping mass signals utilizing a 5 mm thick Si(Li)-detector.
BibTeX:
	@article{Peeper2012,
	  author = {Peeper, K. and Moser, M. and Reichart, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Non-Rutherford backscattering microscopy using 25 MeV protons},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {273},
	  pages = {254--257},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X11007324},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2011.07.088}
	}
	
Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness
T.E. Schmid, C. Greubel, V. Hable, O. Zlobinskaya, D. Michalski, S. Girst, C. Siebenwirth, E. Schmid, M. Molls, G. Multhoff and G. Dollinger; Physics in Medicine and Biology 57 (19) (2012) 5889-5907.
Abstract: This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2012,
	  author = {Schmid, T. E. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Zlobinskaya, O. and Michalski, D. and Girst, S. and Siebenwirth, C. and Schmid, E. and Molls, M. and Multhoff, G. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness},
	  journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {57},
	  number = {19},
	  pages = {5889-5907},
	  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/57/i=19/a=5889},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/57/19/5889}
	}
	
Different Chromium Content and Thermal Annealing Influence on Ions Implanted Fe-Cr Model Alloys
S. Sojak, V. Slugeň, V. Kršjak, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, M. Petriska, S. Stanček, M. Skarba, P. Priputen, K. Vitázek, M. Stacho, J. Veterníková and V. Sabelová; Physics Procedia 35 (2012) 80–85.
Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFM) represented by binary Fe-Cr alloys, with different chromium content, were studied in as-received state as well as after helium ions implantation. In order to study changes in dependence on the temperature, thermal annealing of He ions implanted Fe-11.62%Cr specimens was performed. Measurements by Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) in Garching, Germany were performed afterwards. Annealing out of defects at lower temperatures was not significant as was expected and some uncertainties are present. Extensive decrease of positron lifetime of defects was observed in specimens annealed at temperature 600 degrees C.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sojak2012,
	  author = {Sojak, S. and Slugeň, V. and Kršjak, V. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Petriska, M. and Stanček, S. and Skarba, M. and Priputen, P. and Vitázek, K. and Stacho, M. and Veterníková, J. and Sabelová, V.},
	  title = {Different Chromium Content and Thermal Annealing Influence on Ions Implanted Fe-Cr Model Alloys},
	  booktitle = {POSITRON STUDIES OF DEFECTS 2011},
	  journal = {Physics Procedia},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {35},
	  pages = {80–85},
	  editor = {Eijt, S and Schut, H},
	  note = {7th International Workshop on Positron Studies of Defects (PSD), Delft Univ Technol, Delft, NETHERLANDS, AUG 28-SEP 02, 2011},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212019529},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2012.06.015}
	}
	
Absolute decay width measurements in 16O
C. Wheldon, N. Ashwood, M. Barr, N. Curtis, M. Freer, T. Kokalova, J. Malcolm, S. Spencer, V. Ziman, T. Faestermann, R. Krücken, H.-F. Wirth, R. Hertenberger, R. Lutter and A. Bergmaier; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 381 (1) (2012) 012078.
Abstract: The reaction 126C(63Li, d) 168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled absolute α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wheldon2012,
	  author = {Wheldon, C. and Ashwood, N.I. and Barr, M. and Curtis, N. and Freer, M. and Kokalova, Tz. and Malcolm, J.D. and Spencer, S.J. and Ziman, V.A. and Faestermann, Th. and Krücken, R. and Wirth, H.-F. and Hertenberger, R. and Lutter, R. and Bergmaier, A.},
	  title = {Absolute decay width measurements in 16O},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {381},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {012078},
	  note = {cited By 0},
	  url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/381/1/012078/meta},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/381/1/012078}
	}
	
Induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks assessed by gamma-H2AX foci after irradiation with pulsed or continuous proton beams
O. Zlobinskaya, G. Dollinger, D. Michalski, V. Hable, C. Greubel, G. Du, G. Multhoff, B. Röper, M. Molls and T.E. Schmid; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 51 (1) (2012) 23-32.
Abstract: In particle tumor therapy including beam scanning at accelerators, the dose per voxel is delivered within about 100 ms. In contrast, the new technology of laser plasma acceleration will produce ultimately shorter particle packages that deliver the dose within a nanosecond. Here, possible differences for relative biological effectiveness in creating DNA double-strand breaks in pulsed or continuous irradiation mode are studied. HeLa cells were irradiated with 1 or 5 Gy of 20-MeV protons at the Munich tandem accelerator, either at continuous mode (100 ms), or applying a single pulse of 1-ns duration. Cells were fixed 1 h after 1-Gy irradiation and 24 h after 5-Gy irradiation, respectively. A dose–effect curve based on five doses of X-rays was taken as reference. The total number of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) foci per cell was determined using a custom-made software macro for gamma-H2AX foci counting. For 1 h after 1-Gy 20-MeV proton exposures, values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 0.97 ± 0.19 for pulsed and 1.13 ± 0.21 for continuous irradiations were obtained in the first experiment 1.13 ± 0.09 and 1.16 ± 0.09 in the second experiment. After 5 Gy and 24 h, RBE values of 0.99 ± 0.29 and 0.91 ± 0.23 were calculated, respectively. Based on the gamma-H2AX foci numbers obtained, no significant differences in RBE between pulsed and continuous proton irradiation in HeLa cells were detected. These results are well in line with our data on micronucleus induction in HeLa cells.
BibTeX:
	@article{Zlobinskaya2012,
	  author = {Zlobinskaya, O. and Dollinger, G. and Michalski, D. and Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Du, G. and Multhoff, G. and Röper, B. and Molls, M. and Schmid, T. E.},
	  title = {Induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks assessed by gamma-H2AX foci after irradiation with pulsed or continuous proton beams},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2012},
	  volume = {51},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {23--32},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-011-0398-1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-011-0398-1}
	}
	

2011

Comprehensive comparison of various techniques for the analysis of elemental distributions in thin films
D. Abou-Ras, R. Caballero, C.-H. Fischer, C. Kaufmann, I. Lauermann, R. Mainz, H. Mönig, A. Schöpke, C. Stephan, C. Streeck, S. Schorr, A. Eicke, M. Döbeli, B. Gade, J. Hinrichs, T. Nunney, H. Dijkstra, V. Hoffmann, D. Klemm, V. Efimova, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, T. Wirth, W. Unger, A. Rockett, A. Perez-Rodriguez, J. Alvarez-Garcia, V. Izquierdo-Roca, T. Schmid, P.-P. Choi, M. Müller, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Khatri, R. Collins, S. Marsillac and I. Kötschau; Microscopy and Microanalysis 17 (5) (2011) 728-751.
Abstract: The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
BibTeX:
	@article{Abou-Ras2011,
	  author = {Abou-Ras, D. and Caballero, R. and Fischer, C.-H. and Kaufmann, C.A. and Lauermann, I. and Mainz, R. and Mönig, H. and Schöpke, A. and Stephan, C. and Streeck, C. and Schorr, S. and Eicke, A. and Döbeli, M. and Gade, B. and Hinrichs, J. and Nunney, T. and Dijkstra, H. and Hoffmann, V. and Klemm, D. and Efimova, V. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Wirth, T. and Unger, W. and Rockett, A.A. and Perez-Rodriguez, A. and Alvarez-Garcia, J. and Izquierdo-Roca, V. and Schmid, T. and Choi, P.-P. and Müller, M. and Bertram, F. and Christen, J. and Khatri, H. and Collins, R.W. and Marsillac, S. and Kötschau, I.},
	  title = {Comprehensive comparison of various techniques for the analysis of elemental distributions in thin films},
	  journal = {Microscopy and Microanalysis},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {17},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {728--751},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)16},
	  url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8386415&fileId=S1431927611000523},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927611000523}
	}
	
Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates
S. Auer, V. Hable, C. Greubel, G.A. Drexler, T.E. Schmid, C. Belka, G. Dollinger and A.A. Friedl; Radiation Oncology 6 (1) (2011) 139.
Abstract: Background Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >109 Gy s-1may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. Methods The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. Results At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. Conclusions At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly.
BibTeX:
	@article{Auer2011,
	  author = {Auer, Susanne and Hable, Volker and Greubel, Christoph and Drexler, Guido A. and Schmid, Thomas E. and Belka, Claus and Dollinger, Günther and Friedl, Anna A.},
	  title = {Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates},
	  journal = {Radiation Oncology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {6},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {139},
	  url = {http://ro-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1748-717X-6-139},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-717X-6-139}
	}
	
Enhanced kinetics of hydride-metal phase transition in magnesium by vacancy clustering
R. Checchetto, N. Bazzanella, A. Kale, A. Miotello, S. Mariazzi, R. Brusa, P. Mengucci, C. Macchi, A. Somoza, W. Egger and L. Ravelli; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 84 (5) (2011) 054115.
Abstract: The relation between vacancies and vacancy clusters evolution and the H2 desorption kinetics was studied in nanocrystalline Mg samples submitted to successive H2 sorption cycles. Vacancy defects were detected by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy while the desorption process was monitored measuring the H2 desorption flux. During H 2 sorption cycles, vacancies disappear, the number of vacancy clusters increases, and the crystalline quality of the Mg grains increases. The disappearance of intragranular vacancies is followed by an acceleration of the H2 desorption process. This is attributed to the increase of vacancy clusters at grain boundaries which assist the Mg nucleation in the hydride to metal phase transition. For H2 sorption cycles, the values of vacancy and vacancy cluster concentrations were obtained into the frame of the positron diffusion trapping model and the size of the involved vacancy clusters was evaluated by ab initio calculations of positron annihilation rates in Mg.
BibTeX:
	@article{Checchetto2011,
	  author = {Checchetto, R. and Bazzanella, N. and Kale, A. and Miotello, A. and Mariazzi, S. and Brusa, R.S. and Mengucci, P. and Macchi, C. and Somoza, A. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L.},
	  title = {Enhanced kinetics of hydride-metal phase transition in magnesium by vacancy clustering},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {84},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {054115},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.054115},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.054115}
	}
	
Comment on 'Therapeutic application of metallic nanoparticles combined with particle-induced x-ray emission effect'
G. Dollinger; Nanotechnology 22 (24) (2011) 248001.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2011,
	  author = {Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Comment on 'Therapeutic application of metallic nanoparticles combined with particle-induced x-ray emission effect'},
	  journal = {Nanotechnology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {22},
	  number = {24},
	  pages = {248001},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)2},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/22/24/248001/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/22/24/248001}
	}
	
Spatial Dynamics of DNA Damage Response Protein Foci along the Ion Trajectory of High-LET Particles
G. Du, G.A. Drexler, W. Friedland, C. Greubel, V. Hable, R. Krücken, A. Kugler, L. Tonelli, A.A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; Radiation Research 176 (6) (2011) 706-715.
Abstract: High-linear energy transfer (LET) ion irradiation of cell nuclei induces complex and severe DNA lesions, and foci of repair proteins are formed densely along the ion trajectory. To efficiently discriminate the densely distributed/overlapping foci along the ion trajectory, a focus recognition algorithm called FociPicker3D based on a local fraction thresholding technique was developed. We analyzed high-resolution 3D immunofluorescence microscopic focus images and obtained the kinetics and spatial development of γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and phospho-NBS1 foci in BJ1-hTERT cells irradiated with 55 MeV carbon ions and compared the results with the dynamics of double-strand break (DSB) distributions simulated using the PARTRAC model. Clusters consisting of several foci were observed along the ion trajectory after irradiation. The spatial dynamics of the protein foci supports that the foci clusters are not formed by neighboring foci but instead originate from the DSB cluster damage induced by high-LET radiations.
BibTeX:
	@article{Du2011,
	  author = {Du, Guanghua and Drexler, Guido A. and Friedland, Werner and Greubel, Christoph and Hable, Volker and Krücken, Reiner and Kugler, Alexandra and Tonelli, Laura and Friedl, Anna A. and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Spatial Dynamics of DNA Damage Response Protein Foci along the Ion Trajectory of High-LET Particles},
	  booktitle = {Radiation Research},
	  journal = {Radiation Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {176},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {706--715},
	  url = {http://www.bioone.org/doi/10.1667/RR2592.1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1667/RR2592.1}
	}
	
Layer-resolved study of the Mg to MgH2 transformation in Mg-Ti films with short-range chemical order
S. Eijt, H. Leegwater, H. Schut, A. Anastasopol, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, C. Hugenschmidt and B. Dam; Journal of Alloys and Compounds 509 (SUPPL. 2) (2011) S567-S571.
Abstract: Positron depth-profiling was applied to monitor the effects of hydrogenation on Mg1-yTiy thin films. S-W diagrams and VEPFIT analysis of the depth-profiles demonstrated the homogeneity of most metal and metal hydride films. In contrast, Mg0.90Ti0.10H x films consisted of a double layer, with a thin unloaded Mg 0.90Ti0.10 or Mg-Ti-Pd alloy layer on top of a hydrogenated bottom layer. The metal-to-metal-hydride transformation of Mg domains in the nanoscale phase-segregated Mg-Ti films was monitored exclusively, enabled by the large difference in positron affinity for Mg and Ti. The changes in the Doppler broadening parameters revealed that the metal-insulator transition for fluorite MgH2 is similar to that for rutile MgH 2. Positron lifetime spectroscopy showed the presence of di-vacancies in the metal sub-lattice of as-deposited and hydrogenated Mg-Ti metal films, which may induce the fast hydrogen sorption kinetics of the fluorite MgH 2 phase.
BibTeX:
	@article{Eijt2011,
	  author = {Eijt, S.W.H. and Leegwater, H. and Schut, H. and Anastasopol, A. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Dam, B.},
	  title = {Layer-resolved study of the Mg to MgH2 transformation in Mg-Ti films with short-range chemical order},
	  journal = {Journal of Alloys and Compounds},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {509},
	  number = {SUPPL. 2},
	  pages = {S567-S571},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838810023911},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.09.157}
	}
	
Study of defects in an electroresistive Au/La2/3Sr 1/3MnO3/SrTiO3(001) heterostructure by positron annihilation
R. Ferragut, A. Dupaquier, S. Brivio, R. Bertacco and W. Egger; Journal of Applied Physics 110 (5) (2011) 053511.
Abstract: Defects in an ultrathin Au/La2/3Sr1/3MnO 3/SrTiO3 (Au/LSMO/STO) heterostructure displaying electroresistive behavior were studied using variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy. Vacancy-like defects were found to be the dominant positron traps in the LSMO and STO thin perovskite oxides with a number density &gt;1017 cm-3 and 2 × 1017 cm -3 in the STO substrate. High defect density was revealed by strong positron trapping at the Au/LSMO interface. Oxygen deficiency in LSMO would be the main source of these traps. Besides, a low density of sub-nano voids of ∼6Å was found in the substrate and in the thin LSMO/STO films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ferragut2011,
	  author = {Ferragut, R. and Dupaquier, A. and Brivio, S. and Bertacco, R. and Egger, W.},
	  title = {Study of defects in an electroresistive Au/La2/3Sr 1/3MnO3/SrTiO3(001) heterostructure by positron annihilation},
	  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {110},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {053511},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3631825},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3631825}
	}
	
Scanning irradiation device for mice in vivo with pulsed and continuous proton beams
C. Greubel, W. Assmann, C. Burgdorf, G. Dollinger, G. Du, V. Hable, A. Hapfelmeier, R. Hertenberger, P. Kneschaurek, D. Michalski, M. Molls, S. Reinhardt, B. Röper, S. Schell, T.E. Schmid, C. Siebenwirth, T. Wenzl, O. Zlobinskaya and J.J. Wilkens; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 50 (3) (2011) 339-344.
Abstract: A technical set-up for irradiation of subcutaneous tumours in mice with nanosecond-pulsed proton beams or continuous proton beams is described and was successfully used in a first experiment to explore future potential of laser-driven particle beams, which are pulsed due to the acceleration process, for radiation therapy. The chosen concept uses a microbeam approach. By focusing the beam to approximately 100 × 100 μm2, the necessary fluence of 109 protons per cm2 to deliver a dose of 20 Gy with one-nanosecond shot in the Bragg peak of 23 MeV protons is achieved. Electrical and mechanical beam scanning combines rapid dose delivery with large scan ranges. Aluminium sheets one millimetre in front of the target are used as beam energy degrader, necessary for adjusting the depth–dose profile. The required procedures for treatment planning and dose verification are presented. In a first experiment, 24 tumours in mice were successfully irradiated with 23 MeV protons and a single dose of 20 Gy in pulsed or continuous mode with dose differences between both modes of 10%. So far, no significant difference in tumour growth delay was observed.
BibTeX:
	@article{Greubel2011,
	  author = {Greubel, Christoph and Assmann, Walter and Burgdorf, Christian and Dollinger, Günther and Du, Guanghua and Hable, Volker and Hapfelmeier, Alexander and Hertenberger, Ralf and Kneschaurek, Peter and Michalski, Dörte and Molls, Michael and Reinhardt, Sabine and Röper, Barbara and Schell, Stefan and Schmid, Thomas E. and Siebenwirth, Christian and Wenzl, Tatiana and Zlobinskaya, Olga and Wilkens, Jan J.},
	  title = {Scanning irradiation device for mice in vivo with pulsed and continuous proton beams},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {50},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {339--344},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-011-0365-x},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-011-0365-x}
	}
	
Free volume changes on optical switching in azobenzene- polymethylmethacrylate blends studied by a pulsed low-energy positron beam
S. Harms, K. Rätzke, C. Pakula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, W. Egger, P. Sperr and F. Faupel; Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics 49 (6) (2011) 404-408.
Abstract: Polymers including chromophores, which can be switched by light, have been studied extensively during the last years due to a host of potential applications which arise from the marked changes in physical properties on switching. Even though there is clear evidence that the free volume has a significant influence on the isomerization kinetics, the question of free volume changes on switching was only addressed recently. Using a pulsed low-energy positron beam the ortho-positronium lifetime τ3 was taken as a very sensitive free volume probe, and no change in free volume was detected on isomerization in an azobenzene-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) copolymer containing about 8 wt % of the azobenzene moiety. Here, we report for the first time on free volume changes in an azobenzene-PMMA blend with an azobenzene moiety concentration as high as 40 wt %. Using the same pulsed low-energy positron beam, small but significant changes of τ3 were observed between the structurally relaxed dark and the UV-illuminated states suggesting a decrease in free volume of the order of 10%.
BibTeX:
	@article{Harms2011,
	  author = {Harms, S. and Rätzke, K. and Pakula, C. and Zaporojtchenko, V. and Strunskus, T. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Faupel, F.},
	  title = {Free volume changes on optical switching in azobenzene- polymethylmethacrylate blends studied by a pulsed low-energy positron beam},
	  journal = {Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {49},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {404--408},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/polb.22201/abstract;jsessionid=4D54F7AB4F5618E0910C9AE9CE32EE19.f04t03},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.22201}
	}
	
Free volume distribution at the Teflon AF®/silicon interfaces probed by a slow positron beam
S. Harms, K. Rätzke, V. Zaporojtchenko, F. Faupel, W. Egger and L. Ravelli; Polymer 52 (2) (2011) 505-509.
Abstract: We performed positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy experiments at Teflon AF®/silicon interfaces as function of the positron implantation energy to determine the free volume hole size distribution in the interfacial region and to investigate the width of the interphase. While no interphase was detected in very short chained solvent-free, thermally evaporated Teflon AF®, an interphase of some tens of nm in extension was observed for high molecular weight spin-coated Teflon AF® films. Influences of the native oxide layer on the data evaluation could be ruled out.
BibTeX:
	@article{Harms2011a,
	  author = {Harms, S. and Rätzke, K. and Zaporojtchenko, V. and Faupel, F. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L.},
	  title = {Free volume distribution at the Teflon AF®/silicon interfaces probed by a slow positron beam},
	  journal = {Polymer},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {52},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {505--509},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032386110010347},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2010.11.039}
	}
	
Vacancy defects in CdTe thin films
D. Keeble, J. Major, L. Ravelli, W. Egger and K. Durose; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 84 (17) (2011) 174122.
Abstract: Vacancy defects have been investigated in a series of CdTe thin films grown by close-space sublimation. Variable-energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy measurements, performed with a high-intensity positron beam, were used to profile polycrystalline films with varying grain size. These were obtained by changing the nitrogen pressure used during deposition. Two vacancy defects were detected, with positron lifetimes of 321(7)ps and 450(30) ps, respectively. Density functional theory calculations support the assignment of the first to the Cd vacancy and provide evidence that the second is the divacancy defect.
BibTeX:
	@article{Keeble2011,
	  author = {Keeble, D.J. and Major, J.D. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W. and Durose, K.},
	  title = {Vacancy defects in CdTe thin films},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {84},
	  number = {17},
	  pages = {174122},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.174122},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.174122}
	}
	
Suppression of vacancy defects in epitaxial La-doped SrTiO 3 films
D. Keeble, B. Jalan, L. Ravelli, W. Egger, G. Kanda and S. Stemmer; Applied Physics Letters 99 (23) (2011) 232905.
Abstract: Variable energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of high-mobility La-doped SrTiO 3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy found that the films contained sufficiently low concentrations of Sr vacancies and vacancy cluster defects to allow the observation of positron annihilation events from the perfect lattice. This enabled the concentrations of charged cation vacancies to be estimated, and these were found to be at least an order of magnitude below the La-dopant concentrations.
BibTeX:
	@article{Keeble2011a,
	  author = {Keeble, D.J. and Jalan, B. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W. and Kanda, G. and Stemmer, S.},
	  title = {Suppression of vacancy defects in epitaxial La-doped SrTiO 3 films},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {99},
	  number = {23},
	  pages = {232905},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3664398},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3664398}
	}
	
Differential proton-proton scattering cross section for energies between 1.9 MeV and 50 MeV
M. Moser, P. Reichart, C. Greubel and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 269 (20) (2011) 2217-2228.
Abstract: We present a phase shift analysis of differential elastic proton-proton scattering cross sections (dσ/dΩ) pp in the energy range from 1.9 MeV to 50 MeV and laboratory scattering angles θlab= 15-75°. That results in an accurate representation of the experimental data by an analytical function (χred2=1.95). The average statistical error of the resulting data fit is 0.2%. The evaluation is representing the experimental data better than the evaluated cross section by the framework of the R-matrix theory as available from the ENDF database (χred2=6.98). For a fast evaluation we extract an E,θ-matrix for (dσ/dΩ) pp with a negligible interpolation error. These data may be used for data evaluation when using proton-proton scattering for hydrogen detection in material analysis.
BibTeX:
	@article{Moser2011,
	  author = {Moser, M. and Reichart, P. and Greubel, C. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Differential proton-proton scattering cross section for energies between 1.9 MeV and 50 MeV},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {269},
	  number = {20},
	  pages = {2217--2228},
	  note = {12th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X1100200X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2011.02.017}
	}
	
The effectiveness of 20 MeV protons at nanosecond pulse lengths in producing chromosome aberrations in human-hamster hybrid cells
T.E. Schmid, G. Dollinger, V. Hable, C. Greubel, O. Zlobinskaya, D. Michalski, S. Auer, A.A. Friedl, E. Schmid, M. Molls and B. Röper; Radiation Research 175 (6) (2011) 719-727.
Abstract: Laser accelerated radiotherapy is a potential cancer treatment with proton and carbon-ion beams that is currently under development. Ultra-fast high-energy laser pulses will accelerate ion beams that deliver their dose to a patient in a “pulsed mode” that is expected to differ from conventional irradiation by increasing the dose delivery rate to a tissue voxel by approximately 8 orders of magnitude. In two independently performed experiments at the ion microprobe SNAKE of the 14 MV Munich tandem accelerator, AL cells were exposed either to protons with 1-ns pulse durations or to protons applied over 150 ms in continuous irradiation mode. A slightly but consistently lower aberration yield was observed for the pulsed compared to the continuous mode of proton irradiation. This difference was not statistically significant when each aberration type was analyzed separately (P values between 0.61 and 0.85 in experiment I and P values between 0.32 and 0.64 in experiment II). However, excluding the total aberrations, which were not analyzed as independent radiation-induced effects, the mean ratio of the yields of dicentrics, centric rings and excess acentrics scored together showed (with 95% CI) a significant difference of 0.90 (0.81; 0.98) between the pulsed and the continuous irradiation modes. A similar tendency was also determined for the corresponding RBE values relative to 70 kV X rays. Since the different findings for the comparisons of individual chromosome aberration types and combined comparisons could be explained by different sample sizes with the consequence that the individual comparisons had less statistical power to identify a difference, it can be concluded that 20 MeV protons may be slightly less effective in the pulsed mode.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2011,
	  author = {Schmid, T. E. and Dollinger, G. and Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Zlobinskaya, O. and Michalski, D. and Auer, S. and Friedl, A. A. and Schmid, E. and Molls, M. and Röper, B.},
	  title = {The effectiveness of 20 MeV protons at nanosecond pulse lengths in producing chromosome aberrations in human-hamster hybrid cells},
	  booktitle = {Radiation Research},
	  journal = {Radiation Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {175},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {719--727},
	  url = {http://www.bioone.org/doi/10.1667/RR2465.1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1667/RR2465.1}
	}
	
Double-strand break-induced transcriptional silencing is associated with loss of tri-methylation at H3K4
D. Seiler, J. Rouquette, V. Schmid, H. Strickfaden, C. Ottmann, G. Drexler, B. Mazurek, C. Greubel, V. Hable, G. Dollinger, T. Cremer and A. Friedl; Chromosome Research 19 (7) (2011) 883-899.
Abstract: Epigenetic alterations induced by ionizing radiation may contribute to radiation carcinogenesis. To detect relative accumulations or losses of constitutive post-translational histone modifications in chromatin regions surrounding DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), we developed a method based on ion microirradiation and correlation of the signal intensities after immunofluorescence detection of the histone modification in question and the DSB marker γ-H2AX. We observed after ionizing irradiation markers for transcriptional silencing, such as accumulation of H3K27me3 and loss of active RNA polymerase II, at chromatin regions labeled by γ-H2AX. Confocal microscopy of whole nuclei and of ultrathin nuclear sections revealed that the histone modification H3K4me3, which labels transcriptionally active regions, is underrepresented in γ-H2AX foci. While some exclusion of H3K4me3 is already evident at the earliest time amenable to this kind of analysis, the anti-correlation apparently increases with time after irradiation, suggesting an active removal process. Focal accumulation of the H3K4me3 demethylase, JARID1A, was observed at damaged regions inflicted by laser irradiation, suggesting involvement of this enzyme in the DNA damage response. Since no accumulation of the repressive mark H3K9me2 was found at damaged sites, we suggest that DSB-induced transcriptional silencing resembles polycomb-mediated silencing rather than heterochromatic silencing.
BibTeX:
	@article{Seiler2011,
	  author = {Seiler, D.M. and Rouquette, J. and Schmid, V.J. and Strickfaden, H. and Ottmann, C. and Drexler, G.A. and Mazurek, B. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Dollinger, G. and Cremer, T. and Friedl, A.A.},
	  title = {Double-strand break-induced transcriptional silencing is associated with loss of tri-methylation at H3K4},
	  journal = {Chromosome Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {19},
	  number = {7},
	  pages = {883--899},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10577-011-9244-1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10577-011-9244-1}
	}
	
Fe-Cr alloys behavior after helium implantation
V. Slugen, V. Krsjak, W. Egger, M. Petriska, S. Sojak and J. Veternikova; Journal of Nuclear Materials 409 (2) (2011) 163-166.
Abstract: The paper discusses our recent experiments focused on the chromium influence on the microstructural changes of iron based alloys under radiation treatment. Our experimental method - the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) enables an observation of size and density changes of the vacancy type defects in the material microstructure. These defects have been created by implantation of charged particles (He2+). The cascade collisions in the crystal lattice and following Frenkel pair creation have been considered as possible approximation of the neutron flux damage up to 100 DPA in the region up to 1 μm from the surface.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2011,
	  author = {Slugen, V. and Krsjak, V. and Egger, W. and Petriska, M. and Sojak, S. and Veternikova, J.},
	  title = {Fe-Cr alloys behavior after helium implantation},
	  journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {409},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {163--166},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002231151000499X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2010.09.023}
	}
	
High-resolution measurement of absolute α-decay widths in O16
C. Wheldon, N. Ashwood, M. Barr, N. Curtis, M. Freer, T. Kokalova, J. Malcolm, S. Spencer, V. Ziman, T. Faestermann, R. Krücken, H.-F. Wirth, R. Hertenberger, R. Lutter and A. Bergmaier; Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics 83 (6) (2011) 064324.
Abstract: By using a large-acceptance position-sensitive silicon detector array in coincidence with the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph, unambiguous measurements have been made of the absolute α-particle decay widths from excited states in O16* in the energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV. Carbon targets have been bombarded with 42-MeV Li6 beams to induce 612C(36Li, d)816O* reactions. The deuteron ejectiles were measured in the Q3D and the results gated by He4+C12 breakup products detected in the silicon array, the efficiency of which was modeled using Monte Carlo simulations. By comparing total population and breakup-gated spectra, the following absolute α-decay widths have been measured with high resolution: Γα0/ Γtot =0.87±0.11 (13.980 MeV), 1.04±0.15 (14.302 MeV), 0.92±0.10 (14.399 MeV), 0.59±0.04 (14.815 MeV), 0.88±0.18 (15.785 MeV), and Γα1/Γ tot=1.14±0.08 (14.660 MeV), 0.46±0.06 (14.815 MeV).
BibTeX:
	@article{Wheldon2011,
	  author = {Wheldon, C. and Ashwood, N.I. and Barr, M. and Curtis, N. and Freer, M. and Kokalova, T. and Malcolm, J.D. and Spencer, S.J. and Ziman, V.A. and Faestermann, T. and Krücken, R. and Wirth, H.-F. and Hertenberger, R. and Lutter, R. and Bergmaier, A.},
	  title = {High-resolution measurement of absolute α-decay widths in O16},
	  journal = {Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2011},
	  volume = {83},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {064324},
	  note = {cited By 21},
	  url = {https://journals.aps.org/prc/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.064324},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.064324}
	}
	

2010

Structural characterization of H plasma-doped ZnO single crystals by positron annihilation spectroscopies
W. Anwand, G. Brauer, T. Cowan, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, J. Čižek, J. Kuriplach, I. Procházka, W. Egger and P. Sperr; Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science 207 (11) (2010) 2415-2425.
Abstract: Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated before and after exposure to remote H plasma. Structural characterizations have been made by various positron annihilation spectroscopies (continuous and pulsed slow positron beams, conventional lifetime). The content of bound hydrogen (H-b) before and after the remote H plasma treatment at the polished side of the crystals was determined at depths of 100 and 600 nm, respectively, using nuclear reaction analysis. At a depth of 100 nm, H-b increased from (11.8 ± 2.5) to (48.7 ± 7.6) × 10 19 cm -3 after remote H plasma treatment, whereas at 600 nm no change in H-b was observed. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &amp; Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BibTeX:
	@article{Anwand2010,
	  author = {Anwand, W. and Brauer, G. and Cowan, T.E. and Grambole, D. and Skorupa, W. and Čižek, J. and Kuriplach, J. and Procházka, I. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P.},
	  title = {Structural characterization of H plasma-doped ZnO single crystals by positron annihilation spectroscopies},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {207},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {2415-2425},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.200925609/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200925609}
	}
	
Study of defects in implanted silica glass by depth profiling Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
R. Brusa, S. Mariazzi, L. Ravelli, P. Mazzoldi, G. Mattei, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt, B. Löwe, P. Pikart, C. Macchi and A. Somoza; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 268 (19) (2010) 3186-3190.
Abstract: Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) performed with continuous and pulsed positron beams allows to characterize the size of the intrinsic nano-voids in silica glass, their in depth modification after ion implantation and their decoration by implanted ions. Three complementary PAS techniques, lifetime spectroscopy (LS), Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) will be illustrated by presenting, as a case study, measurements obtained on virgin and gold implanted silica glass. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Brusa2010,
	  author = {Brusa, R.S. and Mariazzi, S. and Ravelli, L. and Mazzoldi, P. and Mattei, G. and Egger, W. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Löwe, B. and Pikart, P. and Macchi, C. and Somoza, A.},
	  title = {Study of defects in implanted silica glass by depth profiling Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {268},
	  number = {19},
	  pages = {3186-3190},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X10005343},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2010.05.084}
	}
	
Life cell micro-irradiation
G. Dollinger; Nuclear Physics News 20 (3) (2010) 27-32.
Abstract: A main subject of modern experiments in radiobiology is the detailed investigation of the biological response on a microscopic scale when a living organism is irradiated by ionizing radiation. As known for long, a DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the most harmful threats that can be induced by ionizing radiation (Figure 1a). Thus, the response of cells to DSBs on a microscopic scale interests in view of cell surveillance strategies. There are already a lot of proteins known that are omnipresent in cell nuclei and that are involved in the repair of DSBs. Some of them cluster around a DSB forming a “repair focus” (Figure 1b). The spatio-temporal development of the repair processes and the interaction of the different proteins within repair pathways are to a large extent still unknown. A precise irradiation of cells by means of a nuclear microprobe, for example, using SNAKE ( S uperconducting N anoscope for A pplied nuclear ( K ern-) physics E xperiments) at the Munich tandem accelerator, is an ideal tool to perform accurate radiobiological experiments and to investigate cell surveillance strategies in general [1].
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2010,
	  author = {Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Life cell micro-irradiation},
	  journal = {Nuclear Physics News},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {20},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {27--32},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)0},
	  url = {http://www.nupecc.org/index.php?display=npn/issues},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/10619127.2010.506125}
	}
	
Pulsed low-energy positron beams: A useful tool to investigate defect structures in deformed metals and alloys
W. Egger, P. Sperr, G. Kögel and H.-J. Gudladt; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 240 (2010) 012164.
Abstract: To understand in more detail the behaviour of deformed metallic materials, the knowledge of defects and defect distributions at an atomistic level is important. To investigate the plastic zone in front of a crack tip, the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam of variable energy allows the detection of vacancies, dislocations, vacancy clusters and micro voids in the crack surface near region. Moreover, for a given defect type it is possible to determine its concentration. The positron lifetime measurements in samples of different materials (aluminium, copper) showed different defect profiles for crack surfaces produced by monotonic and cyclic deformation. In addition, this technique was able to characterize the kind of damage (monotonic or cyclic) by analysing the different positron lifetimes. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2010,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Pulsed low-energy positron beams: A useful tool to investigate defect structures in deformed metals and alloys},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {240},
	  pages = {012164},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/240/1/012164/meta;jsessionid=43E8EFB1F3F805A71643DA6B40BEEFE9.ip-10-40-1-105},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/240/1/012164}
	}
	
Pulsed low-energy positron beams in materials sciences
W. Egger; In: R. Brusa, A. Dupasquier and A.P. Mills jr. (Eds.), Physics with many Positrons , Vol. 174 , p. 419-449 , IOS Press , 2010.
Abstract: Pulsed low-energy positron beams of variable energy are powerful tools for defect profiling in materials. In this lecture we will at first describe two pulsed-beam systems developed over the last two decades: The Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) for depth-resolved defect profiling and the Scanning Positron Microscope (SPM), which in addition offers lateral resolution. We then consider some examples of applications of those pulsed beams to condensed matter problems. Next, the limits of those systems are discussed. Finally, we will give an outlook how pulsing with many positrons may be achieved and used for the purposes of materials sciences by combining existing experimental equipment with a strong positron source. © 2010 by Società Italiana di Fisica.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Egger2010a,
	  author = {Egger, Werner},
	  title = {Pulsed low-energy positron beams in materials sciences},
	  booktitle = {Physics with many Positrons},
	  publisher = {IOS Press},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {174},
	  pages = {419--449},
	  editor = {Brusa, R. and Dupasquier, A. and Mills jr., A. P.},
	  url = {http://ebooks.iospress.nl/publication/26841},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3254/978-1-60750-647-8-419}
	}
	
Positronium formation in porous materials for antihydrogen production
R. Ferragut, A. Calloni, A. Dupasquier, G. Consolati, F. Quasso, M. Giammarchi, D. Trezzi, W. Egger, L. Ravelli, M. Petkov, S. Jones, B. Wang, O. Yaghi, B. Jasinska, N. Chiodini and A. Paleari; Journal of Physics: Conference Series 225 (2010) 012007.
Abstract: Positronium (Ps) formation measurements in several porous materials as: Vycor, germanate Xerogel, Metal-Organic Frameworks MOF-177 and Aerogel with two densities (20 and 150 mg/cm3), were performed by means of a variable energy positron beam provided with a Ge detector and a positron lifetime spectrometer. An efficient formation of cooled Ps atoms is a requisite for the production of antihydrogen, with the aim of a direct measurement of the Earth gravitational acceleration g of antimatter, which is a primary scientific goal of AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy). Porous materials are necessary to form a high yield of Ps atoms as well as to cool Ps through collisions with the inner walls of the pores. The different materials were characterized and produce Ps into the pores. Lifetime measurements give an estimation of the typical pores dimension of the substances. A comparative study of the positron lifetime and the Ps fraction values in the above mentioned materials indicates that silica Aerogel, with the appropriate density, is an excellent candidate for an efficient formation of cold Ps atoms for the AEGIS project. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ferragut2010,
	  author = {Ferragut, R. and Calloni, A. and Dupasquier, A. and Consolati, G. and Quasso, F. and Giammarchi, M.G. and Trezzi, D. and Egger, W. and Ravelli, L. and Petkov, M.P. and Jones, S.M. and Wang, B. and Yaghi, O.M. and Jasinska, B. and Chiodini, N. and Paleari, A.},
	  title = {Positronium formation in porous materials for antihydrogen production},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {225},
	  pages = {012007},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/225/1/012007/meta},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/225/1/012007}
	}
	
Free volume and swelling in thin films of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) end-capped with N-butyltrithiocarbonate
S. Harms, K. Rätzke, F. Faupel, W. Egger, L. Ravello, A. Laschewsky, W. Wang and P. Müller-Buschbaum; Macromolecular Rapid Communications 31 (15) (2010) 1364-1367.
Abstract: The free volume in thin films of poly(N-isopropylacrylamid) end-capped with n-butyltriocarbonate (nbc-PNIPAM) is probed with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The PALS measurements are performed as function of energy to obtain depth profiles of the free volume of nbc-PNIPAM films. The range of nbc-PNIPAM films with thicknesses from 40 to 200 nm is focused. With decreasing film thickness the free volume increases in good agreement with an increase in the maximum swelling capability of the nbc-PNIPAM films. Thus in thin hydrogel films the sorption and swelling behavior is governed by free volume. (Figure Presented) © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BibTeX:
	@article{Harms2010,
	  author = {Harms, S. and Rätzke, K. and Faupel, F. and Egger, W. and Ravello, L. and Laschewsky, A. and Wang, W. and Müller-Buschbaum, P.},
	  title = {Free volume and swelling in thin films of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) end-capped with N-butyltrithiocarbonate},
	  journal = {Macromolecular Rapid Communications},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {31},
	  number = {15},
	  pages = {1364-1367},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/marc.201000067/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201000067}
	}
	
Identification of vacancy defects in a thin film perovskite oxide
D. Keeble, R. MacKie, W. Egger, B. Löwe, P. Pikart, C. Hugenschmidt and T. Jackson; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 81 (6) (2010) 064102.
Abstract: Vacancies are the dominant point defects in perovskite oxides, however, detecting and identifying the nature of vacancy defects in thin films remains challenging. This can be achieved using electron-beam methods but concentrations of several percent are required. Here we use a high-flux positron beam, providing high statistics positron lifetime measurements, to identify vacancies in laser ablated SrTiO3 on SrTiO3. The method is capable of subparts per million sensitivity and when combined with density-functional theory provides local structure information. The positron lifetime spectrum depth profile detects the presence of large vacancy clusters in a surface layer, a uniform distribution of Sr vacancies through the bulk of the film and resolves the interface with the substrate. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
BibTeX:
	@article{Keeble2010,
	  author = {Keeble, D.J. and MacKie, R.A. and Egger, W. and Löwe, B. and Pikart, P. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Jackson, T.J.},
	  title = {Identification of vacancy defects in a thin film perovskite oxide},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {81},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {064102},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.81.064102},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.81.064102}
	}
	
Identification of A- and B-site cation vacancy defects in perovskite oxide thin films
D. Keeble, S. Wicklein, R. Dittmann, L. Ravelli, R. MacKie and W. Egger; Physical Review Letters 105 (22) (2010) 226102.
Abstract: Cation vacancies on both sublattices (VTi, VSr) have been identified in homoepitaxial pulsed laser deposited SrTiO3 films using high intensity variable energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements. Film nonstoichiometry was varied by varying laser fluence. PALS showed that on increasing the fluence above the Ti/Sr∼1 value, the concentration ratio [VSr]/[VTi] systematically increased. Reducing the fluence into the Ti-poor region below resulted in additional vacancy cluster defect formation. Vacancy concentrations greater than ∼50ppm were observed in all films. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
BibTeX:
	@article{Keeble2010a,
	  author = {Keeble, D.J. and Wicklein, S. and Dittmann, R. and Ravelli, L. and MacKie, R.A. and Egger, W.},
	  title = {Identification of A- and B-site cation vacancy defects in perovskite oxide thin films},
	  journal = {Physical Review Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {105},
	  number = {22},
	  pages = {226102},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.226102},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.226102}
	}
	
Precise nitrogen depth profiling by high-resolution RBS in combination with angle-resolved XPS
K. Kimura, K. Nakajima, T. Conard, W. Vandervorst, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 268 (11-12) (2010) 1960-1963.
Abstract: Nitrogen depth profiling in a high-k gate stack structure, SiON/HfO2/SiON/Si(0 0 1) was performed by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) in combination with angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The nitrogen depth profile is determined so that both the HRBS spectrum and the angular dependence of the XPS yield are reproduced. The obtained nitrogen profile is compared with the result of high-resolution elastic recoil detection (ERD) which is the most reliable technique for depth profiling of light elements. The agreement between the result of the present combination analysis and that of high-resolution ERD is fairly good, showing that the present combination analysis is a promising method for the analysis of light elements.
BibTeX:
	@article{Kimura2010,
	  author = {Kimura, K. and Nakajima, K. and Conard, T. and Vandervorst, W. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Precise nitrogen depth profiling by high-resolution RBS in combination with angle-resolved XPS},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {268},
	  number = {11-12},
	  pages = {1960-1963},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)2},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X1000203X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.108}
	}
	
Analysis of ultra-Thin HfO2/SiON/Si(001): Comparison of three different techniques
K. Kimura, K. Nakajima, T. Conard, W. Vandervorst, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Analytical Sciences 26 (2) (2010) 223-226.
Abstract: Composition depth profiling of HfO2 (2.5 nm)/SiON (1.6 nm)/Si(001) was performed by three diffetent analytical techniques: high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS), angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and high-resolution elastic recoil detection (HR-ERD). By comparing these results we found the following: (1) HRBS generally provides accurate depth profiles. However, care must be taken in backgroud subtraction for depth profiling of light elements. (2) In the standard AR-XPS analysis, a simple exponential formula is often used to calculate the photoelectron escape probability. This simple formula, however, cannot be used for the precise depth profiling. (2) Although HR-ERD is the most reliable technique for the depth profiling of light elements, it may suffer from multiple scattering, which deteriorates the depth resolution, and also may cause a large background.
BibTeX:
	@article{Kimura2010a,
	  author = {Kimura, K. and Nakajima, K. and Conard, T. and Vandervorst, W. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Analysis of ultra-Thin HfO2/SiON/Si(001): Comparison of three different techniques},
	  journal = {Analytical Sciences},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {26},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {223--226},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)2},
	  url = {https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/analsci/26/2/26_2_223/_article},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.26.223}
	}
	
A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting
G. Korschinek, A. Bergmaier, T. Faestermann, U. Gerstmann, K. Knie, G. Rugel, A. Wallner, I. Dillmann, G. Dollinger, C. von Gostomski, K. Kossert, M. Maiti, M. Poutivtsev and A. Remmert; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 268 (2) (2010) 187-191.
Abstract: The importance of 10Be in different applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is well-known. In this context the half-life of 10Be has a crucial impact, and an accurate and precise determination of the half-life is a prerequisite for many of the applications of 10Be in cosmic-ray and earth science research. Recently, the value of the 10Be half-life has been the centre of much debate. In order to overcome uncertainties inherent in previous determinations, we introduced a new method of high accuracy and precision. An aliquot of our highly enriched 10Be master solution was serially diluted with increasing well-known masses of 9Be. We then determined the initial 10Be concentration by least square fit to the series of measurements of the resultant 10Be/9Be ratio. In order to minimize uncertainties because of mass bias which plague other low-energy mass spectrometric methods, we used for the first time Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) for the determination of the 10Be/9Be isotopic ratios, a technique which does not suffer from difficult to control mass fractionation. The specific activity of the master solution was measured by means of accurate liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The resultant combination of the 10Be concentration and activity yields a 10Be half-life of T1/2 = 1.388 ± 0.018 (1 s, 1.30%) Ma. In a parallel but independent study (Chmeleff et al. [11]), found a value of 1.386 ± 0.016 (1.15%) Ma. Our recommended weighted mean and mean standard error for the new value for 10Be half-life based on these two independent measurements is 1.387 ± 0.012 (0.87%) Ma.
BibTeX:
	@article{Korschinek2010,
	  author = {Korschinek, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Faestermann, T. and Gerstmann, U.C. and Knie, K. and Rugel, G. and Wallner, A. and Dillmann, I. and Dollinger, G. and von Gostomski, Ch.L. and Kossert, K. and Maiti, M. and Poutivtsev, M. and Remmert, A.},
	  title = {A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {268},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {187--191},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)163},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X09009872},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.09.020}
	}
	
Divacancies and the hydrogenation of Mg-Ti films with short range chemical order
H. Leegwater, H. Schut, W. Egger, A. Baldi, B. Dam and S. Eijt; Applied Physics Letters 96 (12) (2010) 121902.
Abstract: We obtained evidence for the partial chemical segregation of as-deposited and hydrogenated Mg1-yTiy films (0≤y≤0.30) into nanoscale Ti and Mg domains using positron Doppler-broadening. We exclusively monitor the hydrogenation of Mg domains, owing to the large difference in positron affinity for Mg and Ti. The electron momentum distribution broadens significantly upon transformation to the MgH2 phase over the whole compositional range. This reveals the similarity of the metal-insulator transition for rutile and fluorite MgH2. Positron lifetime studies show the presence of divacancies in the as-deposited and hydrogenated Mg-Ti metal films. In conjunction with the relatively large local lattice relaxations we deduce to be present in fluorite MgH2, these may be responsible for the fast hydrogen sorption kinetics in this MgH2 phase. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
BibTeX:
	@article{Leegwater2010,
	  author = {Leegwater, H. and Schut, H. and Egger, W. and Baldi, A. and Dam, B. and Eijt, S.W.H.},
	  title = {Divacancies and the hydrogenation of Mg-Ti films with short range chemical order},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {96},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {121902},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3368698},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3368698}
	}
	
Ordered nanoporous membranes based on diblock copolymers with high chemical stability and tunable separation properties
X. Li, C.-A. Fustin, N. Lefèvre, J.-F. Gohy, S. Feyter, J. Baerdemaeker, W. Egger and I. Vankelecom; Journal of Materials Chemistry 20 (21) (2010) 4333-4339.
Abstract: Block copolymers, having the ability to self-assemble into arrays of well-defined nanostructures, can be turned into thin films. Their application as membrane was so far strongly limited by the fact that these thin films have to be transferred manually onto a porous membrane support, or because of the very strict preparation conditions. A simple method is reported here to directly produce ordered nanoporous membranes on porous supports. Well-ordered membrane structures were prepared via a simple strategy exploiting blending of a block copolymer (PS-b-PEO) with a homopolymer (PAA), involving no thermal or solvent treatment. The membranes could be directly introduced on several types of porous membrane supports via straightforward spin or dip coating of very small amounts of polymer. Moreover, the permeability of the membranes could be readily tuned by removal of the PAA without changing membrane morphology. While already inherently stable in e.g. sodium hypochlorite solutions, the chemical stability of the membranes could be further enhanced via simple UV-radiation, clearly widening their potential application field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.
BibTeX:
	@article{Li2010,
	  author = {Li, X. and Fustin, C.-A. and Lefèvre, N. and Gohy, J.-F. and Feyter, S.D. and Baerdemaeker, J.D. and Egger, W. and Vankelecom, I.F.J.},
	  title = {Ordered nanoporous membranes based on diblock copolymers with high chemical stability and tunable separation properties},
	  journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {20},
	  number = {21},
	  pages = {4333-4339},
	  url = {http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2010/JM/b926774c#!divAbstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1039/b926774c}
	}
	
Experimental elucidation of vacancy complexes associated with hydrogen ion-induced splitting of bulk GaN
O. Moutanabbir, R. Scholz, U. Gösele, A. Guittoum, M. Jungmann, M. Butterling, R. Krause-Rehberg, W. Anwand, W. Egger and P. Sperr; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 81 (11) (2010) 115205.
Abstract: We present a detailed study of the thermal evolution of H ion-induced vacancy related complexes and voids in bulk GaN implanted under ion-cut conditions. By using transmission electron microscopy, we found that the damage band in as-implanted GaN is decorated with a high density of nanobubbles of ∼1-2nm in diameter. Variable energy Doppler broadening spectroscopy showed that this band contains vacancy clusters and voids. In addition to vacancy clusters, the presence of VGa, VGa -H2, and VGaVN complexes was evidenced by pulsed low-energy positron lifetime spectroscopy. Subtle changes upon annealing in these vacancy complexes were also investigated. As a general trend, a growth in open-volume defects is detected in parallel to an increase in both size and density of nanobubbles. The observed vacancy complexes appear to be stable during annealing. However, for temperatures above 450°C, unusually large lifetimes were measured. These lifetimes are attributed to the formation of positronium in GaN. Since the formation of positronium is not possible in a dense semiconductor, our finding demonstrates the presence of sufficiently large open-volume defects in this temperature range. Based on the Tao-Eldrup model, the average lattice opening during thermal annealing was quantified. We found that a void diameter of 0.4 nm is induced by annealing at 600°C. The role of these complexes in the subsurface microcracking is discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
BibTeX:
	@article{Moutanabbir2010,
	  author = {Moutanabbir, O. and Scholz, R. and Gösele, U. and Guittoum, A. and Jungmann, M. and Butterling, M. and Krause-Rehberg, R. and Anwand, W. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P.},
	  title = {Experimental elucidation of vacancy complexes associated with hydrogen ion-induced splitting of bulk GaN},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {81},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {115205},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.81.115205},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.81.115205}
	}
	
Bimodal range distributions of low-energy carbon ions in tetrahedral amorphous carbon
P. Neumaier, A. Bergmaier, W. Eckstein, R. Fischer, H. Hofsäss, H. Jäger, H. Kröger, C. Ronning and G. Dollinger; EPL 90 (4) (2010) 46002.
Abstract: Range and mixing distributions of carbon ions deposited onto tetrahedral amorphous carbon films at kinetic energies between 22 eV and 692 eV are measured utilizing high-resolution elastic recoil detection. These data are compared to respective calculations based on binary collision approximation as well as to classical molecular-dynamics simulations. The measured range profiles reveal asymmetric, bimodal structures which are not reproduced from theories. The measured mixing distributions approve the measured range distributions, in particular the observed differences between theory and experiment, which have to be considered in subplantation growth models.
BibTeX:
	@article{Neumaier2010,
	  author = {Neumaier, P. and Bergmaier, A. and Eckstein, W. and Fischer, R. and Hofsäss, H. and Jäger, H.U. and Kröger, H. and Ronning, C. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Bimodal range distributions of low-energy carbon ions in tetrahedral amorphous carbon},
	  journal = {EPL},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {90},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {46002},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)0},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1209/0295-5075/90/46002/meta},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/90/46002}
	}
	
Open volume in bioadhesive detected by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy
K. Rätzke, M. Wiegemann, M. Shaikh, S. Harms, R. Adelung, W. Egger and P. Sperr; Acta Biomaterialia 6 (7) (2010) 2690-2694.
Abstract: Barnacles attach to a wide variety of surfaces underwater and show substrate-specific adhesion mechanisms. Investigating and understanding these mechanisms is a key for developing new technical adhesives. We expected open volume (porosity) at the sub-nanometre scale to occur in barnacle adhesive. With positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) it is possible to detect porosity at the nanometre scale by determining the lifetime of positrons. This method has not been applied to bioadhesives so far. We showed that PALS is a suitable technique for the investigation of the barnacle base and its adhesive with respect to open volume. The results were interpreted using a standard model adapted from polymers. We thereby estimated pore sizes of 0.5 nm. © 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Raetzke2010,
	  author = {Rätzke, K. and Wiegemann, M. and Shaikh, M.Q. and Harms, S. and Adelung, R. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P.},
	  title = {Open volume in bioadhesive detected by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Acta Biomaterialia},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {6},
	  number = {7},
	  pages = {2690-2694},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1742706109005807},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.12.039}
	}
	
In-vacancies in Si-doped InN
C. Rauch, F. Reurings, F. Tuomisto, T. Veal, C. McConville, H. Lu, W. Schaff, C. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, J. Speck, W. Egger, B. Löwe, L. Ravelli and S. Sojak; Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science 207 (5) (2010) 1083-1086.
Abstract: The introduction of vacancy type point defects by Si doping in InN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. With the combination of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements, compensating In-vacancy (V In) acceptors were identified in the material. For increasing Si doping an enhanced formation of VIn defects was observed, up to a concentration of c V = 7 × 10 17 cm -3 in the highest doped sample (ne = 6:6 × 10 20 cm -3). A strong inhomogeneity of the defect profile with a significant increase of the V In concentration toward the layer/substrate interface could be detected. Additionally, larger vacancy clusters containing several V In are formed in the proximity of the interface. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &amp; Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BibTeX:
	@article{Rauch2010,
	  author = {Rauch, C. and Reurings, F. and Tuomisto, F. and Veal, T.D. and McConville, C.F. and Lu, H. and Schaff, W.J. and Gallinat, C.S. and Koblmüller, G. and Speck, J.S. and Egger, W. and Löwe, B. and Ravelli, L. and Sojak, S.},
	  title = {In-vacancies in Si-doped InN},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {207},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {1083-1086},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.200983120/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200983120}
	}
	
Irradiation-induced defects in InN and GaN studied with positron annihilation
F. Reurings, F. Tuomisto, W. Egger, B. Löwe, L. Ravelli, S. Sojak, Z. Liliental-Weber, R. Jones, K. Yu, W. Walukiewicz and W. Schaff; Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science 207 (5) (2010) 1087-1090.
Abstract: We use positron annihilation to study 2-MeV 4He + irradiated and subsequently rapid-thermal-annealed InN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The irradiation fluences were in the range 5×10 14-2×10 16 cm -2. In vacancies are introduced in the irradiation at a low rate of 100 cm -1, with their concentration saturating in the mid-1017 cm -3 range at an irradiation fluence of 2×10 15 cm -2. The annealing, performed at temperatures between 425 and 475 °C, is observed to result in an inhomogeneous redistribution of the In vacancies. The behaviour is opposite to GaN, where Ga vacancies are introduced at a much higher rate of 3600 cm -1 showing no detectable saturation. About half of the Ga vacancies are found to recover in the annealing, in agreement with previous studies, while the remaining Ga vacancies undergo no spatial redistribution. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &amp; Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reurings2010,
	  author = {Reurings, F. and Tuomisto, F. and Egger, W. and Löwe, B. and Ravelli, L. and Sojak, S. and Liliental-Weber, Z. and Jones, R.E. and Yu, K.M. and Walukiewicz, W. and Schaff, W.J.},
	  title = {Irradiation-induced defects in InN and GaN studied with positron annihilation},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {207},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {1087-1090},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.200983111/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200983111}
	}
	
Differences in the kinetics of γ-H2AX fluorescence decay after exposure to low and high LET radiation
T.E. Schmid, G. Dollinger, W. Beisker, V. Hable, C. Greubel, S. Auer, A. Mittag, A. Tarnok, A.A. Friedl, M. Molls and B. Röper; International Journal of Radiation Biology 86 (8) (2010) 682-691.
Abstract: Purpose:
In order to obtain more insight into heavy ion tumour therapy, some features of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling the cellular response to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are currently analysed.

Materials and methods:
We analysed the decay of the integrated fluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) which is thought to reflect the repair kinetics of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) using Laser-Scanning-Cytometry. Asynchronous human HeLa cells were irradiated with a single dose of either 1.89 Gy of 55 MeV carbon ions or 5 Gy of 70 kV X-rays.

Results:
Measurements of the γ-H2AX-intensities from 15–60 min resulted in a 16 % decrease for carbon ions and in a 43 % decrease for X-rays. After 21 h, the decrease was 77 % for carbon ions and 85 % for X-rays. The corresponding time-effect relationship was fitted by a bi-exponential function showing a fast and a slow component with identical half-life values for both radiation qualities being 24 ± 4 min and 13.9 ± 0.7 h, respectively. Apparent differences in the kinetics following high and low LET irradiation could completely be attributed to quantitative differences in their contributions, with the slow component being responsible for 47 % of the repair after exposure to X-rays as compared to 80 % after carbon ion irradiation.

Conclusion:
γ-H2AX loss kinetics follows a bi-exponential decline with two definite decay times independent of LET. The higher contribution of the slow component determined for carbon ion exposure is thought to reflect the increased amount of complex DSB induced by high LET radiation.

BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2010,
	  author = {Schmid, Thomas E. and Dollinger, Günther and Beisker, Wolfgang and Hable, Volker and Greubel, Christoph and Auer, Susanne and Mittag, Anja and Tarnok, Attila and Friedl, Anna A. and Molls, Michael and Röper, Barbara},
	  title = {Differences in the kinetics of γ-H2AX fluorescence decay after exposure to low and high LET radiation},
	  journal = {International Journal of Radiation Biology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {86},
	  number = {8},
	  pages = {682--691},
	  note = {PMID: 20569192},
	  url = {http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09553001003734543},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3109/09553001003734543}
	}
	
Relative biological effectiveness of pulsed and continuous 20 MeV protons for micronucleus induction in 3D human reconstructed skin tissue
T.E. Schmid, G. Dollinger, V. Hable, C. Greubel, O. Zlobinskaya, D. Michalski, M. Molls and B. Röper; Radiotherapy and Oncology 95 (1) (2010) 66-72.
Abstract: Background and purpose: Laser accelerated radiotherapy is a prospect for cancer treatment with proton and/or carbon ion beams that is currently under fast development. In principal, ultra fast, high-energy laser pulses will lead to a "pulsed" delivery of the induced ion beam with pulse durations of 1 ns and below, whereas conventional proton beams deriving from a cyclotron or synchrotron apply the dose within 100 ms ("continuous"). Materials and methods: A simulation of both irradiation modes could be established at the Munich tandem accelerator with a 20 MeV proton beam, and a wide-field fast scanning system was implemented that allowed for application of up to 5 Gy per tissue voxel in a single pulse. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of pulsed and continuous modes of irradiation with 20 MeV protons relative to the reference radiation 70 kV X-rays was examined in a human tissue model (3D human reconstructed skin, EpiDermFT™) which preserves the three-dimensional geometric arrangement and communication of cells present in tissues in vivo. Using the induction of micronuclei (MN) in keratinocytes as the biological endpoint, the RBE was calculated as the ratio between the dose of 70 kV X-rays and 3 Gy of 20 MeV protons (pulsed or continuous) which produced equal response. Results: For pulsed and continuous 20 MV proton exposures of the human skin model, RBE values of 1.08 ± 0.20 and 1.22 ± 0.15 versus 70 kV X-rays were obtained in a first experiment and 1.00 ± 0.14 and 1.13 ± 0.14 in a second experiment during distinct beam access times, respectively. The ∼10% difference in RBE between the respective irradiation modes in both experiments was associated with large uncertainties which were not statistically significant (p ≈ 0.5). Conclusion: These findings represent an important step on the way towards application of laser-accelerated protons for clinical radiotherapy. Further clinically relevant endpoints in normal and tumor tissue have to be evaluated.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2010a,
	  author = {Schmid, Thomas E. and Dollinger, Günther and Hable, Volker and Greubel, Christoph and Zlobinskaya, Olga and Michalski, Dörte and Molls, Michael and Röper, Barbara},
	  title = {Relative biological effectiveness of pulsed and continuous 20 MeV protons for micronucleus induction in 3D human reconstructed skin tissue},
	  journal = {Radiotherapy and Oncology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2010},
	  volume = {95},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {66--72},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167814010001623},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2010.03.010}
	}
	

2009

Characterization of ZnO nanostructures: A challenge to positron annihilation spectroscopy and other methods
G. Brauer, W. Anwand, D. Grambole, W. Egger, P. Sperr, I. Beinik, L. Wang, C. Teichert, J. Kuriplach, J. Lang, S. Zviagins, E. Cizmar, C.C. Ling, Y.F. Hsu, Y.Y. Xi, X. Chen, A.B. Djurisic and W. Skorupa; Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics 6 (11) (2009) 2556-2560.
Abstract: ZnO nanostructures are of special interest for device applications. However, their structural characterization remains an ongoing challenge. This paper reviews recent efforts and latest achievements in this direction. Results comprise PAS in the form of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) and Pulsed Low Energy Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLEPS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM (C-AFM), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and latest theoretical investigations of structure-related and positron properties of selected defects. The fundamental importance of a relationship between fabrication conditions, native defect formation, and resulting optical and electronic properties is demonstrated by getting either inferior (nanorods) or significantly improved (tetrapods) optical properties compared to single crystal samples, depending on the nanostructure fabrication method.
BibTeX:
	@article{Brauer2009,
	  author = {Brauer, Gerhard and Anwand, Wolfgang and Grambole, Dieter and Egger, Werner and Sperr, Peter and Beinik, Igor and Wang, Lin and Teichert, Christian and Kuriplach, Jan and Lang, Jan and Zviagins, Sergei and Cizmar, Erik and Ling, Chi Chung and Hsu, Yuk Fan and Xi, Yan Yan and Chen, Xinyi and Djurisic, Aleksandra B. and Skorupa, Wolfgang},
	  title = {Characterization of ZnO nanostructures: A challenge to positron annihilation spectroscopy and other methods},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {6},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {2556-2560},
	  note = {ICPA 15},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.200982081/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200982081}
	}
	
Probing the Molecular Level of Polyimide-Based Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membranes with Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
A. Cano-Odena, P. Vandezande, K. Hendrix, R. Zaman, K. Mostafa, W. Egger, P. Sperr, J. De Baerdemaeker and I.F.J. Vankelecom; Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113 (30) (2009) 10170–10176.
Abstract: Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been performed to link fundamental polymer properties to membrane performance, more specifically for polyimide (PI)-based solvent-resistant nanofiltration membranes. Laboratory-made membranes with well-known properties were applied first to define proper pretreatment conditions for the membrane to allow PAS-analysis and to allow more correct linking of PAS results to membrane properties. This knowledge was then applied to probe the structure of commercial PI-based Starmem membranes.
BibTeX:
	@article{Cano-Odena2009,
	  author = {Cano-Odena, Angels and Vandezande, Pieter and Hendrix, Katrien and Zaman, Rolph and Mostafa, Khaled and Egger, Werner and Sperr, Peter and De Baerdemaeker, Jeremie and Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.},
	  title = {Probing the Molecular Level of Polyimide-Based Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membranes with Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Journal of Physical Chemistry B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {113},
	  number = {30},
	  pages = {10170–10176},
	  url = {http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp9012653},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9012653}
	}
	
Hydrogen-induced defects in Pd films
J. Cizek, I. Prochazka, O. Melikhova, M. Vlach, N. Zaludova, G. Brauer, W. Anwand, W. Egger, P. Sperr, C. Hugenschmidt, R. Gemma, A. Pundt and R. Kirchheim; Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics 6 (11) (2009) 2364-2366.
Abstract: Hydrogen absorbed in crystalline solids causes a lattice expansion and the formation of hydride phases. Contrary to free standing bulk samples, thin films are fixed at substrates, which prevent their in-plane expansion. This makes hydrogen-induced expansion of thin films highly anisotropic and leads to the formation of high stresses in hydrogen loaded thin films. As a consequence, lattice defects may be created in thin films loaded with hydrogen. This work reports about defects created by hydrogen loading in epitaxial Pd films deposited on Al(2)O(3) substrates by cold cathode beam sputtering. Hydrogen-induced defects are characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy performed with variable energy slow positron beams. Extended studies of defect depth profile and its development with increasing concentration of hydrogen are performed by measurement of Doppler broadening of annihilation profile using a continuous positron beam. Selected states are investigated also by positron lifetime spectroscopy on an intense pulsed positron beam. Firstly, the microstructure of virgin films is characterized. Subsequently, the hydrogen concentration in the films is increased step-by-step by electrochemical charging. The development of the film microstructure and the evolution of defects are investigated.
BibTeX:
	@article{Cizek2009,
	  author = {Cizek, Jakub and Prochazka, Ivan and Melikhova, Oksana and Vlach, Martin and Zaludova, Nada and Brauer, Gerhard and Anwand, Wolfgang and Egger, Werner and Sperr, Peter and Hugenschmidt, Christoph and Gemma, Ryota and Pundt, Astrid and Kirchheim, Reiner},
	  title = {Hydrogen-induced defects in Pd films},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {6},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {2364-2366},
	  note = {ICPA 15},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.200982064/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200982064}
	}
	
Nanosecond pulsed proton microbeam
G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier, V. Hable, R. Hertenberger, C. Greubel, A. Hauptner and P. Reichart; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 267 (12-13) (2009) 2008-2012.
Abstract: We show the preparation of a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam at the Munich tandem accelerator which offers a fluence of more than 1 × 10e9 protons/cm2 being deposited in a beam spot smaller than 100 μm in diameter and within a time span of 0.9 ns fwhm. Such a beam is produced by an ECR type proton source using charge exchange in cesium vapor to obtain a beam of negative hydrogen of high brightness that is bunched, chopped, accelerated and then focused by the superconducting multipole lens of the microprobe SNAKE. Single beam pulses are generated in order to irradiate cell samples or tissue and to measure their biological effect in comparison to continuous proton or X-ray irradiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2009,
	  author = {Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Hable, V. and Hertenberger, R. and Greubel, C. and Hauptner, A. and Reichart, P.},
	  title = {Nanosecond pulsed proton microbeam},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications and the 3rd International Workshop on Proton Beam Writing},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {267},
	  number = {12-13},
	  pages = {2008--2012},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X09003310},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.006}
	}
	
Nature of defects induced by Au implantation in hexagonal silicon carbide single crystals
A. Gentils, M.-F. Barthe, W. Egger and P. Sperr; AIP Conference Proceedings 1099 (2009) 891-895.
Abstract: Pulsed-slow-positron-beam-based positron lifetime spectroscopy was used to investigate the nature of vacancy defects induced by 20 MeV An implantation in single crystals 6H-SiC. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that at lower fluence, below 10(14) cm(-2), a positron lifetime of 220 ps has been obtained: it could be associated with the divacancy V(Si)-V(C) in comparison with the literature. At higher fluence, above 10(15) cm(-2), a positron lifetime of 260-270 ps, increasing with the incident positron energy, has been observed after decomposition of the lifetime spectra. By comparison with lifetime calculations, open-volumes such as quadrivacancy (V(Si)-V(C))(2) clusters could be associated with this value.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gentils2009,
	  author = {Gentils, Aurelie and Barthe, Marie-France and Egger, Werner and Sperr, Peter},
	  title = {Nature of defects induced by Au implantation in hexagonal silicon carbide single crystals},
	  journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {1099},
	  pages = {891--895},
	  note = {20th International Conference on Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, Ft Worth, TX, AUG 10-15, 2008},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.3120183},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3120183}
	}
	
Swift heavy ion irradiation induced effects in Si/SiOx multi-layered films and nanostructures
J. Gerlach, C. Patzig, W. Assmann, A. Bergmaier, T. Höche, J. Zajadacz, R. Fechner and B. Rauschenbach; Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 1181 (2009) 1181-DD04-01.
Abstract: Amorphous Si/SiOx multilayered films and nanostructures were deposited on Si substrates by the glancing angle deposition technique using Ar ion beam sputtering of a Si sputter target in an intermittent oxygen atmosphere at room temperature. The chemical composition of the samples was characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, as well as - for quantifying these first results - by elastic recoil detection analysis using a 200 MeV Au ion beam. The latter method was found to lead to a significant alteration of the sample morphology, resulting in the formation of complex nanometric structures within the layer stacks. In order to investigate these swift heavy ion irradiation induced effects in more detail, a series of experiments was performed to determine the dominating influences. For this purpose, specific glancing angle deposited multi-layered films and nanostructures were irradiated to constant ion fluence with the same 200 MeV Au ion beam at different incidence angles. Scanning electron microscopy of the stacks before and after swift Au ion irradiation revealed considerable changes in film morphology and density as a function of the ion incidence angle, such as an increased porosity of the silicon layers, accompanied by layer swelling. In contrast, the SiOx layers did not show such effects, but exhibited clearly visible swift heavy ion tracks. The observed effects became stronger with decreasing ion incidence angle.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gerlach2009,
	  author = {Gerlach, J.W. and Patzig, C. and Assmann, W. and Bergmaier, A. and Höche, T. and Zajadacz, J. and Fechner, R. and Rauschenbach, B.},
	  title = {Swift heavy ion irradiation induced effects in Si/SiOx multi-layered films and nanostructures},
	  booktitle = {Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings},
	  journal = {Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {1181},
	  pages = {1181-DD04-01},
	  note = {cited By 0},
	  url = {https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/mrs-online-proceedings-library-archive/article/swift-heavy-ion-irradiation-induced-effects-in-sisiox-multilayered-films-and-nanostructures/D5C6F79367CC60ED56D9E7F62B9E79FB},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1181-DD04-01}
	}
	
The live cell irradiation and observation setup at SNAKE
V. Hable, C. Greubel, A. Bergmaier, P. Reichart, A. Hauptner, R. Krücken, H. Strickfaden, S. Dietzel, T. Cremer, G. Drexler, A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 267 (12-13) (2009) 2090-2097.
Abstract: We describe a new setup at the ion microprobe SNAKE (Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied nuclear (Kern-) physics Experiments) at the Munich 14 MV Tandem accelerator that facilitates both living cell irradiation with sub micrometer resolution and online optical imaging of the cells before and after irradiation by state of the art phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. The cells are kept at standard cell growth conditions at 37 °C in cell culture medium. After irradiation it is possible to switch from single ion irradiation conditions to cell observation within 0.5 s. First experiments were performed targeting substructures of a cell nucleus that were tagged by TexasRed labeled nucleotides incorporated in the cellular DNA by 55 MeV single carbon ion irradiation. In addition we show first online sequences of short time kinetics of Mdc1 protein accumulation in the vicinity of double strand breaks after carbon ion irradiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hable2009,
	  author = {Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Bergmaier, A. and Reichart, P. and Hauptner, A. and Krücken, R. and Strickfaden, H. and Dietzel, S. and Cremer, T. and Drexler, G.A. and Friedl, A.A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {The live cell irradiation and observation setup at SNAKE},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications and the 3rd International Workshop on Proton Beam Writing},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {267},
	  number = {12-13},
	  pages = {2090--2097},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X09003504},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.071}
	}
	
Microstructural study of He-implanted Fe-Cr alloys with the use of conventional lifetime technique and pulsed low energy positron beam
V. Kršjak, V. Slugeň, M. Petriska, S. Sojak and W. Egger; Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics 6 (11) (2009) 2339-2341.
Abstract: Experimental simulation of the radiation damage using He+ implantation has been performed in research of Fe-Cr model alloys. Different chromium content in the studied materials enables investigations of the effect of this element on the microstructure of radiation treated materials. The damaged region was investigated with the positron lifetime techniques with focus on the size and distribution of the defects. Our measurements show that not only pulsed low energy positron beam spectroscopy (PLEPS) but also conventional lifetime spectroscopy can study the behaviour of vacancy type defects induced by implantation of charged particles. Our results show that initial microstructure of low Cr alloys with significant presence of vacancy type defects is less resistant to creation of defect agglomeration in comparison with higher Cr alloys.
BibTeX:
	@article{Krsjak2009,
	  author = {Kršjak, Vladimir and Slugeň, Vladimir and Petriska, Martin and Sojak, Stanislav and Egger, Werner},
	  title = {Microstructural study of He-implanted Fe-Cr alloys with the use of conventional lifetime technique and pulsed low energy positron beam},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {6},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {2339-2341},
	  note = {ICPA 15},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.200982117/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200982117}
	}
	
Helium implanted FeCr alloys studied by positron annihilation lifetime technique
V. Kršjak, W. Egger, M. Petriska and S. Sojak; Problems of Atomic Science and Technology 4 (1) (2009) 109-115.
Abstract: The influence of chromium on the radiation damage resistance of iron based alloys has been studied using conventional positron lifetime technique and a pulsed low energy positron beam. To simulate high neutron flux, the helium implantation has been used. Different levels of helium doses ( 6.24.10(17)-3.12.10(18) cm(-2)) corresponding to a local damage of up to 90 dpa were accumulated in a thin <1 mu m region. Four different binary FeCr alloys (2.6; 4.6; 8.4; 11.6 wt.% of Cr) have been used in this study. The obtained results show that chromium has a significant effect on the size and distribution of the created defects. The character of these defects has been determined as large voids (>1 nm) and small vacancy clusters together with the initial dislocations and small point defects.
BibTeX:
	@article{Krsjak2009a,
	  author = {Kršjak, Vladimir and Egger, Werner and Petriska, Martin and Sojak, Stanislav},
	  title = {Helium implanted FeCr alloys studied by positron annihilation lifetime technique},
	  journal = {Problems of Atomic Science and Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {4},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {109--115},
	  note = {IAEA Technical Meeting on Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Medeling of Radiation Effect, Kharkov Inst Phys & Technol, Natl Res Ctr, Kharkov, UKRAINE, JUN 09-13, 2008},
	  url = {http://vant.kipt.kharkov.ua/ANNOTAZII_2009/annotazii_2009_4_109.html}
	}
	
Positron annihilation studies on the nature and thermal behaviour of irradiation induced defects in tungsten
P.E. Lhuillier, M.F. Barthe, P. Desgardin, W. Egger and P. Sperr; Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics 6 (11) (2009) 2329-2332.
Abstract: Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy has been performed with a pulsed positron beam to investigate the nature and evolution of implantation-induced defects created in the track region (TR) of 800 keV (3)He ions at different fluences. At high fluence - 5x10(16) cm(-2) - lifetime decomposition exhibits a predominant (98%) positron lifetime of 200 ps which is attributed to irradiation induced monovacancy. The increasing average lifetime as a function of the post-implantation annealing temperature has allowed to identify vacancy clustering due to vacancy migration (that occurs from 473 K).
BibTeX:
	@article{Lhuillier2009,
	  author = {Lhuillier, P. E. and Barthe, M. F. and Desgardin, P. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P.},
	  title = {Positron annihilation studies on the nature and thermal behaviour of irradiation induced defects in tungsten},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {6},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {2329-2332},
	  note = {ICPA 15},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.200982114/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200982114}
	}
	
Role of cross-shell excitations in the reaction 54Fe(d →, p)55Fe
M. Mahgoub, R. Krücken, T. Faestermann, A. Bergmaier, D. Bucurescu, R. Hertenberger, T. Kröll, H.-F. Wirth and A. Lisetskiy; European Physical Journal A 40 (1) (2009) 35-43.
Abstract: The reaction 54Fe(d→, p)55Fe was studied at the Munich Q3D spectrograph with a 14MeV polarized deuteron beam. Excitation energies, angular distributions and analyzing powers were measured for 39 states up to 4.5MeV excitation energy. Spin and parity assignments were made and spectroscopic factors deduced by comparison to DWBA calculations. The results were compared to predictions by large-scale shell model calculations in the full pf -shell and it was found that reasonable agreement for energies and spectroscopic factors below 2.5MeV could only be obtained if up to 6 particles were allowed to be excited from the f 7/2 orbital into p 3/2 , f 5/2 , and p 1/2 orbitals across the N = 28 gap. For levels above 2.5MeV the experimental strength distribution was found to be significantly more fragmented than predicted by the shell model calculations.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mahgoub2009,
	  author = {Mahgoub, M. and Krücken, R. and Faestermann, Th. and Bergmaier, A. and Bucurescu, D. and Hertenberger, R. and Kröll, Th. and Wirth, H.-F. and Lisetskiy, A.F.},
	  title = {Role of cross-shell excitations in the reaction 54Fe(d →, p)55Fe},
	  journal = {European Physical Journal A},
	  type = {OpenAccess},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {40},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {35-43},
	  note = {cited By 3},
	  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepja%2Fi2008-10727-x},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2008-10727-x}
	}
	
Direct evidence by positron annihilation spectroscopy of defect distributions deeper than Rp in Ar+ implanted silica glass
P. Mazzoldi, G. Mattei, L. Ravelli, W. Egger, S. Mariazzi and R.S. Brusa; Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 42 (11) (2009) 115418.
Abstract: Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to depth profile the modification of intrinsic structural nanovoids in silica glass implanted with Ar+ ions at different fluences and implantation energies. Beyond an expected defect distribution below the ion projected range R-p, a second defect distribution extending more than two times deeper than R-p was revealed. This second defective layer was found to be related to recoiled oxygen atoms whose diffusion is probably increased by the stress gradient induced by the compaction of the first layer.
BibTeX:
	@article{Mazzoldi2009,
	  author = {Mazzoldi, P. and Mattei, G. and Ravelli, L. and Egger, W. and Mariazzi, S. and Brusa, R. S.},
	  title = {Direct evidence by positron annihilation spectroscopy of defect distributions deeper than Rp in Ar+ implanted silica glass},
	  journal = {Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {42},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {115418},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/42/11/115418/},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/11/115418}
	}
	
A Time of Flight-Energy spectrometer for stopping power measurements in Heavy Ion-ERD analysis at iThemba LABS
M. Msimanga, C. Comrie, C. Pineda-Vargas, S. Murray, R. Bark and G. Dollinger; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 267 (16) (2009) 2671-2674.
Abstract: The quantitative analysis of thin layers using Heavy Ion-Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) can be reliably performed if the stopping powers of the probing ions and recoils in a given target matrix are known accurately. Unfortunately for many projectile/target combinations experimental data is limited and where available, deviations of up to 50% between experiment and theory have been reported. This presentation describes the assembly of a Time of Flight-Energy (ToF-E) detector system developed for HI-ERD analysis and adapted for stopping power measurements at iThemba LABS. First results from energy loss measurements of 0.1-0.5 MeV/nucleon 28Si and 84Kr ions in ZrO2 are presented and compared with predictions of the widely used SRIM2003 (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter).
BibTeX:
	@article{Msimanga2009,
	  author = {Msimanga, M. and Comrie, C.M. and Pineda-Vargas, C.A. and Murray, S. and Bark, R. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {A Time of Flight-Energy spectrometer for stopping power measurements in Heavy Ion-ERD analysis at iThemba LABS},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {267},
	  number = {16},
	  pages = {2671-2674},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)4},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X09006235},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.05.014}
	}
	
Hydrogen Analysis by Proton-Proton Scattering
P. Reichart and G. Dollinger; In: Y. Wang and M. Nastasi (Eds.), Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (2nd Ed.) , Chapter 9 , p. 187-206 , Materials Research Society , 2009.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Reichart2009,
	  author = {Reichart, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Hydrogen Analysis by Proton-Proton Scattering},
	  booktitle = {Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (2nd Ed.)},
	  publisher = {Materials Research Society},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  pages = {187--206},
	  edition = {2nd},
	  editor = {Y. Wang and M. Nastasi},
	  url = {http://www.mrs.org/ibh2}
	}
	
Proton–Proton Scattering Cross Sections
P. Reichart and G. Dollinger; In: Y. Wang and M. Nastasi (Eds.), Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (2nd Ed.) Appendices , Chapter 14 , p. 229-254 , Materials Research Society , 2009.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Reichart2009a,
	  author = {Reichart, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Proton–Proton Scattering Cross Sections},
	  booktitle = {Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (2nd Ed.) Appendices},
	  publisher = {Materials Research Society},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  pages = {229--254},
	  edition = {2nd},
	  editor = {Y. Wang and M. Nastasi},
	  url = {http://www.mrs.org/ibh2}
	}
	
No Evidence for a Different RBE between Pulsed and Continuous 20 MeV Protons
T.E. Schmid, G. Dollinger, A. Hauptner, V. Hable, C. Greubel, S. Auer, A.A. Friedl, M. Molls and B. Röper; Radiation Research 172 (5) (2009) 567-574.
Abstract: To obtain greater insight into the future potential of tumor radiotherapy using proton beams generated from high-intensity lasers, it is important to characterize the ionization quality of the new beams by measuring the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) under conditions where the full dose at one irradiation site will be deposited by a few proton pulses less than 1 ns in duration. HeLa cells attached to a Mylar foil were irradiated with 70 kV X rays to obtain a reference dose–response curve or with 3 Gy of 20 MeV protons at the Munich tandem accelerator (Garching), either using a continuous mode where a cell sample was irradiated within a 100-ms time span or using a pulsed mode where radiation was given in a single proton pulse of about 1 ns. After irradiation cytochalasin B was added; 24 h later cells were fixed and stained with acridine orange and micronuclei were counted. The X-ray dose–response curve for the production of micronuclei in HeLa cells followed a linear-quadratic model. The corresponding RBE values for 20 MeV protons in pulsed and continuous irradiation modes were 1.07 ± 0.08 and 1.06 ± 0.10 in the first proton experiment and 1.09 ± 0.08 and 1.05 ± 0.11 in the second, respectively. There was no evidence for a difference in the RBE for pulsed and continuous irradiation of HeLa cells with 20 MeV protons.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schmid2009,
	  author = {Schmid, T. E. and Dollinger, G. and Hauptner, A. and Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Auer, S. and Friedl, A. A. and Molls, M. and Röper, B.},
	  title = {No Evidence for a Different RBE between Pulsed and Continuous 20 MeV Protons},
	  booktitle = {Radiation Research},
	  journal = {Radiation Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {172},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {567--574},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)18},
	  url = {http://www.bioone.org/doi/10.1667/RR1539.1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1667/RR1539.1}
	}
	
Advanced Fe-Cr alloys studied by pulsed low energy positron system before and after helium ions implantation
S. Sojak, V. Kršjak and W. Egger; American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP 5 (2009) 469-472.
Abstract: Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a non-destructive technique which provides information about microstructural damage of structural materials. In this paper, the Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) at the research reactor FRM-II at TU Munich was used to study depth profiling of binary Fe-Cr alloys. Fe-Cr model alloys with different chromium content were investigated in the as-received state as well as after helium ion implantation (dose up to 6.24x1017 ions/cm-2). Measured results show changes in the size of defects after implantation and also in non-implanted specimens depending on the Cr content.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sojak2009,
	  author = {Sojak, S. and Kršjak, V. and Egger, W.},
	  title = {Advanced Fe-Cr alloys studied by pulsed low energy positron system before and after helium ions implantation},
	  journal = {American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {5},
	  pages = {469--472},
	  url = {http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1635396},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2009-77537}
	}
	
IR calibrations for water determination in olivine, r-GeO2, and SiO2 polymorphs
S.-M. Thomas, M. Koch-Müller, P. Reichart, D. Rhede, R. Thomas, R. Wirth and S. Matsyuk; Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 36 (2009) 489-509.
Abstract: Mineral-specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated for natural and synthetic olivine, SiO2 polymorphs, and GeO2 with specific isolated OH point defects using quantitative data from independent techniques such as proton–proton scattering, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Moreover, we present a routine to detect OH traces in anisotropic minerals using Raman spectroscopy combined with the ‘‘Comparator Technique’’. In case of olivine and the SiO2 system, it turns out that the magnitude of e for one structure is independent of the type of OH point defect and therewith the peak position (quartz e = 89,000 ± 15,000 l mol^-1_H2O cm^-2), but it varies as a function of structure (coesite e = 214,000 ± 14,000 l mol-1 H2O cm-2; stishovite e = 485,000 ± 109,000 l mol-1 H2O cm-2). Evaluation of data from this study confirms that not using mineral-specific IR calibrations for the OH quantification in nominally anhydrous minerals leads to inaccurate estimations of OH concentrations, which constitute the basis for modeling the Earth’s deep water cycle.
BibTeX:
	@article{Thomas2009,
	  author = {Thomas, Sylvia-Monique and Koch-Müller, Monika and Reichart, Patrick and Rhede, Dieter and Thomas, Rainer and Wirth, Richard and Matsyuk, Stanislav},
	  title = {IR calibrations for water determination in olivine, r-GeO2, and SiO2 polymorphs},
	  journal = {Physics and Chemistry of Minerals},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {36},
	  pages = {489--509},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00269-009-0295-1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00269-009-0295-1}
	}
	
Correlation of chemical composition and electrical properties of rf sputtered alumina films
M. Voigt, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger and M. Sokolowski; Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 27 (2) (2009) 234-244.
Abstract: Alumina films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from an aluminum oxide target on an indium tin oxide covered glass. The purpose of the study was to test the influence of the sputter parameters on the elemental composition, surface morphology, and electrical insulation properties (breakdown fields and leakage currents). Tested parameters were the sputter gas (Ar) pressure, the sputter rate, the sputter power, the sputter gas composition (Ar: O2), the conditioning of the target, the residual base pressure, and the substrate temperature. The surface morphology of the films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Depth profiles of the elemental compositions were measured by elastic recoil detection using energetic heavy ions, and the insulation properties were investigated by current voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy. The main finding is that the leakage currents increase by about five orders of magnitude, if the atomic ratio of O:Al increases from 1.35 to 2.0. In parallel the breakdown fields decrease by a factor of 100, and the character of the breakdowns changes from soft to hard. The highest breakdown fields (2.4 MVcm) and smallest leakage currents (6.5× 10-8 A cm2 at 2.0 MVcm) are obtained for slightly Al rich films with small atomic concentrations of H (<0.5 at. %). These films were sputtered in pure Ar and under the lowest possible pressure of the residual gas.
BibTeX:
	@article{Voigt2009,
	  author = {Voigt, M. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Sokolowski, M.},
	  title = {Correlation of chemical composition and electrical properties of rf sputtered alumina films},
	  journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {27},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {234--244},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)8},
	  url = {http://avs.scitation.org/doi/10.1116/1.3065978},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1116/1.3065978}
	}
	
Differences in gamma-H2AX foci formation after irradiation with continuous and pulsed proton beams
O. Zlobinskaya, T. Schmid, G. Dollinger, V. Hable, C. Greubel, D. Michalski, J. Wilkens, G. Du, M. Molls and B. Röper; In: , O. Dössel and W.C. Schlegel (Eds.), IFMBE Proceedings 25 (2009) 142-145 , Springer International Publishing AG.
Abstract: Introduction: Classical particle accelerators offer proton pulses of some milliseconds duration. In contrast, the new technology of the high-intensity laser acceleration will produce ultimately shorter particle packages (up to one nanosecond) with substantially lower pulse frequency and higher pulse-dose achievement. Very little is known about the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of this new beam quality, which could be a possible future application in radiation oncology. In our present study we investigate possible differences based on quantitative analysis of γ-H2AX fluorescence - a known marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Methods: HeLa cells were irradiated with 1 Gy of 20 MeV protons at the Munich tandem accelerator, either at continuous mode (100 ms), or at pulsed mode with a single pulse of 1 ns duration. A dose-effect-curve based on five doses of 75 kV x-rays served for reference. The total number of γ-H2AX foci per cell was determined using a self-developed macro (ImageJ, NIH, USA). Results: Quantitative analysis of γ-H2AX fluorescence revealed no significant difference (p=0.16) in yield of foci formation after irradiation with pulsed or continuous proton beams. γ-H2AX data for cell samples exposed to 1 Gy of 20 MeV protons at pulsed or continuous irradiation modes were 23.29 ± 2.04 and 26.54 ± 2.54 foci per cell, respectively. The corresponding RBE values for 20 MeV protons were 0.96 ± 0.18 and 1.13 ± 0.21 (p=0.21) for pulsed and continuous irradiation modes. However, the percentage of foci smaller than 5-10 pixels was slightly decreased and foci tended to cluster after irradiation with pulsed protons. Conclusions: Based on γ-H2AX foci formation no significant difference in the RBE between pulsed and continuous proton irradiation beams in HeLa cells has been detected so far. These results are well in line with our data on micronucleus induction in HeLa cells.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Zlobinskaya2009,
	  author = {Zlobinskaya, O. and Schmid, T.E. and Dollinger, G. and Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Michalski, D. and Wilkens, J. and Du, G. and Molls, M. and Röper, B.},
	  title = {Differences in gamma-H2AX foci formation after irradiation with continuous and pulsed proton beams},
	  booktitle = {IFMBE Proceedings},
	  publisher = {Springer International Publishing AG},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2009},
	  volume = {25},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {142--145},
	  editor = {Olaf Dössel and Wolfgang C. Schlegel},
	  note = {World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering: Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Biological Effects of Radiation; Munich; Germany; 7 September 2009 through 12 September 2009;},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-03902-7},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03902-7}
	}
	

2008

Surface characterization of diamond-like carbon for ultracold neutron storage
F. Atchison, A. Bergmaier, M. Daum, M. Döbeli, G. Dollinger, P. Fierlinger, A. Foelske, R. Henneck, S. Heule, M. Kasprzak, K. Kirch, A. Knecht, M. Kuźniak, A. Pichlmaier, R. Schelldorfer and G. Zsigmond; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 587 (1) (2008) 82-88.
Abstract: We report the characterization of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces to be used for the storage of ultracold neutrons (UCN). The samples investigated were 100-300-nm-thick tetragonal amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings produced by vacuum-arc technology on thin foils (0.1-0.2 mm aluminum, stainless steel, PET). The diamond sp3 fraction was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to be in the range 45-65%. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) yielded consistent results for the hydrogen contribution (about 1×1016 cm-2 within the top 20 nm), strongly concentrated within a surface layer of 1 nm thickness. The boron contamination was found to be around 50 at. ppm. The fractional hole area of the coatings is on a level of about 1×10-4. Temperature cycling of mechanically pre-stressed samples between 77 and 380 K revealed no detrimental effect.
BibTeX:
	@article{Atchison2008,
	  author = {Atchison, F. and Bergmaier, A. and Daum, M. and Döbeli, M. and Dollinger, G. and Fierlinger, P. and Foelske, A. and Henneck, R. and Heule, S. and Kasprzak, M. and Kirch, K. and Knecht, A. and Kuźniak, M. and Pichlmaier, A. and Schelldorfer, R. and Zsigmond, G.},
	  title = {Surface characterization of diamond-like carbon for ultracold neutron storage},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {587},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {82--88},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)5},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900207025004},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2007.12.037}
	}
	
Investigations of epoxy-based adhesives with PLEPS
W. Egger, P. Sperr, G. Kögel, M. Wetzel and H.-J. Gudladt; Applied Surface Science 255 (1) (2008) 209-212.
Abstract: Contamination-tolerant adhesives are of ever increasing importance in industrial applications. The possible failure mechanisms of adhesive bonds in these adhesives are however still poorly understood. Results of a series of investigations with our pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS) in an epoxy-based contamination-tolerant adhesive are presented.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2008,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G. and Wetzel, M. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Investigations of epoxy-based adhesives with PLEPS},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {255},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {209--212},
	  note = {SLOPOS 11},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433208012257},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.05.205}
	}
	
Characteristics of boron δ-doped diamond for electronic applications
H. El-Hajj, A. Denisenko, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, M. Kubovic and E. Kohn; Diamond and Related Materials 17 (4-5) (2008) 409-414.
Abstract: Boron delta-doped profiles with peak concentrations above the full activation limit have been grown on (100)-oriented single crystal diamond substrates by microwave assisted CVD using a solid doping source technique. The growth process was optimized targeting electronic device applications. Up to now these profiles could only be analyzed by chemical/physical profiling and it had been difficult to relate these profiles to the electrical characteristics. For the first time, ERD (Electron Recoil Detection) profiles could be correlated with free carrier profiles extracted by electrochemical profiling based on electrochemical impedance analysis. The comparison shows, that it is possible to incorporate boron on acceptor site with high efficiency even for concentrations in the order of 1021 cm- 3 by the doping technique developed.
BibTeX:
	@article{El-Hajj2008,
	  author = {El-Hajj, H. and Denisenko, A. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Kubovic, M. and Kohn, E.},
	  title = {Characteristics of boron δ-doped diamond for electronic applications},
	  journal = {Diamond and Related Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {17},
	  number = {4-5},
	  pages = {409--414},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)16},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092596350700502X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2007.12.030}
	}
	
On the defect pattern evolution in sapphire irradiated by swift ions in a broad fluence range
P.M. Gordo, L. Liszkay, Z. Kajcsos, K. Havancsák, V.A. Skuratov, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Egger, A.P. de Lima and M.F.F. Marques; Applied Surface Science 255 (1) (2008) 254-256.
Abstract: Sapphire samples, irradiated with swift Kr (245 MeV) ions at room temperature in a broad fluence range, were investigated using a continuous and a pulsed positron beam to study the defect structure created by the passage of the ions in depths of a few micrometers. At small doses, monovacancies were identified as dominant defects and positron trapping centres. These monovacancies are assumed to be highly concentrated inside a cylindrical volume around the ion path with an estimated radius of similar to 1.5 nm. For higher doses a second type of trapping centre emerges. This second class of structural imperfection was associated with the overlap of the individual ion tracks leading to the formation of larger vacancy clusters or voids.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gordo2008,
	  author = {Gordo, P. M. and Liszkay, L. and Kajcsos, Zs. and Havancsák, K. and Skuratov, V. A. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and de Lima, A. P. and Marques, M. F. Ferreira},
	  title = {On the defect pattern evolution in sapphire irradiated by swift ions in a broad fluence range},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {255},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {254--256},
	  note = {SLOPOS 11},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.93},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.05.185}
	}
	
Water in natural olivine—determined by proton-proton scattering analysis
J. Gose, P. Reichart, G. Dollinger and E. Schmädicke; American Mineralogist 93 (10) (2008) 1613-1619.
Abstract: Here we present water concentration data for olivine from different host rocks, measured with a nuclear technique using proton-proton scattering. This method, which is used here for the first time on olivine, is very powerful for determining trace amounts of water. The studied olivine specimens differ in their H2O contents, ranging from 4 to 51 wt ppm (=10–117 atom ppm H). The lowest concentrations are found in olivine from spinel peridotite xenoliths, the highest concentrations in olivine from alpine-type peridotite; the contents of an ophiolitic and a hydrothermal olivine are intermediate. Infrared spectroscopy was applied to ensure that the measured water contents stem solely from hydroxyl defects in the mineral structure. The infrared spectra differ from sample to sample. Five of six olivine specimens show absorption bands typical of hydroxyl groups associated with Ti defects. These olivines differ in their Ti contents by two orders of magnitude. However, a correlation of water and Ti content was not observed.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gose2008,
	  author = {Gose, Jürgen and Reichart, Patrick and Dollinger, Günther and Schmädicke, Esther},
	  title = {Water in natural olivine—determined by proton-proton scattering analysis},
	  journal = {American Mineralogist},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {93},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {1613-1619},
	  url = {http://ammin.geoscienceworld.org/content/93/10/1613.abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2008.2835}
	}
	
Quantitative analysis of DNA-damage response factors after sequential ion microirradiation
C. Greubel, V. Hable, G.A. Drexler, A. Hauptner, S. Dietzel, H. Strickfaden, I. Baur, R. Krücken, T. Cremer, A.A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 47 (4) (2008) 415-422.
Abstract: Several proteins are known to form foci at DNA sites damaged by ionizing radiation. We study DNA damage response by immunofluorescence microscopy after microirradiation of cells with energetic ions. By using microirradiation, it is possible to irradiate different regions on a single dish at different time-points and to differentiate between cells irradiated earlier and later. This allows to directly compare immunofluorescence intensities in both subsets of cells with little systematic error because both subsets are cultivated and stained under identical conditions. In addition, by using irradiation patterns such as crossing lines, it is possible to irradiate individual cells twice and to differentiate between immunofluorescence signals resulting from the cellular response to the earlier and to the later irradiation event. Here, we describe the quantitative evaluation of immunofluorescence intensities after sequential irradiation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Greubel2008,
	  author = {Greubel, Christoph and Hable, Volker and Drexler, Guido A. and Hauptner, Andreas and Dietzel, Steffen and Strickfaden, Hilmar and Baur, Iris and Krücken, Reiner and Cremer, Thomas and Friedl, Anna A. and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Quantitative analysis of DNA-damage response factors after sequential ion microirradiation},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {47},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {415--422},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-008-0181-0},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-008-0181-0}
	}
	
Competition effect in DNA damage response
C. Greubel, V. Hable, G. Drexler, A. Hauptner, S. Dietzel, H. Strickfaden, I. Baur, R. Krücken, T. Cremer, G. Dollinger and A. Friedl; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 47 (4) (2008) 423-429.
Abstract: We have built an ion-microbeam for studies of the nuclear topography and kinetics of double-strand break repair at the single cell level. Here, we show that a first and a second, delayed single ion exposure at different nuclear sites led to comparable accumulations of phospho-ATM, γ-H2AX and Mdc1 at both earlier (e) and later (l) microirradiated sites. In contrast, accumulations of 53BP1 and the recombination protein Rad51 were strongly reduced at l-sites. This apparent competition effect is accompanied by a reduced amount of 53BP1 in undamaged areas of the irradiated nuclei. We suggest that a critically limited pool size combined with strong binding at irradiated sites leads to the exhaustion of unbound factors freely roaming the nuclear space. The undersupply of these factors at l-sites requires in addition a long-lasting binding at e-sites or a weaker binding at l-sites. The observed effects suggest that DNA damage response at individual nuclear sites depends on the time course of damage load. This may have implications for therapeutic radiation treatments.
BibTeX:
	@article{Greubel2008a,
	  author = {Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Drexler, G.A. and Hauptner, A. and Dietzel, S. and Strickfaden, H. and Baur, I. and Krücken, R. and Cremer, T. and Dollinger, G. and Friedl, A.A.},
	  title = {Competition effect in DNA damage response},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {47},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {423--429},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-008-0182-z},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-008-0182-z}
	}
	
Surface and bulk investigations at the high intensity positron beam facility NEPOMUC
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Dollinger, W. Egger, G. Kögel, B. Löwe, J. Mayer, P. Pikart, C. Piochacz, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr and M. Stadlbauer; Applied Surface Science 255 (1) (2008) 29-32.
Abstract: The NEutron-induced POsitron source MUniCh (NEPOMUC) at the research reactor FRM II delivers a low-energy positron beam (E = 15-1000 eV) of high intensity in the range between 4 × 107 and 5 × 108 moderated positrons per second. At present four experimental facilities are in operation at NEPOMUC: a coincident Doppler-broadening spectrometer (CDBS) for defect spectroscopy and investigations of the chemical vicinity of defects, a positron annihilation-induced Auger-electron spectrometer (PAES) for surface studies and an apparatus for the production of the negatively charged positronium ion Ps-. Recently, the pulsed low-energy positron system (PLEPS) has been connected to the NEPOMUC beam line, and first positron lifetime spectra were recorded within short measurement times. A positron remoderation unit which is operated with a tungsten single crystal in back reflection geometry has been implemented in order to improve the beam brilliance. An overview of NEPOMUC's status, experimental results and recent developments at the running spectrometers are presented.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2008,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Dollinger, G. and Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Löwe, B. and Mayer, J. and Pikart, P. and Piochacz, C. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Stadlbauer, M.},
	  title = {Surface and bulk investigations at the high intensity positron beam facility NEPOMUC},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {255},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {29--32},
	  note = {SLOPOS 11},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433208012269},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.05.304}
	}
	
A positron remoderator for the high intensity positron source NEPOMUC
C. Piochacz, G. Kögel, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt, J. Mayer, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr, M. Stadlbauer and G. Dollinger; Applied Surface Science 255 (1) (2008) 98-100.
Abstract: A remoderator for the high intensity positron source NEPOMUC was developed and installed at the beam facility. A beam of remoderated positrons could be produced with different energies and a diameter of less than 2 mm was obtained. The efficiency of the remoderation setup was determined to be 5%. Due to the brilliance of the remoderated beam, the measurements at the coincidence Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) and at the positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometer (PAES) could be improved. The setup and functionality of the remoderation device is presented as well as the first measurements at the remoderator, CDBS and PAES.
BibTeX:
	@article{Piochacz2008,
	  author = {Piochacz, C. and Kögel, G. and Egger, W. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Mayer, J. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Stadlbauer, M. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {A positron remoderator for the high intensity positron source NEPOMUC},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {255},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {98--100},
	  note = {SLOPOS 11},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433208011975},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.05.286}
	}
	
Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 20 MeV protons for induction of micronuclei in HeLa cells at continuous and pulsed irradiation modes
T.E. Schmid, G. Dollinger, A. Hauptner, V. Hable, C. Greubel, A.A. Friedl, M. Molls and B. Röper; In: , M. Baumann (Ed.), Proceedings des 17. Symposiums Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie : Dresden, 28. Februar - 01. März 2008 17 (2008) 105-108 , Inst. für Biophysik u. Strahlenbiologie.
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Schmid2008,
	  author = {Schmid, T. E. and Dollinger, G. and Hauptner, A. and Hable, V. and Greubel, C. and Friedl, A. A. and Molls, M. and Röper, B.},
	  title = {Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 20 MeV protons for induction of micronuclei in HeLa cells at continuous and pulsed irradiation modes},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings des 17. Symposiums Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie : Dresden, 28. Februar - 01. März 2008},
	  publisher = {Inst. für Biophysik u. Strahlenbiologie},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {17},
	  number = {17},
	  pages = {105--108},
	  editor = {Baumann, Michael}
	}
	
Status of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS) at the Munich Research Reactor FRM-II
P. Sperr, W. Egger, G. Kögel, G. Dollinger, C. Hugenschmidt, R. Repper and C. Piochacz; Applied Surface Science 255 (1) (2008) 35-38.
Abstract: The Munich pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS) is now installed at the high intensity positron source (NEPOMUC) at the Munich Research Reactor FRM-II. In order to enhance the performance of the system several improvements have been implemented: two additional collinear detector ports have been installed. Therefore in addition to the normal lifetime measurements it is now possible to simultaneously perform Doppler-broadening, coincident Doppler-broadening and age momentum correlation experiments. An additional chopper was included to periodically suppress pulses and therefore to extend the standard time window of 20 ns for precise measurements of longer lifetimes. First test-experiments have been performed in May and July 2007. With all pulsing components in operation we achieved a count-rate of 1.4 × 104 counts per second. The total time resolution (pulsing and detector) was about 240 ps (FWHM) with a peak to background ratio up to 6 × 103:1.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sperr2008,
	  author = {Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Dollinger, G. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Repper, R. and Piochacz, C.},
	  title = {Status of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS) at the Munich Research Reactor FRM-II},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {255},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {35--38},
	  note = {SLOPOS 11},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016943320801218X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.05.307}
	}
	
Application of Raman spectroscopy to quantify trace water concentrations in glasses and garnets
S.-M. Thomas, R. Thomas, P. Davidson, P. Reichart, M. Koch-Müller and G. Dollinger; American Mineralogist 93 (10) (2008) 1550-1557.
Abstract: We present a new technique for the quantification of water in glasses down to the parts per million level, using confocal microRaman spectroscopy with the recently developed “Comparator Technique.” To test this method, we used a suite of glasses and gemstone-quality garnets with varying chemical compositions. Water contents were independently determined with proton-proton (pp) scattering and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Moreover, water concentrations obtained for the garnets were compared to data from a study by Maldener et al. (2003) using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). For each sample, we recorded Raman spectra in the frequency range from 3100 to 3750 cm−1 and standardized them using an independently well-characterized glass. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for quantifying water concentrations in natural and synthetic glass samples and garnets, and verify its adaptability for concentrations from 40 wt ppm up to 40 wt% H2O. However, in the case of absorbing material (e.g., Fe-bearing samples), the suggested method needs to be modified to overcome problems due to heating and melting of those phases. Furthermore, we propose an integrated molar absorption coefficient for water in quartz glass, εitot = 72 000 ± 12 000 Lmol−1H2Ocm−2, for quantitative IR spectroscopy that is higher than a previously reported value of Paterson (1982) or that predicted by the general calibration trend determined by Libowitzky and Rossman (1997).
BibTeX:
	@article{Thomas2008,
	  author = {Thomas, Sylvia-Monique and Thomas, Rainer and Davidson, Paul and Reichart, Patrick and Koch-Müller, Monika and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Application of Raman spectroscopy to quantify trace water concentrations in glasses and garnets},
	  journal = {American Mineralogist},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2008},
	  volume = {93},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {1550-1557},
	  url = {http://ammin.geoscienceworld.org/content/93/10/1550.abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2008.2834}
	}
	

2007

Doping density depth profiling analysis with high resolution elastic recoil detection
A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; ECS Transactions 11 (3) (2007) 243-255.
Abstract: The quantitative analysis of light elements in ultra thin films thinner than 10 nm is still a nontrivial task. This paper summarizes the prospects of high-resolution Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) using a Q3D magnetic spectrograph. It is shown that sub-nanometer resolution can be achieved in ultra thin films and even monolayer resolution is possible close to the surface. ERD has the best quantification possibilities compared to any other method. Sensitivity is sufficient to analyze main elements and impurities as e,g, necessary for the characterization of microelectronic materials, In addition, high-resolution channeling ERD can be performed in order to obtain information on lattice location of light elements in crystalline ultra thin layers. The potential of high-resolution ERD is demonstrated by several applications where it is the most valuable tool for elemental profiling.
BibTeX:
	@article{Bergmaier2007,
	  author = {Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Doping density depth profiling analysis with high resolution elastic recoil detection},
	  booktitle = {212th ECS Meeting},
	  journal = {ECS Transactions},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2007},
	  volume = {11},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {243--255},
	  url = {http://ecst.ecsdl.org/content/11/3/243},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2778668}
	}
	
Pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) at the Munich research reactor FRMII
W. Egger, P. Sperr, G. Kögel and G. Dollinger; Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics 4 (10) (2007) 3969-3972.
Abstract: Currently, the Munich pulsed low energy positron beam-system (PLEPS) is transferred to the high-intensity positron source (NEPOMUC) at the Munich research Reactor FRM II. We expect count-rates up to 106 cps. Several improvements to enhance the performance of the system have been implemented. Until now, PLEPS was employed exclusively for lifetime measurements. To enable also Doppler-broadening, coincident Doppler-broadening and AMOC experiments, two additional detector ports have been installed. An additional chopper allows to suppress pulses and, therefore, to extend the standard time window of 20 ns for precise measurements of longer lifetimes. The high event-rate supports the use of smaller scintillators. Consequently an improvement in time resolution is expected. Also envisaged is the use of new detector materials. Various measures to further reduce background from back-scattered positrons and a reduction of the beam diameter down to 1 mm will improve the overall performance of the system.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2007,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) at the Munich research reactor FRMII},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2007},
	  volume = {4},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {3969--3972},
	  note = {ICPA 14},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.200675812/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200675812}
	}
	
Near surface stress determination in Kr-implanted polycrystalline titanium by the X-ray sin2Ψ-method
M. Härting, S. Nsengiyumva, A. Raji, G. Dollinger, P. Sperr, S. Naidoo, T. Derry, C. Comrie and D. Britton; Surface and Coatings Technology 201 (19-20 SPEC. ISS.) (2007) 8237-8241.
Abstract: Ion implantation has been performed on polycrystalline titanium samples with 180 keV Kr+ ions at various doses from 1 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm- 2 at room temperature. The samples where characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. By means of the sin2Ψ technique the near surface stress has been determined for both unimplanted and implanted samples. The initial stress state has been shown to be strongly tensile in the first 75 nm below the surface, and weakly compressive deeper inside. The main effect of the implantation process was to relax the pre-existing tensile stress in the track region. An additional compressive stress was introduced deeper in the sample and could be attributed to the presence of larger defect clusters.
BibTeX:
	@article{Haerting2007,
	  author = {Härting, M. and Nsengiyumva, S. and Raji, A.T. and Dollinger, G. and Sperr, P. and Naidoo, S.R. and Derry, T.E. and Comrie, C.M. and Britton, D.T.},
	  title = {Near surface stress determination in Kr-implanted polycrystalline titanium by the X-ray sin2Ψ-method},
	  journal = {Surface and Coatings Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2007},
	  volume = {201},
	  number = {19-20 SPEC. ISS.},
	  pages = {8237--8241},
	  note = {14th International Conference on Surface Modification by Ion Beams (SMMIB 05), Kusadasi, TURKEY, SEP 04-09, 2005},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897207002587},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.02.072}
	}
	
Implementation of the Munich scanning positron microscope at the positron source NEPOMUC
C. Piochacz, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr and G. Dollinger; Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics 4 (10) (2007) 4028-4031.
Abstract: The Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution down to 2 um within an energy range of 1-20 keV. One practical limitation of the SPM is set by the long measurement times of several days per a 2D-scan due to the low intensity positron beam produced by standard 22Na sources. This disadvantage will be overcome by installing the SPM at the high intense positron beam facility NEPOMUC at the research reactor FRM II in Garching. Thus the time for one measurement will be shortened by a factor of 60. In addition it is expected to reduce the lateral resolution to about 100 nm. Due to the beam characteristics of the NEPOMUC facility an interface is needed, which enhances the phase space density of the beam. The requirements, which have to be fulfilled by the interface, will be described and an overview of the different components such as bunching units, remoderation stages and rf-elevator will be given.
BibTeX:
	@article{Piochacz2007,
	  author = {Piochacz, C. and Egger, W. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Implementation of the Munich scanning positron microscope at the positron source NEPOMUC},
	  journal = {Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2007},
	  volume = {4},
	  number = {10},
	  pages = {4028--4031},
	  note = {ICPA 14},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.200675824/abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200675824}
	}
	
Development of isobar separation for 182Hf AMS measurements of astrophysical interest
C. Vockenhuber, A. Bergmaier, T. Faestermann, K. Knie, G. Korschinek, W. Kutschera, G. Rugel, P. Steier, K. Vorderwinkler and A. Wallner; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 259 (1) (2007) 250-255.
Abstract: The detection of 182Hf by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is greatly complicated because of the stable and common isobar 182W. Although significant W reduction can be achieved during negative ion formation using HfF5 -, additional separation is necessary to achieve detection sensitivities sufficient for astrophysical applications, i.e. detection of potential supernova-produced 182Hf on Earth. In this paper, we present a new development of isobar separation using the ΔTOF detection method at the Munich MP Tandem accelerator (TV = 14 MV), where ion energies for 182Hf of about 1 MeV/amu can be achieved. Particular attention is drawn on specific energy loss and energy loss straggling measurements in various materials, the basis for our method of isobar separation. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Vockenhuber2007,
	  author = {Vockenhuber, C. and Bergmaier, A. and Faestermann, T. and Knie, K. and Korschinek, G. and Kutschera, W. and Rugel, G. and Steier, P. and Vorderwinkler, K. and Wallner, A.},
	  title = {Development of isobar separation for 182Hf AMS measurements of astrophysical interest},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2007},
	  volume = {259},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {250-255},
	  note = {cited By 14},
	  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X07002388?via%3Dihub},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.01.223}
	}
	

2006

Ferromagnetic Ge(Mn) nanostructures
S. Ahlers, D. Bougeard, H. Riedl, G. Abstreiter, A. Trampert, W. Kipferl, M. Sperl, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 32 (1-2 SPEC. ISS.) (2006) 422-425.
Abstract: We present structural, magnetic and transport properties of Mn-doped Ge layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at low substrate temperatures TS. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of structures grown at TS = 70 ring operator C and 120 ring operator C reveal defect-free epitaxy of Ge(Mn) on Ge(0 0 1) substrates. Despite the low TS we observe the formation of round shaped clusters with a diameter of 15-20 nm which are incoherent with the Ge matrix in TEM analysis for a Mn concentration x of 3.4%. SQUID measurements reveal ferromagnetism and a TC of around 300 ring operator C for the layers, reminiscent of the intermetallic compound Mn5 Ge3. Transport measurements, however, indicate that Mn is incorporated into the Ge matrix between the Mn5 Ge3 clusters as well.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ahlers2006,
	  author = {Ahlers, S. and Bougeard, D. and Riedl, H. and Abstreiter, G. and Trampert, A. and Kipferl, W. and Sperl, M. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Ferromagnetic Ge(Mn) nanostructures},
	  journal = {Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {32},
	  number = {1-2 SPEC. ISS.},
	  pages = {422--425},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)9},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386947705005540},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2005.12.129}
	}
	
The analysis of a thin SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 stack: A comparative study of low-energy heavy ion elastic recoil detection, high-resolution Rutherford backscattering and secondary ion mass spectrometry
B. Brijs, T. Sajavaara, S. Giangrandi, T. Janssens, T. Conard, K. Arstila, K. Nakajima, K. Kimura, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, A. Vantomme and W. Vandervorst; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 249 (1-2 SPEC. ISS.) (2006) 847-850.
Abstract: The analysis of thin films in the range of 10 nm and less has become very important in microelectronics. The goal of this article is an evaluation of low-energy TOF-ERDA (time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis) in comparison with low-energy SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) and HRBS (high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry), using a thin SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 stack as a test vehicle. Comparisons are made on the depth resolution, its loss as a function of depth and the quantification accuracy.
BibTeX:
	@article{Brijs2006,
	  author = {Brijs, B. and Sajavaara, T. and Giangrandi, S. and Janssens, T. and Conard, T. and Arstila, K. and Nakajima, K. and Kimura, K. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Vantomme, A. and Vandervorst, W.},
	  title = {The analysis of a thin SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 stack: A comparative study of low-energy heavy ion elastic recoil detection, high-resolution Rutherford backscattering and secondary ion mass spectrometry},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {249},
	  number = {1-2 SPEC. ISS.},
	  pages = {847--850},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)3},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X06004204},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.03.191}
	}
	
Microstructural defect characterisation of a-Si:H deposited by low temperature HW-CVD on paper substrates
D.T. Britton, M. Härting, D. Knoesen, Z. Sigcau, F.P. Nemalili, T.P. Ntsoane, P. Sperr, W. Egger and M. Nippus; Thin Solid Films 501 (1-2) (2006) 79-83.
Abstract: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been deposited on 80 g m(-2) wood-free paper, with and without an intermediate metallic interlayer, using low temperature hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD). Electrical measurements show these layers to be of good quality. In this paper we cornpare the differences in microstructural properties of the two types of layer, concentrating on the influence of the substrates, including their effect on the deposition rate of the material and substrate temperature. During the deposition process, the metallized substrates reach a higher temperature than plain paper. Both X-diffiraction and positron annihilation lifetime studies indicate that the growth rate on the uncoated substrate is slightly higher than with prior metallization. There is no evidence of a crystalline phase or voids in the a-Si:H layers, and the internal defect structure is similar, with a dominant dangling-bond complex of similar size.
BibTeX:
	@article{Britton2006,
	  author = {Britton, D. T. and Härting, M. and Knoesen, D. and Sigcau, Z. and Nemalili, F. P. and Ntsoane, T. P. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Nippus, M.},
	  title = {Microstructural defect characterisation of a-Si:H deposited by low temperature HW-CVD on paper substrates},
	  journal = {Thin Solid Films},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {501},
	  number = {1-2},
	  pages = {79--83},
	  note = {3rd International Conference on Hot-Wire CVD Process, Utrecht Univ, Utrecht, NETHERLANDS, AUG 23-27, 2004},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609005009764},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2005.07.111}
	}
	
Decoration of buried surfaces in Si detected by positron annihilation spectroscopy
R. Brusa, C. Macchi, S. Mariazzi, G. Karwasz, W. Egger, P. Sperr and G. Kögel; Applied Physics Letters 88 (1) (2006) 011920.
Abstract: The terminations of buried surfaces of two different cavity types (nano- and microcavities) produced in the same He+-H+ co-implanted p-type Si (100) sample annealed at 900 degrees C, are studied and characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The characterization was carried out by means of three complementary positron techniques: Doppler broadening and coincidence-Doppler broadening spectroscopy with a continuous slow positron beam, and lifetime spectroscopy with a pulsed slow positron beam. It was found that the nanocavities have a pristine surface of Si, while the surfaces of the microcavities, formed below protruding blisters, are oxygen decorated. This case study opens the interesting use of the positron spectroscopy tool in the topical subject of empty space for microelectronics applications.
BibTeX:
	@article{Brusa2006,
	  author = {Brusa, R.S. and Macchi, C. and Mariazzi, S. and Karwasz, G.P. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G.},
	  title = {Decoration of buried surfaces in Si detected by positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {88},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {011920},
	  url = {http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/88/1/10.1063/1.2162691},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2162691}
	}
	
Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams
G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier, A. Hauptner, S. Dietzel, G. Drexler, C. Greubel, V. Hable, P. Reichart, R. Krücken, T. Cremer and A. Friedl; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 249 (1-2) (2006) 270-277.
Abstract: The ion microprobe SNAKE (Supraleitendes Nanoskop für Angewandte Kernphysikalische Experimente) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, i.e. 4-28 MeV protons or up to 250 MeV gold ions. Due to these ion beams, SNAKE is particularly attractive for ion beam analyses in various fields. Here we describe two main applications of SNAKE. One is the unique possibility to perform three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy by elastic proton-proton scattering utilizing high energy proton beams. The high proton energies allow the analysis of samples with a thickness in the 100 μm range with micrometer resolution and a sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In a second application, SNAKE is used to analyse protein dynamics in cells by irradiating live cells with single focussed ions. Fluorescence from immunostained protein 53BP1 is used as biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells. It is used to examine the irradiated region in comparison with the targeted region. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agree reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating an overall targeting accuracy of about 2 μm while the beam spot size is less than 0.5 μm in diameter. This performance shows successful adaptation of SNAKE for biological experiments where cells are targeted on a sub-cellular level by energetic ions.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2006,
	  author = {Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Hauptner, A. and Dietzel, S. and Drexler, G.A. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Reichart, P. and Krücken, R. and Cremer, T. and Friedl, A.A.},
	  title = {Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {249},
	  number = {1-2},
	  pages = {270--277},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X06004587},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.04.012}
	}
	
Analysis of defect configurations with positron lifetime measurements by pulsed low energy beams
W. Egger, G. Kögel, P. Sperr and H.-J. Gudladt; International Journal of Materials Research 97 (12) (2006) 1633-1641.
Abstract: To understand the damage behavior of mechanically deformed metallic materials in more detail, the kind of defect and its concentration have to be known. In addition, the kinetics of decomposition and of precipitation hardening are influenced by the presence of defects and the corresponding concentration. Consequently, an analysis of dominating defects would be helpful. Compared with well known techniques, positron annihilation spectroscopy offers the opportunity for lifetime measurements that are characteristic for special kinds of defects, e. g. dislocations, small vacancy clusters and micro-voids. To detect the spatial distribution and to determine the concentration of defects, the low energy pulsed positron beam technique can be used. This technique, in combination with the scanning positron microscope, opens a broad field of applications for defect analysis in metallic and ceramic materials.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2006,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Analysis of defect configurations with positron lifetime measurements by pulsed low energy beams},
	  journal = {International Journal of Materials Research},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {97},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {1633-1641},
	  url = {http://www.hanser-elibrary.com/doi/abs/10.3139/146.101394},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3139/146.101394}
	}
	
Methods for quantitative evaluation of dynamics of repair proteins within irradiated cells
V. Hable, G. Dollinger, C. Greubel, A. Hauptner, R. Krücken, S. Dietzel, T. Cremer, G. Drexler, A. Friedl and R. Löwe; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 245 (1) (2006) 298-301.
Abstract: Living HeLa cells are irradiated well directed with single 100 MeV oxygen ions by the superconducting ion microprobe SNAKE, the Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied Nuclear (=Kern-) Physics Experiments, at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. Various proteins, which are involved directly or indirectly in repair processes, accumulate as clusters (so called foci) at DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the ions. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these foci built by the phosphorylated histone γ-H2AX are studied. For this purpose cells are irradiated in line patterns. The γ-H2AX is made visible under the fluorescence microscope using immunofluorescence techniques. Quantitative analysis methods are developed to evaluate the data of the microscopic images in order to analyze movement of the foci and their changing size.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hable2006a,
	  author = {Hable, V. and Dollinger, G. and Greubel, C. and Hauptner, A. and Krücken, R. and Dietzel, S. and Cremer, T. and Drexler, G.A. and Friedl, A.A. and Löwe, R.},
	  title = {Methods for quantitative evaluation of dynamics of repair proteins within irradiated cells},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM 2005)},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {245},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {298--301},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X05020628},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2005.11.118}
	}
	
Positron lifetime and microstructural characterisation of a-Si:H deposited by low temperature HW-CVD on paper substrates
M. Härting, D. Britton, D. Knoesen and W. Egger; Applied Surface Science 252 (9) (2006) 3188-3193.
Abstract: In thin film electronic applications, the limiting factor, in terms of cost and usability, is generally the substrate material. As a consequence, different materials are being investigated as potential lightweight, inexpensive and flexible substrates. In this respect, we have been the first research collaboration to produce silicon-based electronics on paper substrates. Here we present structural characterisation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers deposited on 80 g m-2 wood-free paper, with and without an intermediate metallic interlayer, using low temperature hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HW-CVD). Both pulsed positron beam profiling and X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the growth rate on the uncoated substrate is slightly higher than with prior metallization. There is no evidence of a crystalline phase or voids in the a-Si:H layers. The internal defect structure is similar, with a dominant dangling bond complex of similar size, which has a slightly longer lifetime than in layers grown at higher temperatures on conventional substrates.
BibTeX:
	@article{Haerting2006,
	  author = {Härting, M. and Britton, D.T. and Knoesen, D. and Egger, W.},
	  title = {Positron lifetime and microstructural characterisation of a-Si:H deposited by low temperature HW-CVD on paper substrates},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {252},
	  number = {9},
	  pages = {3188-3193},
	  note = {SLOPOS 10},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433205012018},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.08.068}
	}
	
Czochralski-grown nitrogen-doped silicon: Electrical properties of MOS structures; A positron annihilation study
L. Harmatha, M. Ťapajna, V. Slugeň, P. Ballo, P. Písečný, J. Šik and G. Kögel; Microelectronics Journal 37 (4) (2006) 283-289.
Abstract: Czochralski-grown nitrogen-doped (NCZ) silicon was studied using different methods. Measurements of interface traps density, effective generation lifetime and effective surface generation velocity were performed on selected Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) structures. Application of the positron annihilation technique (PAS) - pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) - was focused on the detection of nitrogen-related defects in NCZ silicon in the near surface region. PAS - PLEPS technique gave relevant results on p-type NCZ silicon. Low sensitivity in the application to n-type NCZ silicon discriminates the PAS - PLEPS technique and should be alternated by other experimental technique. On the other hand, more pertinent measurement of generation lifetime was performed on MOS structures with n-type Si. Although the generation lifetime decreases in NCZ silicon, considerable lateral homogenization of the relaxation time was observed on the wafer.
BibTeX:
	@article{Harmatha2006,
	  author = {Harmatha, L. and Ťapajna, M. and Slugeň, V. and Ballo, P. and Písečný, P. and Šik, J. and Kögel, G.},
	  title = {Czochralski-grown nitrogen-doped silicon: Electrical properties of MOS structures; A positron annihilation study},
	  journal = {Microelectronics Journal},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {37},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {283--289},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026269205002387},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mejo.2005.04.059}
	}
	
Spatial Distribution of DNA Double-Strand Breaks from Ion Tracks
A. Hauptner, W. Friedland, S. Dietzel, G.A. Drexler, C. Greubel, V. Hable, H. Strickfaden, T. Cremer, A.A. Friedl, R. Krücken, H.G. Paretzke and G. Dollinger; In: P. Sigmund (Ed.), Ion Beam Science: Solved and Unsolved Problems , Vol. 52 , p. 59-85 , Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letter , 2006.
Abstract: Theoretical and experimental approaches are developed to investigate the spatial distribution of DNA damage induced by energetic ions in cell nuclei, with a special emphasis on DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Using a phenomenological description for the relationship between energy dose and DSB induction, the total number of DSBs and their average number per unit pathlength can be calculated analytically for single ion tracks in cell nuclei. A simple approach to microscopic DNA damage description is offered by analytical representations which give the average energy dose in dependence of the radial distance from the ion track. However, the extreme fluctuations in the DNA damage per volume, which is due to the inhomogeneous ionisation events of the individual secondary electron paths and the structure of chromatin in the nucleus, make a true follow-up of the ionisation and excitation events desirable, e.g. by using Monte Carlo methods. The visualisation of DSBs by staining proteins which accumulate in large amounts at DSB repair sites, thus forming so-called foci, allows to analyse the spatial distribution of DSB sites under the fluorescence microscope. With this method, generally a much lower number of DSB sites along an ion track is observed than expected on basis of calculations. This observation hints at insufficient consideration of gross structures in the organisation of nuclear DNA or at a fast clustering of DSBs, possibly to form repair factories.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Hauptner2006,
	  author = {Hauptner, A. and Friedland, W. and Dietzel, S. and Drexler, G. A. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Strickfaden, H. and Cremer, T. and Friedl, A. A. and Krücken, R. and Paretzke, H. G. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Spatial Distribution of DNA Double-Strand Breaks from Ion Tracks},
	  booktitle = {Ion Beam Science: Solved and Unsolved Problems},
	  publisher = {Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letter},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {52},
	  pages = {59--85},
	  editor = {P. Sigmund},
	  url = {http://www.sdu.dk/Bibliotek/matfys}
	}
	
DNA-repair protein distribution along the tracks of energetic ions
A. Hauptner, R. Krücken, C. Greubel, V. Hable, G. Dollinger, G. Drexler, M. Deutsch, R. Löwe, A. Friedl, S. Dietzel, H. Strickfaden and T. Cremer; Radiation Protection Dosimetry 122 (1-4) (2006) 147-149.
Abstract: A simple model of homogenous chromatin distribution in HeLa-cell nuclei suggests that the track of an energetic ion hits 30 nm chromatin fibers with a mean distance of 0.55 μm. To test this assumption, living HeLa-cells were irradiated at the irradiation setup of the ion microprobe SNAKE using the ion beams provided by the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. After irradiation, the distribution of 53BP1 protein foci was studied by immunofluorescence. The observed 53BP1 distribution along the tracks of 29 MeV 7Li ions and 24 MeV 12C ions differed significantly from the expectations resulting from the simple chromatin model, suggesting that the biological track structure is determined by cell nuclear architecture with higher order organisation of chromatin.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hauptner2006a,
	  author = {Hauptner, A. and Krücken, R. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Dollinger, G. and Drexler, G.A. and Deutsch, M. and Löwe, R. and Friedl, A.A. and Dietzel, S. and Strickfaden, H. and Cremer, T.},
	  title = {DNA-repair protein distribution along the tracks of energetic ions},
	  journal = {Radiation Protection Dosimetry},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {122},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {147--149},
	  url = {http://rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/122/1-4/147.abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncl420}
	}
	
Irradiation of living cells with single ions at the ion microprobe SNAKE
A. Hauptner, T. Cremer, M. Deutsch, S. Dietzel, G. Drexler, C. Greubel, V. Hable, R. Krücken, R. Löwe, H. Strickfaden, G. Dollinger and A. Friedl; Acta Physica Polonica A 109 (3) (2006) 273-278.
Abstract: The irradiation setup at the ion microprobe SNAKE is used to irradiate living cells with single energetic ions. The irradiation accuracy of 0.55 µm and respectively 0.40 µm allows to irradiate substructures of the cell nucleus. By the choice of ion atomic number and energy the irradiation can be performed with a damage density adjustable over more than three orders of magnitude. Immunofluorescence detection techniques show the distribution of proteins involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In one of the first experiments the kinetics of appearance of irradiation-induced foci in living HeLa cells was examined. In other experiments a new effect was detected which concerned the interaction between irradiation events performed at different time points within the same cell nucleus.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hauptner2006b,
	  author = {Hauptner, A. and Cremer, T. and Deutsch, M. and Dietzel, S. and Drexler, G.A. and Greubel, C. and Hable, V. and Krücken, R. and Löwe, R. and Strickfaden, H. and Dollinger, G. and Friedl, A.A.},
	  title = {Irradiation of living cells with single ions at the ion microprobe SNAKE},
	  journal = {Acta Physica Polonica A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {109},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {273--278},
	  note = {Proceedings of the XL Zakopane School of Physics, Zakopane 2005},
	  url = {http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/SPIS/a109-3.html},
	  doi = {0.12693/APhysPolA.109.273}
	}
	
Depth-Resolved Analysis of the Aging Behavior of Epoxy Thin Films by Positron Spectroscopy
J. Kanzow, F. Faupel, W. Egger, P. Sperr, G. Kögel, C. Wehlack, A. Meiser and W. Possart; In: W. Possart (Ed.), Adhesion: Current Research and Applications , Chapter 29 , p. 465-477 , Wiley-VCH , 2006.
Abstract: During recent decades positron annihilation spectroscopy has become a very powerful tool for the investigation of polymers. In particular, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) yields valuable information about free volume and related properties. Moreover, special chemical information can be obtained. Now advances in positron beam technology also allow investigations of thin polymer films and surface regions. In this paper, we report the use, for the first time, of PALS to elucidate aging mechanisms in thin epoxy films, based on depth-resolved investigations of the epoxy films exposed to two different aging conditions. We also consider the results of IR external reflection absorption spectroscopy (IR-ERAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling of the elemental composition. This additional information enables us to clarify structural modifications due to aging. Nitrogen depletion and a decrease in free volume were observed, especially in the near-surface region of the thin epoxy films.
BibTeX:
	@incollection{Kanzow2006,
	  author = {Kanzow, J. and Faupel, F. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G. and Wehlack, C. and Meiser, A. and Possart, W.},
	  title = {Depth-Resolved Analysis of the Aging Behavior of Epoxy Thin Films by Positron Spectroscopy},
	  booktitle = {Adhesion: Current Research and Applications},
	  publisher = {Wiley-VCH},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  pages = {465--477},
	  editor = {Wulff Possart},
	  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/3527607307.ch29/summary},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/3527607307.ch29}
	}
	
Planned positron experiments at FRM-II
G. Kögel and G. Dollinger; Applied Surface Science 252 (9) (2006) 3111-3120.
Abstract: The new research reactor FRM-II near Munich has a strong positron source, which delivers an intense, nearly monoenergetic positron beam. Our positron systems, the pulsed low energy positron source (PLEPS) and the scanning positron microscope (SPM) will be operated at this beam. Some aspects of matching these systems to the new positron source will be discussed. Considerable improvements are expected, e.g. more than 105 s-1 recorded events at PLEPS and sub-micrometre resolution at SPM. They will enable investigations in so far inaccessible problems like the evaluation of annihilation characteristics and trapping constants of individual defects or studies of fast dynamical processes. In applied materials science complex defect structures will be studied which demand a resolution into many differing lifetimes, e.g. fractured specimens, wear, corrosion, etc. Also large series of measurements at small systematic modifications are planned. There is also the opportunity to analyse in addition the chemical microstructure of the specimens by means of a hydrogen microprobe and other ion beam techniques available close to FRM-II at the Technical University of Munich.
BibTeX:
	@article{Koegel2006,
	  author = {Kögel, G. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Planned positron experiments at FRM-II},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {252},
	  number = {9},
	  pages = {3111-3120},
	  editor = {Al-Qaradawi I.Y., Coleman P.G.},
	  note = {SLOPOS 10},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433205012158},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.08.048}
	}
	
Design and advanced preparation of multilayer converters for ultracold-neutron detectors
P. Maier-Komor, I. Altarev, A. Bergmaier, P. Böni, G. Dollinger, R. Krücken, S. Paul and W. Schott; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 561 (1) (2006) 45-51.
Abstract: For experiments at the planned ultracold neutron (UCN) source of the new Munich research reactor (FRM II) highly efficient UCN detectors must be developed. The principle of this type of detector is the conversion of UCN in 6Li layers into 2.06 MeV α-particles and 2.73 MeV t-particles created in the reaction 6Li(n,α)t. Since the α- and t-particles are emitted in opposite direction, each reaction of a neutron with a 6Li atom could be identified, e.g. in a silicon PIN diode. The design of an UCN converter must take in account the high reflectance of UCN at 6Li with its positive optical potential. This must be compensated by a material with negative optical potential. Candidates for this are either 62Ni or 48Ti and as cheap compromise natTi. Since Ti and 6Li-metal can only be processed in an UHV plant without introducing disturbing oxygen impurities, the new multilayer stacks have been prepared all with 62Ni and 6LiF. One UCN converter with a stack of 125 double layers of 6LiF/62Ni was deposited on a 450 μg/cm2 rolled natTi backing foil. This was investigated by means of ERD analysis for its atomic concentration. These results are presented. A proposal is discussed where the backing foil is made from the neutron reflector material 58Ni. The required self-supporting 58Ni foil of 200-400 μg/cm2 thickness and a square area of 6.2 cm2 can be prepared by rolling. A UHV vacuum system for electron beam evaporation of Ti and 6Li is being assembled. Some annealing tests at another UHV system led to a modification of the planned pumping system. One of the three refrigerator cryopumps foreseen in the design has been replaced for a turbomolecular pump. Its gate valve is closed when annealing to 470 K is finished.
BibTeX:
	@article{Maier-Komor2006,
	  author = {Maier-Komor, P. and Altarev, I. and Bergmaier, A. and Böni, P. and Dollinger, G. and Krücken, R. and Paul, S. and Schott, W.},
	  title = {Design and advanced preparation of multilayer converters for ultracold-neutron detectors},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {561},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {45--51},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)0},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900205026197},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2005.12.226}
	}
	
Preparation and investigation of thick carbon foils prepared by laser plasma ablation deposition
P. Maier-Komor, G. Dollinger and R. Krücken; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 561 (1) (2006) 4-10.
Abstract: Carbon foils prepared by laser plasma ablation deposition using a power density of >1 GW/cm² are so far the only ones which have been shown to have a total random orientation of the nanocrystallites and thus the theoretically best resistance against irradiation damage caused by ion bombardment. Need for longer lifetimes of carbon stripper foils was observed firstly in tandem accelerator experiments with heavy ions. There the required thickness is 3 to 10 μg/cm² and the plant was developed to meet these needs. Thicker carbon stripper foils are required as dead-section strippers and post-strippers. For the stripping of H- beams in the GeV range thick (> 100 μg/cm²) carbon stripper foils are required. The new plant which should facilitate the ablation deposition for this type of foils of unlimited thickness has been constructed. First results are presented about the preparation of thick (> 50 μg/cm²) carbon stripper foils of this kind and the applicability of the results to the preparation of carbon stripper foils of several hundred μg/cm² is discussed. For the application as gas detector windows very good chemical resistance is required if the carbon foil becomes hot due to the energy loss of the ion beam. Investigations for a 4 μg/cm² laser plasma carbon foil window transmitting 10 pμA of 3 MeV 12C2+ are reported. If very uniform electronic energy loss is required the corrugated structure, caused by the betaine parting agent on laser plasma carbon foils, is not suited. Therefore, it was tried to utilize release agents of different types of evaporated salt layers which were covered by 100μg/cm² copper in the same vacuum process. The floating success rates for those release agent combinations are reported.
BibTeX:
	@article{Maier-Komor2006a,
	  author = {Maier-Komor, P. and Dollinger, G. and Krücken, R.},
	  title = {Preparation and investigation of thick carbon foils prepared by laser plasma ablation deposition},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {561},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {4--10},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)6},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900205026197},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2005.12.184}
	}
	
3D-Hydrogen analysis of ferromagnetic microstructures in proton irradiated graphite
P. Reichart, D. Spemann, A. Hauptner, A. Bergmaier, V. Hable, R. Hertenberger, C. Greubel, A. Setzer, G. Dollinger, D. Jamieson, T. Butz and P. Esquinazi; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 249 (1-2) (2006) 286-291.
Abstract: Recently, magnetic order in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) induced by proton broad- and microbeam irradiation was discovered. Theoretical models propose that hydrogen could play a major role in the magnetism mechanism. We analysed the hydrogen distribution of pristine as well as irradiated HOPG samples, which were implanted to μm-sized spots as well as extended areas with various doses of 2.25 MeV protons at the Leipzig microprobe LIPSION. For this we used the sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy system at the Munich microprobe SNAKE. The background hydrogen level in pristine HOPG is determined to be less than 0.3 at-ppm. About 4.8 × 1015 H-atoms/cm2 are observed in the near-surface region (4 μm depth resolution). The depth profiles of the implants show hydrogen located within a confined peak at the end of range, in agreement with SRIM Monte Carlo simulations, and no evidence of diffusion broadening along the c-axis. At the sample with microspots, up to 40 at.% of the implanted hydrogen is not detected, providing support for lateral hydrogen diffusion.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reichart2006,
	  author = {Reichart, P. and Spemann, D. and Hauptner, A. and Bergmaier, A. and Hable, V. and Hertenberger, R. and Greubel, C. and Setzer, A. and Dollinger, G. and Jamieson, D.N. and Butz, T. and Esquinazi, P.},
	  title = {3D-Hydrogen analysis of ferromagnetic microstructures in proton irradiated graphite},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {249},
	  number = {1-2},
	  pages = {286--291},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X06004605},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.04.014}
	}
	
An experiment for the measurement of the bound- β-decay of the free neutron
W. Schott, G. Dollinger, T. Faestermann, J. Friedrich, F. Hartmann, R. Hertenberger, N. Kaiser, A. Müller, S. Paul and A. Ulrich; European Physical Journal A 30 (3) (2006) 603-611.
Abstract: The hyperfine-state population of hydrogen after the bound-β-decay of the neutron directly yields the neutrino left-handedness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Using the through-going beam tube of a high-flux reactor, a background free hydrogen rate of ca. 3s-1 can be obtained. The detection of the neutral hydrogen atoms and the analysis of the hyperfine states is accomplished by Lamb shift source type quenching and subsequent ionization. The constraints on the neutrino helicity and the scalar and tensor coupling constants of the weak interaction can be improved by a factor of ten.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schott2006,
	  author = {Schott, W. and Dollinger, G. and Faestermann, T. and Friedrich, J. and Hartmann, F.J. and Hertenberger, R. and Kaiser, N. and Müller, A.R. and Paul, S. and Ulrich, A.},
	  title = {An experiment for the measurement of the bound- β-decay of the free neutron},
	  journal = {European Physical Journal A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {30},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {603--611},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)10},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepja%2Fi2006-10136-3},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2006-10136-3}
	}
	
Electrical properties of MOS structures on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown silicon: A positron annihilation study
V. Slugeň, L. Harmatha, M. Ťapajna, P. Ballo, P. Písečný, J. Šik, G. Kögel and V. Kršjak; Applied Surface Science 252 (9) (2006) 3201-3208.
Abstract: Measurements of interface trap density, effective generation lifetime (GL) and effective surface generation velocity have been performed using differen: methods on selected MOS structures prepared on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown (NCz) silicon. The application of the positron annihilation technique using a pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) focused on the detection of nitrogen-related defects in NCz silicon in the near surface region. In the case of p-type Cz silicon, all the results could be used for the testing of homogeneity. In n-type Cz silicon, positron annihilation was found insensitive to nitrogen doping.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2006,
	  author = {Slugeň, V. and Harmatha, L. and Ťapajna, M. and Ballo, P. and Písečný, P. and Šik, J. and Kögel, G. and Kršjak, V.},
	  title = {Electrical properties of MOS structures on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown silicon: A positron annihilation study},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {252},
	  number = {9},
	  pages = {3201-3208},
	  note = {SLOPOS 10},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433205012031},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.08.071}
	}
	
Heavy ion irradiation of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel
N. Wieschalla, A. Bergmaier, P. Böni, K. Böning, G. Dollinger, R. Großmann, W. Petry, A. Röhrmoser and J. Schneider; Journal of Nuclear Materials 357 (1-3) (2006) 191-197.
Abstract: The usage of high-density U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel for high burn up in research and test reactors seems to be limited by the unfavourable interdiffusion layer between the fuel and the Al-matrix, which develops during irradiation. This interdiffusion layer was observed up to now only after costly and time consuming in-pile irradiation and could not be created in out-of-pile experiments. This paper presents a new approach of creating such an interdiffusion layer out-of-pile by irradiation with heavy ions. An appropriate choice of heavy-ion irradiation simulates irradiation damage and deposition of fission fragments as it happens during in-pile irradiation and induces a diffusion process between the fuel and the Al matrix. An irradiation experiment and post-irradiation examinations are presented.
BibTeX:
	@article{Wieschalla2006,
	  author = {Wieschalla, N. and Bergmaier, A. and Böni, P. and Böning, K. and Dollinger, G. and Großmann, R. and Petry, W. and Röhrmoser, A. and Schneider, J.},
	  title = {Heavy ion irradiation of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel},
	  journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2006},
	  volume = {357},
	  number = {1-3},
	  pages = {191--197},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)12},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311506003679},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2006.06.006}
	}
	

2005

Absence of positronium formation in clean buried nanocavities in p-type silicon
R.S. Brusa, C. Macchi, S. Mariazzi, G.P. Karwasz, W. Egger, P. Sperr and G. Kögel; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 71 (24) (2005) 245320.
Abstract: Buried nanocavities at about 350 nm depth in Si were produced by thermal treatment of He implanted p-type (100) Si. The internal surfaces of the nanocavities were found free of impurity decorations by examining the high-momentum part of the Doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra. Positron lifetime measurements with a pulsed slow positron beam show neither a short lifetime (125-150 ps) ascribable to parapositronium nor a longer lifetime (2-4 ns) ascribable to pick-off annihilation of orthopositronium. The lifetime of positrons trapped into nanocavities was found to be about 500 ps. The absence of positronium formation could be explained by an insufficient electron density and a lack of electron states in the band gap at the nanocavities internal surfaces produced in the p-type silicon.
BibTeX:
	@article{Brusa2005,
	  author = {Brusa, R. S. and Macchi, C. and Mariazzi, S. and Karwasz, G. P. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G.},
	  title = {Absence of positronium formation in clean buried nanocavities in p-type silicon},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2005},
	  volume = {71},
	  number = {24},
	  pages = {245320},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.71.245320},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.71.245320}
	}
	
Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions
G. Dollinger, V. Hable, A. Hauptner, R. Krücken, P. Reichart, A. Friedl, G. Drexler, T. Cremer and S. Dietzel; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 231 (1-4) (2005) 195-201.
Abstract: The ion microprobe SNAKE (superconducting nanoscope for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focusing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, from 20 MeV protons to 200 MeV gold ions. This allows to adjust the number of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) per ion and per cell nucleus from about 0.1 DSBs per ion to several 100 DSBs per ion. When irradiating with single 100 MeV 16O ions, the adapted setup permits a fwhm irradiation accuracy of 0.55 μm in x-direction and 0.4 μm in y-direction, as demonstrated by retrospective track etching of polycarbonate foils. The experiments point to investigate protein dynamics after targeted irradiation. As an example for such experiments we show a kind of three dimensional representation of foci of γ-H2AX which are visible 0.5 h after the irradiation with 100 MeV 16O ions took place. It shows the gross correlation with the irradiation pattern but also distinct deviations which are attributed to protein dynamics in the cell.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2005,
	  author = {Dollinger, G. and Hable, V. and Hauptner, A. and Krücken, R. and Reichart, P. and Friedl, A.A. and Drexler, G. and Cremer, T. and Dietzel, S.},
	  title = {Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2005},
	  volume = {231},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {195--201},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X05000765},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2005.01.056}
	}
	
Specific defects and thermomechanical properties of electrodeposited Cu foils
V. Gröger, G. Khatabi, A. Kotas-Betzwar, P. Zimprich, B. Mikulowski, G. Boczkal, W. Egger, H.D. Merchant and B. Weiss; Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 50 (1) (2005) 167-174.
Abstract: Electrodeposition of copper foils is a commercially widely used technique whose potential for producing functionally graded materials by deliberate time variation of the deposition parameters has been shown. Due to the presence of superabundant vacancies (stabilized by hydrogen) structural instabilities are strongly enhanced. More detailed knowledge of microstructural details (especially defect changes during annealing and stability at elevated temperatures) is needed for a basic understanding. Electrical residual resistivity isochrones, positron annihilation, Young's modulus and linear thermal expansion of copper foils of 35 μm thickness of different grain size electrodeposited at commercially usual rates are investigated. For all samples structural changes have been observed during the measurements, the strongest influence seems to be due to the annealing out of single vacancies (presumably by releasing hydrogen) and to grain coarsening.
BibTeX:
	@article{Groeger2005,
	  author = {Gröger, V. and Khatabi, G. and Kotas-Betzwar, A. and Zimprich, P. and Mikulowski, B. and Boczkal, G. and Egger, W. and Merchant, H. D. and Weiss, B.},
	  title = {Specific defects and thermomechanical properties of electrodeposited Cu foils},
	  journal = {Archives of Metallurgy and Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2005},
	  volume = {50},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {167--174},
	  note = {Symposium on Texture and Microstructure Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials, Cracow, POLAND, OCT 03-07, 2004},
	  url = {http://www.imim.pl/archives/volume-50-issue-1-2005}
	}
	
The nucleation centers formed during bias-enhanced nucleation of diamond on iridium: Structure and stability
S. Gsell, M. Schreck, T. Bauer, H. Karl, G. Thorwarth, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger and B. Stritzker; Diamond and Related Materials 14 (3-7) (2005) 328-334.
Abstract: During bias-enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond on iridium, an ultrathin carbon nucleation layer is deposited. The nature of the nucleation centers or nuclei which gather in discrete islands is investigated in the present work by subjecting the as-biased samples to different treatments. In high vacuum annealing experiments, the structures proved completely stable up to 1000°C. Above this temperature, the nuclei were destroyed and the iridium was etched within the domain areas. Low energy oxygen and xenon ion beams were then used to etch very shallow craters of varying depth. The induced modifications of the surface and the influence on the nucleation density can be understood on the basis of calculations which simulate the damage caused by the ion bombardment. Finally, the stability of the nucleation structures under hot chromo sulfuric acid treatment was compared with the corresponding behavior of a thick amorphous carbon layer. In all the experiments, the nucleation structures formed during BEN behaved similar to diamond situated at the surface of the iridium buffer layer possibly covered by a thin stable amorphous carbon layer.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gsell2005,
	  author = {Gsell, S. and Schreck, M. and Bauer, T. and Karl, H. and Thorwarth, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Stritzker, B.},
	  title = {The nucleation centers formed during bias-enhanced nucleation of diamond on iridium: Structure and stability},
	  journal = {Diamond and Related Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2005},
	  volume = {14},
	  number = {3-7},
	  pages = {328--334},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)5},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963504003954},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2004.10.027}
	}
	
Highly Si-doped AlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy
M. Hermann, F. Furtmayr, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, M. Stutzmann and M. Eickhoff; Applied Physics Letters 86 (19) (2005) 1-3.
Abstract: We have studied the influence of the growth conditions on the Si incorporation in AlN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Nitrogen-rich growth conditions allow controlled incorporation of Si up to a concentration of 5.2× 1021 cm-3, determined by elastic recoil detection analysis, whereas Si incorporation is supressed under Al-rich growth conditions. The structural and morphological properties determined by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were not affected up to Si concentrations of 1.2× 1021 cm-3. The electrical conductivity for the N-rich growth regime first increases with Si concentration followed by a decrease due to an increase of the activation energy up to 570 meV for a Si content of 1.2× 1021 cm-3. For higher silicon concentrations, we have observed a sharp decrease in activation energy and an increase in conductivity by four orders of magnitude, attributed to the onset of impurity band conduction.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hermann2005,
	  author = {Hermann, M. and Furtmayr, F. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Stutzmann, M. and Eickhoff, M.},
	  title = {Highly Si-doped AlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2005},
	  volume = {86},
	  number = {19},
	  pages = {1--3},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)23},
	  url = {http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1923180},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1923180}
	}
	
Optimization of thin, nitrogen-rich silicon oxynitrides grown by rapid thermal nitridation
A. Ludsteck, J. Schulze, I. Eisele, W. Dietl, H. Chung, Z. Nenyei, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Journal of the Electrochemical Society 152 (5) (2005) G334-G338.
Abstract: We have systematically examined nitrogen-rich silicon oxynitrides with a thickness of about 2 nm grown by rapid thermal nitridation in ammonia. In this paper the nitrogen incorporation as well as the electrical properties of the oxynitrides are discussed in detail. With the help of elastic recoil detection measurements it could be shown that the incorporated nitrogen concentration can be controlled precisely in a range between 20 and 60%, which means that even pure silicon nitride can be thermally grown in ammonia. Depending on the process flow it is also possible to adjust the nitrogen and oxygen profiles across the dielectrics depth. Regarding the electrical properties of the grown oxynitrides, we examined the impact of the variation of the process parameters and the impact of postnitridation anneals. It was found that the dilution of the process gas ammonia by the inert gas argon has a big impact on the quality of the dielectric. The optimized oxynitrides show leakage current densities which are significantly reduced compared to that of SiO2, but their interface quality is not sufficient for metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) applications. In order to reduce the interface state density Dit, a short reoxidation in steam atmosphere combined with an anneal in forming gas results in oxynitrides with Dit values of 1011 eV-1 cm-2. It is shown that for an equivalent oxide thickness of 1.3-1.5 nm, the leakage current densities are four orders of magnitude below that of SiO2 with the same thickness. Promising measurements of the effective electron mobility show that the presented oxynitrides are suitable as gate dielectrics in MOS applications in spite of the high nitrogen concentration of more than 25%.
BibTeX:
	@article{Ludsteck2005,
	  author = {Ludsteck, A. and Schulze, J. and Eisele, I. and Dietl, W. and Chung, H. and Nenyei, Z. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Optimization of thin, nitrogen-rich silicon oxynitrides grown by rapid thermal nitridation},
	  journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2005},
	  volume = {152},
	  number = {5},
	  pages = {G334-G338},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)3},
	  url = {http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/152/5/G334},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1872652}
	}
	

2004

Free volume determination of azobenzene-PMMA copolymer by a pulsed low-energy positron lifetime beam with in-situ UV illumination
J. Algers, P. Sperr, W. Egger, L. Liszkay, G. Kögel, J. de Baerdemaeker and F.H.J. Maurer; Macromolecules 37 (21) (2004) 8035-8042.
Abstract: The free volume properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate)-azobenzene copolymer were for the first time directly probed by use of a low-energy positron lifetime beam with in-situ excitation capabilities, showing that the free volume cavity size was not appreciably influenced by photoisomerization and thermal isomerization in the temperature range 34-180°C. Isomerization is therefore suggested to occur without any molecular rearrangement of the glassy polymer matrix, which would also account for the lack of any shift to shorter wavelengths for the photoisomerization occurring in a glassy polymer in comparison to a chloroform solution. A decrease in the thermal isomerization rate at room temperature caused by the glassy polymer is explained in terms of a model in which only a fraction of the azobenzene is free to isomerize. The cis-azobenzene was found to be an efficient inhibitor of positronium formation, which enabled measurements of thermal isomerization rates and changes in the steady-state concentration of cis-azobenzene for an illuminated sample as a function of temperature.
BibTeX:
	@article{Algers2004,
	  author = {Algers, J. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Liszkay, L. and Kögel, G. and de Baerdemaeker, J. and Maurer, F. H. J.},
	  title = {Free volume determination of azobenzene-PMMA copolymer by a pulsed low-energy positron lifetime beam with in-situ UV illumination},
	  journal = {Macromolecules},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {37},
	  number = {21},
	  pages = {8035-8042},
	  url = {http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ma0486086},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0486086}
	}
	
Thermal Isomerization of Azo-Benzene in PMMA Probed by a Pulsed Low-Energy Positron Beam
J. Algers, V. Skeppstedt, P. Sperr, W. Egger and F.H.J. Maurer; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 262-264.
Abstract: Polymers containing the Azo-benzene group have attracted attention due to anticipated uses such as materials for data storage, membranes with controllable permeability and materials with changeable solubility [1,2]. These expectations are due to the change in shape and dipole moment of the Azo-compound when excited by photo isomerization from the trans-state to the cis-state by UV light of ca 360 nm. Films of copolymers of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) containing 8 wt-% Azo-benzene were photo isomerized with a UV lamp and then measured as a function of time in a low-energy positron beam. The observed changes in the lifetime parameters as a function of time were in agreement with the thermal isomerization (decay) of the cis-isomer as measured by conventional UV spectroscopy, The results show that positron lifetime spectra at low energy are sensitive for the cis-trans isomerization of the Azo-compound, suggesting trapping and annihilation of positrons at free volume sites around the Azo-benzene groups.
BibTeX:
	@article{Algers2004a,
	  author = {Algers, J. and Skeppstedt, V. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Maurer, F. H. J.},
	  title = {Thermal Isomerization of Azo-Benzene in PMMA Probed by a Pulsed Low-Energy Positron Beam},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {262--264},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {https://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.262},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.262}
	}
	
Physical characterization of mixed HfAlOx layers by complementary analysis techniques
H. Bender, T. Conard, O. Richard, B. Brijs, J. Pétry, W. Vandervorst, C. Defranoux, P. Boher, N. Rochat, C. Wyon, P. Mack, J. Wolstenholme, R. Vitchev, L. Houssiau, J.-J. Pireaux, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology 109 (1-3) (2004) 60-63.
Abstract: The combined information of complementary physical analysis techniques is applied to obtain a full characterisation of the important material parameters of new high-k layers, i.e. the layer thickness, density, composition and interlayer thickness and nature, and to optimise the measurement methodologies of the different techniques.
BibTeX:
	@article{Bender2004,
	  author = {Bender, H. and Conard, Th. and Richard, O. and Brijs, B. and Pétry, J. and Vandervorst, W. and Defranoux, C. and Boher, P. and Rochat, N. and Wyon, C. and Mack, P. and Wolstenholme, J. and Vitchev, R. and Houssiau, L. and Pireaux, J.-J. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Physical characterization of mixed HfAlOx layers by complementary analysis techniques},
	  journal = {Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {109},
	  number = {1-3},
	  pages = {60--63},
	  editor = {Dimoulas A., Fompeyrine J., Fanciulli M., Alexe M., Os H.J.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)6},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092151070300518X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2003.10.118}
	}
	
Defect Characterization of the Structure-Growth Zone-Model for Sputter Deposited Cu Films
J. De Baerdemaeker, C. Dauwe, D. Segers, C. Detavernier, D. Deduytsche, W. Egger and P. Sperr; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 69-71.
Abstract: The 'zone-model' for sputter deposited Cu films was analyzed by positron annihilation spectroscopy to give a valuable insight in the nature of the defects present in the different zones of the model. Both depth selective Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectroscopy were applied using slow positron beams. Room temperature grain growth for films sputtered in the zoneT regime was also analyzed for the first time with positron annihilation spectroscopy.
BibTeX:
	@article{DeBaerdemaeker2004,
	  author = {De Baerdemaeker, J. and Dauwe, C. and Segers, D. and Detavernier, C. and Deduytsche, D. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P.},
	  title = {Defect Characterization of the Structure-Growth Zone-Model for Sputter Deposited Cu Films},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {69--71},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.69},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.69}
	}
	
High resolution elastic recoil detection
G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier, L. Goergens, P. Neumaier, W. Vandervorst and S. Jakschik; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 219-220 (1-4) (2004) 333-343.
Abstract: The quantitative analysis of light elements in ultra thin films being thinner than 10 nm is still a nontrivial task. This paper will summarise the prospects of high resolution elastic recoil detection (ERD) using a Q3D magnetic spectrograph. It has been shown that subnanometer resolution can be achieved in ultra thin films and even monolayer resolution is possible close to the surface. ERD has best quantification possibilities compared to any other method. Sensitivity is sufficient to analyse main elements and impurities as e.g. being necessary for the characterisation of microelectronic materials. In addition, high resolution channeling ERD can be performed in order to get information on lattice location of light elements in crystalline ultra thin layers. The potential of high resolution ERD will be demonstrated by several applications where it is the most valuable tool for elemental profiling.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2004,
	  author = {Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Goergens, L. and Neumaier, P. and Vandervorst, W. and Jakschik, S.},
	  title = {High resolution elastic recoil detection},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {219-220},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {333--343},
	  editor = {Vizkelethy G., McDaniel F.D., Thevuthasan S., Tesmer J.R.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)16},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X04001077},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2004.01.079}
	}
	
Membrane, transparent for particle beams, with improved emissity of electromagnetic radiation
J. Wieser, A. Ulrich and G. Dollinger; Patent Application, Tuilaser Ag, WO 2004097882 A1, 2004.
BibTeX:
	@patent{Dollinger2004a,
	  author = {Wieser, Jochen and Ulrich, Andreas and Dollinger, Günther},
	  title = {Membrane, transparent for particle beams, with improved emissity of electromagnetic radiation},
	  type = {Patent Application},
	  holder = {Tuilaser Ag},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {WO 2004097882 A1},
	  url = {https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2004097882&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCT+Biblio}
	}
	
Studies of light alloys by positron annihilation techniques
A. Dupasquier, G. Kögel and A. Somoza; Acta Materialia 52 (16) (2004) 4707-4726.
Abstract: The potential of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) in the study of light alloys is illustrated with special regards to age-hardening, severe plastic deformation, fatigue and fracture in aluminium- and magnesium-based alloys. First, the physical grounds of PAS sensitivity to open-volume defects are explained. Then the main conventional variants of PAS, lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler-broadening spectroscopy, are introduced. State-of-the-art equipment, based on intense positron sources and energy-controlled beams, is also described, in view of applications where microscopic spatial resolution and sub-nanosecond time resolution are combined. Various examples of PAS studies in the field of light alloys, mainly based on the latest experience of the authors, are presented. It is shown how PAS detects structural changes in age-hardenable alloys, helps to describe the solute aggregation kinetics and gives information on vacancy-solute interactions. PAS characterisation of internal surfaces (misfit interfaces and grain boundaries) in terms of local structure (degree of disorder, chemistry) is also discussed. Lastly, recent advances in the study of fatigue by positron microscopy are reported.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dupasquier2004,
	  author = {Dupasquier, A and Kögel, G and Somoza, A},
	  title = {Studies of light alloys by positron annihilation techniques},
	  journal = {Acta Materialia},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {52},
	  number = {16},
	  pages = {4707-4726},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359645404004033},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2004.07.004}
	}
	
Measurements of defect structures of a cyclically deformed Al-Mg-Si alloy by positron annihilation techniques
W. Egger, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Triftshäuser, J. Bär, S. Rödling and H.-J. Gudladt; Materials Science and Engineering A 387-389 (1-2 SPEC. ISS.) (2004) 317-320.
Abstract: Defect distributions close to cracks created by monotonic and fatigue tests in the Al-Mg-Si alloy Al 6013 have been investigated by positron lifetime studies. The defect structure close to the crack surface was studied at sub-mum resolution with a pulsed positron beam, whereas the lateral defect distribution in the crack-tip near region was determined using a scanning positron microscope with a few mum resolution. A high concentration of large vacancy clusters of up to 30 vacancies and voids close to the fatigue crack, as well as a high dislocation density in a region with an extension of similar to100 mum around the crack tip, were detected in the fatigued samples. Moreover, the generation of vacancy clusters found in the fatigued samples seems to be independent of the loading history. In monotonically fractured samples, no vacancy clusters have been found. If this difference holds as a general rule, positron lifetime spectroscopy would be suitable to distinguish quantitatively monotonic front fatigue fracture without any further fractographic studies.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2004,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W. and Bär, J. and Rödling, S. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Measurements of defect structures of a cyclically deformed Al-Mg-Si alloy by positron annihilation techniques},
	  journal = {Materials Science and Engineering A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {387-389},
	  number = {1-2 SPEC. ISS.},
	  pages = {317--320},
	  note = {13th International Conference on Strength of Materials (ICSMA 13), Budapest, HUNGARY, AUG, 2003},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509304004563},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2004.02.070}
	}
	
Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy in Polymers
F. Faupel, J. Kanzow, K. Gunther-Schade, C. Nagel, P. Sperr and G. Kögel; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 219-223.
Abstract: During the last decades positron annihilation has become a very powerful tool for the investigation of polymers. In particular, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) yields valuable information on free volume and other properties. The present invited paper gives examples from recent research of the Kiel group. Generally, the so-called standard model, developed by Tao and Eldrup, is used to determine the size of free volume holes from the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime tau(oPs). Despite its success, the model resorts to several assumptions, including a spherical hole shape. Although the deviations from spherical shape are significant for holes above the size of positronium, average hole sizes V(h), determined by the standard model from T,p, show a good correlation with diffusivities D of inert gas molecules when plotted as 1/V(h) vs logD, as predicted by the free volume approach. The correlation can further be improved by taking into account the cohesive energy density of the polymers. The o-Ps intensity I(o-Ps) is often taken as a measure of the hole density. However, I(o-Ps) is also affected by the Ps formation probability and drops during mechanical milling of polymers due to formation of free radicals by chain scission, for instance. I(o-Ps), is also seen to change during phase separation in polymer blends. This can be explored to detect both, the binodal and the spinodal decomposition, already at the initial stage which is not easily accessible by other techniques. PALS was also used to study thermosets. Here we show in-situ results on the cross-linking of an epoxy resin. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of the positron beam technique which allows investigations of polymer thin films and surfaces. For example, very recent results, obtained at the positron beam in Munich, on the structure and dynamics of epoxy films as function of film thickness will be presented.
BibTeX:
	@article{Faupel2004,
	  author = {Faupel, F. and Kanzow, J. and Gunther-Schade, K. and Nagel, C. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G.},
	  title = {Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy in Polymers},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {219--223},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.219},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.219}
	}
	
Comparison of Vacancy Creation by Nuclear and Electronic Processes in Silicon Irradiated with Swift Kr and Bi Ions
P.M. Gordo, L. Liszkay, K. Havancsák, V.A. Skuratov, P. Sperr, W. Egger, C. Lopes Gil, A.P. de Lima and Z. Kajcsos; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 93-95.
Abstract: Silicon samples, irradiated with swift Kr (245 MeV) and Bi (710 MeV) ions at room temperature, were investigated using a continuous and a pulsed positron beam and conventional Doppler broadening and lifetime spectroscopy. In the fluence and depth ranges studied, creation of large voids and amorphization was not observed. The dominant defects were found to be divacancies, present from the near surface region all along the ion tracks. We found that the formation of divacancies from ion-induced vacancies as predicted by Monte-Carlo-calculations is higher in the case of the heavier Bi ion.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gordo2004,
	  author = {Gordo, P. M. and Liszkay, L. and Havancsák, K. and Skuratov, V. A. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Lopes Gil, C. and de Lima, A. P. and Kajcsos, Z.},
	  title = {Comparison of Vacancy Creation by Nuclear and Electronic Processes in Silicon Irradiated with Swift Kr and Bi Ions},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {93--95},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.93},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.93}
	}
	
Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions
A. Hauptner, S. Dietzel, G.A. Drexler, P. Reichart, R. Krücken, T. Cremer, A.A. Friedl and G. Dollinger; Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 42 (4) (2004) 237-245.
Abstract: The ion microprobe SNAKE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, from 20 MeV protons to 200 MeV gold ions. Because of these properties, SNAKE is particularly attractive for biological microbeam experiments. Here we describe the adaptation of SNAKE for microirradiation of cell samples. This includes enlarging of the focal distance in order to adjust the focal plane to the specimen stage of a microscope, construction of a beam exit window in a flexible nozzle and of a suitable cell containment, as well as development of procedures for on-line focussing of the beam, preparation of single ions and scanning by electrostatic deflection of the beam. When irradiating with single 100 MeV 16O ions, the adapted set-up permits an irradiation accuracy of 0.91 µm (full width at half maximum) in the x-direction and 1.60 µm in the y-direction, as demonstrated by retrospective track etching of polycarbonate foils. Accumulation of the repair protein Rad51, as detected by immunofluorescence, was used as a biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells with geometric patterns of counted ions. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agreed reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating successful adaptation of SNAKE. In spite of single ion irradiation, we frequently observed split fluorescence foci which might be explained by small-scale chromatin movements.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hauptner2004,
	  author = {Hauptner, A. and Dietzel, S. and Drexler, G. A. and Reichart, P. and Krücken, R. and Cremer, T. and Friedl, A. A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions},
	  journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {42},
	  number = {4},
	  pages = {237--245},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00411-003-0222-7},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00411-003-0222-7}
	}
	
NEPOMUC - the New Positron Beam Facility at FRM II
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr, B. Straßer and W. Triftshäuser; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 480-482.
Abstract: An in-pile positron source is installed in the vicinity of the reactor core of the new research reactor FRM-II. This neutron induced positron source at Munich NEPOMUC is based on absorption of high-energy prompt gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture in (113)Cd. For this purpose, a cadmium cap is placed inside the tip of the inclined beam tube SR 11 in the heavy water moderator tank. Inside the cadmium cap a structure of platinum foils is placed in order to convert the high-energy gamma-radiation into positron-electron pairs. Due to the negative positron work function, moderation in annealed platinum leads to emission of monoenergetic positrons. After acceleration to several keV by electrical lenses the positron beam is magnetically guided in a solenoid field of 7.5 mT. The beam profile is determined with a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector at the end of the beam line. In addition, a NaI-scintillator detects the 511 keV gamma-radiation of the positrons which annihilate at the front side of the MCP in order to perform intensity measurements as a function of acceleration energy and magnetic guide field.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2004,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Straßer, B. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {NEPOMUC - the New Positron Beam Facility at FRM II},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {480--482},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.480},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.480}
	}
	
The neutron induced positron source at Munich - NEPOMUC
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr, B. Straßer and W. Triftshäuser; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 221 (1-4) (2004) 160-164.
Abstract: Monoenergetic positron beams of high intensity are of major interest in atomic and particle physics as well as in material science. The intensity of conventional positron beams using beta(+) sources amounts typically to 10(6) positrons per second. Therefore, great efforts are undertaken to generate positrons by pair production using bright gamma-sources, i.e. bremsstrahlung in a target at linear accelerators, gamma-radiation from the nuclear fission or high-energy prompt gamma-rays after thermal neutron capture. The NEutron induced POsitron source at MUniCh, NEPOMUC, is installed at the new research reactor FRM II. The world's highest positron intensity of up to 10(10) positrons per second is expected at this novel user dedicated positron beam facility. Since the final license for reactor operation was granted in May 2003 positrons will presently be available at FRM II. In this work, a brief overview of positron beams is given and the status of the positron project NEPOMUC as well as the linked experiments is reported.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2004a,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Straßer, B. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {The neutron induced positron source at Munich - NEPOMUC},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {221},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {160--164},
	  note = {12th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Physics (POSITRON03), Aarhus Univ, Inst Phys & Astron, Sandbjerg, DENMARK, JUL 19-21, 2003},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X04003842},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2004.03.048}
	}
	
Physical properties of ALD-Al2O3 in a DRAM-capacitor equivalent structure comparing interfaces and oxygen precursors
S. Jakschik, U. Schroeder, T. Hecht, G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier and J. Bartha; Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology 107 (3) (2004) 251-254.
Abstract: Aluminum oxide was deposited on arsenic doped silicon, using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with either a silicon oxide or a silicon nitride interface. The physical properties of these films were investigated by elastic-recoil-detection, X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Special focus was given to contamination of the film and the interface, crystallization and temperature effect on diffusion. The films remained stoichiometric and did not have Al-Al clusters, even post annealing steps. Evidence of diffusion of silicon and arsenic into the dielectric and of aluminum from the film was found. Carbon and hydrogen were seen in the film and at the interface as well, whereas hydrogen diffused out of the film to some extent due to anneal. Carbon content in the layer was reduced by using O 3 as oxidant. Grain size of crystalline Al2O3 films was in the order of film thickness.
BibTeX:
	@article{Jakschik2004,
	  author = {Jakschik, S. and Schroeder, U. and Hecht, T. and Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Bartha, J.W.},
	  title = {Physical properties of ALD-Al2O3 in a DRAM-capacitor equivalent structure comparing interfaces and oxygen precursors},
	  journal = {Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {107},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {251--254},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)11},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921510703004835},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2003.09.044}
	}
	
Doping and its efficiency in a-SiOx:H
A. Janotta, R. Janssen, M. Schmidt, T. Graf, M. Stutzmann, L. Görgens, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, C. Hammerl, S. Schreiber and B. Stritzker; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 69 (11) (2004) 1152061-11520616.
Abstract: Amorphous hydrogenated silicon suboxides (a-SiOx:H) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition have a band gap which can be tuned from 1.9 to 3.0 eV by varying the oxygen content [O] from 0 to 50 at. %. n- and p-type doping is realized by adding PH3 and B2H 6, respectively, to the source gases SiH4, H2, and CO2. Alloying with increasing amounts of oxygen reduces the average coordination number 〈r〉 from a value close to 4 (a-Si:H) to ≈2.7, which gradually approaches the ideal value of 〈r〉=2.4 for network glasses. This goes along with a softening of the amorphous SiO x network, i.e., a reduction of the mechanical hardness of the material, which is also predicted by rigidity percolation theory. Also the incorporation of dopant atoms into electrically active, fourfold coordinated sites becomes more unlikely with increasing [O]. As a consequence, n- and p-type doped SiOx shows increasingly intrinsic character for higher oxygen concentrations. Doping fails for values of 〈r〉&lt;3 and the doping efficiency tends towards zero. Thus, an overall fourfold coordination was found to be a crucial requirement for efficient doping in amorphous semiconductors.
BibTeX:
	@article{Janotta2004,
	  author = {Janotta, A. and Janssen, R. and Schmidt, M. and Graf, T. and Stutzmann, M. and Görgens, L. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Hammerl, C. and Schreiber, S. and Stritzker, B.},
	  title = {Doping and its efficiency in a-SiOx:H},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {69},
	  number = {11},
	  pages = {1152061-11520616},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)20},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.69.115206},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.69.115206}
	}
	
Investigation of Fatigue Cracks in an Al-Based Alloy by Means of Pulsed Positron (Micro-)Beams
G. Kögel, W. Egger, S. Rödling and H.-J. Gudladt; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 126-128.
Abstract: Positron lifetime studies have been undertaken with the Munich pulsed beam and the scanning positron microscope to investigate areas close to fatigue cracks of a precipitation-hardened AlMgSi (6013) alloy. These cracks were initiated by cyclic loading under full automatic stress and crack length control. Close to the surface of fatigue cracks, always three lifetimes of about 245 ps, 300 - 500 ps and 1200 - 2500 ps are observed which are attributed to annihilations at dislocations, vacancy clusters and voids. These defects are believed to indicate remnants of dislocation interactions within the cyclic plastic zone in front of the fatigue crack tip.
BibTeX:
	@article{Koegel2004,
	  author = {Kögel, G. and Egger, W. and Rödling, S. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Investigation of Fatigue Cracks in an Al-Based Alloy by Means of Pulsed Positron (Micro-)Beams},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {126--128},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.126},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.126}
	}
	
Vacancy defects in epitaxial InN: Identification and electrical properties
A. Laakso, J. Oila, A. Kemppinen, K. Saarinen, W. Egger, L. Liszkay, P. Sperr, H. Lu and W.J. Schaff; Journal of Crystal Growth 269 (1) (2004) 41-49.
Abstract: We have used a low-energy positron beam to identify and quantify the dominant vacancy defects in InN layers grown on Al2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy. By applying both continuous and pulsed positron beams, we can show that In vacancies are formed during the crystal growth. Their concentration decreases from similar to 5 x 10(18); to below loll cm(-3) with increasing layer thickness (120-800 nm). The In vacancy concentration correlates with the free electron concentration and decreases with increasing electron Hall mobility. These results suggest that In vacancies act as both compensating defects and electron scattering centers in InN films.
BibTeX:
	@article{Laakso2004,
	  author = {Laakso, A. and Oila, J. and Kemppinen, A. and Saarinen, K. and Egger, W. and Liszkay, L. and Sperr, P. and Lu, H. and Schaff, W. J.},
	  title = {Vacancy defects in epitaxial InN: Identification and electrical properties},
	  journal = {Journal of Crystal Growth},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {269},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {41--49},
	  note = {1st International Workshop on Indium Nitride, Fremantle, AUSTRALIA, NOV 16-20, 2003},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022024804001800},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.02.032}
	}
	
Positron Beam Splitter at the High Intensity Positron Beam in Munich
L. Liszkay, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Egger, C. Hugenschmidt and W. Triftshäuser; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 492-494.
Abstract: The high intensity positron source at the new research reactor FRM-II in Munich will be used to serve three instruments simultaneously: a scanning positron microscope, a pulsed positron beam and a system for positron induced Auger electron spectroscopy. In order to split the continuous beam into three parts with variable intensity, a beam splitter is being built. The device consists of an electrostatic optical system embedded in the constant magnetic guiding field of the beam line. In the first stage an electrostatic quadrupole is used to change the cross section of the beam into an ellipse. The resulting beam is then split into three parts by two pairs of deflection plates. The central part is transported to the microscope without deflection. The beam intensities can be varied by mechanical movement of the plates. At the exit port of the beam splitter the guiding magnetic field is split into three beamlines with the help of a magnetic shield made of mumetal.
BibTeX:
	@article{Liszkay2004,
	  author = {Liszkay, L. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Hugenschmidt, C. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Positron Beam Splitter at the High Intensity Positron Beam in Munich},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {492--494},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.492},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.492}
	}
	
Antireflection foils with multi-layer converter for ultracold neutron detectors
P. Maier-Komor, I. Altarev, A. Bergmaier, P. Böni, G. Dollinger, R. Krücken, S. Paul and W. Schott; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 521 (1) (2004) 242-246.
Abstract: For experiments at the ultracold neutron (UCN) source of the new high-luminosity neutron source, Forschungsreaktor München II (FRM II), highly efficient detectors are needed. The desired type of detectors utilizes 6Li as the neutron converter based on the huge cross-section reaction 6Li(n,α)t and detection of the 2.06MeV α-particles or the 2.73MeV t-particles. The high reflectance of UCN from 6Li with its positive optical potential must be compensated by a material with negative optical potential. Instead of the expensive 62Ni material, natural Ti can be chosen. It was demonstrated that neither 6Li metal nor Ti metal can be deposited in a high-vacuum evaporation apparatus without creating a positive optical potential and thus increasing the reflectivity for the UCN due to oxygen impurities coming from the H2O partial pressure in the high-vacuum system. To overcome these problems, a new UHV evaporation apparatus was developed and built which is capable of reaching a vacuum in the 10-10 Pa range. Such a good vacuum can be obtained only when annealing the vacuum system up to 470K. At such a high annealing temperature the silicon detectors for the α- and t particles might suffer degradation of their energy resolution. Therefore, the multi-layer system of 6Li and natTi is not deposited directly on the silicon detector but a thin rolled Ti foil is applied as backing. A test deposition of 200 double layers of 6LiF/ 62Ni on a thin Ti foil is described and a report is given about the setup of the new UHV evaporation apparatus.
BibTeX:
	@article{Maier-Komor2004,
	  author = {Maier-Komor, P. and Altarev, I. and Bergmaier, A. and Böni, P. and Dollinger, G. and Krücken, R. and Paul, S. and Schott, W.},
	  title = {Antireflection foils with multi-layer converter for ultracold neutron detectors},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {521},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {242--246},
	  editor = {Green J.P., Maier-Komor P.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)1},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900203030936},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.179}
	}
	
A new UHV system for the preparation of carbon stripper foils by laser plasma ablation deposition
P. Maier-Komor, G. Dollinger and R. Krücken; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 521 (1) (2004) 176-182.
Abstract: Laser plasma ablation of spectroscopically pure graphite under UHV conditions is a well established method for the preparation of thin carbon stripper foils. Such foils with their structure of randomly oriented nanocrystallites can best withstand ion irradiation damage. Accelerator users around the world are interested in this type of carbon stripper foils due to a guaranteed reproducibility, quality, thickness and uniformity given by the procedure. In addition a high reproducible yield with a low effort for floating, mounting and slackening is desired. Users of high-energy accelerators want to profit from this development, but need stripper foils of up to 500 μg/cm 2 for the relevant charge state equilibrium whereas carbon foils of this type could only be prepared with an upper limit of 10 μg/cm2 in the existing set up. The new design was aimed to overcome all thickness limitations. The crucial component of the laser plasma ablation technique is the laser entrance window which becomes opaque during carbon ablation. A new plant which overcomes this problem is being assembled. Due to a higher source-to-window distance and a better laser light transmission, caused by slightly changed laser plasma conditions, the life of the laser entrance window before exchange could be prolonged by a factor of five. Presumably, there are no thickness limitations anymore due to a vacuum interlock that permits the exchange of the entrance window without breaking the vacuum in the ablation-deposition chamber.
BibTeX:
	@article{Maier-Komor2004a,
	  author = {Maier-Komor, P. and Dollinger, G. and Krücken, R.},
	  title = {A new UHV system for the preparation of carbon stripper foils by laser plasma ablation deposition},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {521},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {176--182},
	  editor = {Green J.P., Maier-Komor P.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)4},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016890020303081X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.148}
	}
	
Influence of layer thickness on the formation of in vacancies in InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy
J. Oila, A. Kemppinen, A. Laakso, K. Saarinen, W. Egger, L. Liszkay, P. Sperr, H. Lu and W.J. Schaff; Applied Physics Letters 84 (9) (2004) 1486-1488.
Abstract: We have used a low-energy positron beam to identify In vacancies in InN layers grown on Al2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy. Their concentration decreases from similar to5x10(18) to below 10(16) cm(-3) with increasing layer thickness (120-800 nm). The decrease in the vacancy concentration coincides with the increase in the electron Hall mobility, suggesting that In vacancies act as electron scattering centers.
BibTeX:
	@article{Oila2004,
	  author = {Oila, J. and Kemppinen, A. and Laakso, A. and Saarinen, K. and Egger, W. and Liszkay, L. and Sperr, P. and Lu, H. and Schaff, W. J.},
	  title = {Influence of layer thickness on the formation of in vacancies in InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {84},
	  number = {9},
	  pages = {1486-1488},
	  url = {http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/84/9/10.1063/1.1651327},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1651327}
	}
	
Defect structural characterization of organic polymer layers
O. Osiele, D. Britton, M. Härting, P. Sperr, M. Topic, S. Shaheen and H. Branz; Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 338-340 (1 SPEC. ISS.) (2004) 612-616.
Abstract: In this paper, we study the effect of blending the conducting polymers, P3HT with the fullerene complex PCBM on its structural and defect characteristics. The films were deposited on glass substrates by spin casting, and were characterized with positron annihilation, microscopy and other techniques with regard to thickness, and structural homogeneity. The unblended polymers have positron annihilation characteristics similar to most non-polar polymers, exhibiting a relatively broad electron momentum distribution, a long-lived ( > 1 ns) positron state corresponding to the formation of orthopositronium, and strong-localization of the positron. Blending with PCBM causes the sample electron momentum distribution to narrow, and results in a single state with a lifetime of around 370 ps in both polymer mixtures. We postulate that this state corresponds to annihilation with low-momentum electrons in the fullerene cage.
BibTeX:
	@article{Osiele2004,
	  author = {Osiele, O.M. and Britton, D.T. and Härting, M. and Sperr, P. and Topic, M. and Shaheen, S.E. and Branz, H.M.},
	  title = {Defect structural characterization of organic polymer layers},
	  journal = {Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {338-340},
	  number = {1 SPEC. ISS.},
	  pages = {612--616},
	  note = {20th International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors, Campos do Jordao, BRAZIL, AUG 25-29, 2003},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022309304002224},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2004.03.053}
	}
	
Positron Annihilation Characteristics of Polymer Films for Photovoltaic Applications
O. Osiele, D. Britton, M. Härting, P. Sperr, M. Topic, S. Shaheen and H. Branz; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 337-339.
Abstract: In this paper we study the effect of combining the conducting polymers, P3HT and OC(1)C(10)-PPV with the fullerene complex PCBM, on its positron annihilation characteristics. The films were deposited on glass substrates by spin casting, and were also characterised with scanning electron microscopy with regard to thickness, and structural homogeneity. Both pure polymers have positron annihilation characteristics similar to most non-polar polymers, exhibiting a relatively broad electron momentum distribution, a long-lived (>1 ns) positron state corresponding to the formation of ortho-positronium, and strong-localisation of the positron. Mixing with PCBM causes the sampled electron momentum distribution to narrow, and results in a single annihilation state with a lifetime of around 370 ps in both polymer mixtures. We postulate that this state corresponds to annihilation with the low-momentum electrons in the fullerene cage.
BibTeX:
	@article{Osiele2004a,
	  author = {Osiele, O.M. and Britton, D.T. and Härting, M. and Sperr, P. and Topic, M. and Shaheen, S.E. and Branz, H.M.},
	  title = {Positron Annihilation Characteristics of Polymer Films for Photovoltaic Applications},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {337--339},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.337},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.337}
	}
	
Three-Dimensional Hydrogen Microscopy in Diamond
P. Reichart, G. Datzmann, A. Hauptner, R. Hertenberger, C. Wild and G. Dollinger; Science 306 (5701) (2004) 1537-1540.
Abstract: A microprobe of protons with an energy of 17 million electron volts is used to quantitatively image three-dimensional hydrogen distributions at a lateral resolution better than 1 micrometer with high sensitivity. Hydrogen images of a <110>-textured undoped polycrystalline diamond film show that most of the hydrogen is located at grain boundaries. The average amount of hydrogen atoms along the grain boundaries is (8.1 ± 1.5) × 1014 per square centimeter, corresponding to about a third of a monolayer. The hydrogen content within the grain is below the experimental sensitivity of 1.4 × 1016 atoms per cubic centimeter (0.08 atomic parts per million). The data prove a low hydrogen content within chemical vapor deposition–grown diamond and the importance of hydrogen at grain boundaries, for example, with respect to electronic properties of polycrystalline diamond.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reichart2004,
	  author = {Reichart, P. and Datzmann, G. and Hauptner, A. and Hertenberger, R. and Wild, C. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Three-Dimensional Hydrogen Microscopy in Diamond},
	  journal = {Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {306},
	  number = {5701},
	  pages = {1537-1540},
	  url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/306/5701/1537.abstract},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102910}
	}
	
3D hydrogen microscopy with sub-ppm detection limit
P. Reichart, G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier, G. Datzmann, A. Hauptner, H.-J. Körner and R. Krücken; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 219-220 (1-4) (2004) 980-987.
Abstract: Coincident elastic proton-proton scattering at a 17 MeV microprobe is used to investigate hydrogen distributions on microscopic scale inside freestanding samples up to some 100 μm thickness. Hydrogen imaging at atomic ppm level needs a total count rate of about 100 kHz of scattered protons in order to get sufficient statistics from the small fraction of coincident hydrogen signals. It is obtained using a highly segmented silicon strip detector of 2.3 sr for proton currents of less than 100 pA impinging on films thicker 10 μm. A five level filter almost completely suppresses accidental coincidences. The sensitivity of this kind of 3D hydrogen microscopy is demonstrated by the analysis of a 55 μm thick synthetic diamond layer showing a detection limit of 0.08 at-ppm hydrogen. In addition, the proposed depth resolution of 3-6 μm is experimentally confirmed and a lateral resolution of 0.6 μm full width half maximum is obtained at a significant hydrogen enhancement inside the layer.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reichart2004a,
	  author = {Reichart, P. and Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Datzmann, G. and Hauptner, A. and Körner, H.-J. and Krücken, R.},
	  title = {3D hydrogen microscopy with sub-ppm detection limit},
	  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {219-220},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {980--987},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X04002502},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2004.01.200}
	}
	
Positron annihilation Investigations of defects in copper alloys selected for nuclear fusion technology
V. Slugeň, J. Kuriplach, P. Ballo, P. Domonkos, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Egger, W. Triftshäuser, V.M. Domankova, P. Kovac, I. Vavra, S. Stancek, M. Petriska and A. Zeman; Fusion Engineering and Design 70 (2) (2004) 141-153.
Abstract: A positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) based on positron lifetime measurements, using the pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS), is used to investigate defects create by hydrogen implantation and thermal treat of copper alloys. These alloys are designated for the use in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The results show that the changes in the microstructure of selected copper alloys (CuCrZr, CuAl25) depend strongly on the preparing technology of alloys as well as on the implantation dose experimentally simulating the neutron treatment. The full recovering of the structure after isochronal annealing in vacuum is observed in all implanted specimens at the temperature of 450 °C. Using the PLEPS technique, for the first time, depth profiling of the positron lifetime spectra in the near-surface region (20-500 nm) of hydrogen implanted copper alloys was performed and compared with the TRIM calculations and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Possible annihilation channels in CuCrZr and CuAl25 materials are discussed in details together with corresponding annihilation characteristics determined theoretically and using computer simulations. We discuss the results of positron lifetime measurements of the irradiated and non-irradiated CuZrCr and CuAl25 specimens. We identified the most probable types of positron trapping sites. Finally, the results are discussed in terms of microstructural changes of the studied materials upon irradiation and subsequent heat treatment.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2004,
	  author = {Slugeň, V. and Kuriplach, J. and Ballo, P. and Domonkos, P. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Triftshäuser, W. and Domankova, V. M. and Kovac, P. and Vavra, I. and Stancek, S. and Petriska, M. and Zeman, A.},
	  title = {Positron annihilation Investigations of defects in copper alloys selected for nuclear fusion technology},
	  journal = {Fusion Engineering and Design},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {70},
	  number = {2},
	  pages = {141--153},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379603004691},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2003.10.002}
	}
	
Investigation of Defects in Copper Alloys Selected for Nuclear Fusion Technology
V. Slugeň, G. Kögel, J. Kuriplach, P. Ballo, P. Sperr, W. Egger, W. Triftshäuser, P. Domonkos, M. Petriska and A. Zeman; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 183-185.
Abstract: Positron lifetime measurements using a Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) were applied to the investigation of defects in hydrogen implanted and subsequently thermally treated copper alloys which are designated for the use in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). PLEPS results showed that the changes in the microstructure of selected copper-alloys (CuCrZr, CuAl25) depend strongly on the preparing technology of alloys and on the implantation dose. The full recovery of the structure after isochronal annealing in vacuum in a region of 100-600 °C was observed in all implanted specimens at a level of about 450 °C. With the PLEPS technique, for the first time, depth profiling of the near-surface region (20-500 nm) of hydrogen implanted copper alloys was performed and compared with the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.
BibTeX:
	@article{Slugen2004a,
	  author = {Slugeň, V. and Kögel, G. and Kuriplach, J. and Ballo, P. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Triftshäuser, W. and Domonkos, P. and Petriska, M. and Zeman, A.},
	  title = {Investigation of Defects in Copper Alloys Selected for Nuclear Fusion Technology},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {183--185},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {https://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.183},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.183}
	}
	
Positron Microprobes
W. Triftshäuser; Materials Science Forum 445-446 (2004) 452-456.
Abstract: The history of the concept and the attempts for the realisation of a positron microprobe as well as the present state of development will be reviewed and evaluated. The principle and the design of a scanning positron microscope (SPM), built and operated at our university in Munich, will be presented. A pulsed positron beam, with a variable energy from 0.5 to 20 keV and a final spot diameter of currently 2 mum, can be electronically scanned over an area of 0.6 mm x 0.6 mm. In this way, microscopic regions of 2 mum x 2 mum x 0.1 mum can be evaluated. This beam is formed after a double-stage moderation of positrons emitted from a radioactive isotope acting as primary positron source. In the first stage, the beam spot of about 3 nun is reduced to a diameter of less than 20 mum. After the second moderation stage, this diameter is then further reduced to 2 mum. This is possible, due to the special properties of the magnetic lenses used in the design. In order to enable positron lifetime measurements, the positron beam is pulsed (time interval 20 ns). This feature makes this SPM the first and up to now only system worldwide. Included in the system is a conventional scanning electron microprobe for surface analysis and for the selection of interesting regions. Three-dimensional positron lifetime spectra of mechanically damaged and fatigued specimens will be presented. The real potential power of the SPM will be achieved when the intense reactor-based positron source at the new Munich research reactor FRM-II can be used, which will be possible now in the very near future.
BibTeX:
	@article{Triftshaeuser2004,
	  author = {Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Positron Microprobes},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {445-446},
	  pages = {452--456},
	  note = {ICPA 13},
	  url = {http://www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.452},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.445-446.452}
	}
	
Errors in near-surface and interfacial profiling of boron and arsenic
W. Vandervorst, T. Janssens, B. Brijs, T. Conard, C. Huyghebaert, J. Frühauf, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, T. Buyuklimanli, J. VandenBerg and K. Kimura; Applied Surface Science 231-232 (2004) 618-631.
Abstract: To get an insight in the diffusion behavior of dopants such as arsenic and boron after annealing and in particular their segregation characteristics towards the interface in oxide structures on silicon, it is necessary to probe the dopant profile with very high accuracy and depth resolution. Sputter depth profiling as employed in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is frequently used as the most suited tool for dopant profiling in view of its sensitivity and depth resolution. However in order to determine the segregated arsenic/boron peak, sub-nanometer depth resolution is required and artifacts such as beam induced broadening effects, potential ionization yield changes at interfaces, transient sputter yields need to be considered in detail. When reducing the primary beam energy the depth resolution can be improved and sub-nanometer depth sensitivity can be demonstrated. However comparisons with high resolution elastic recoil detection analysis demonstrate that it is at present impossible to obtain a reliable depth profile in the first nanometer near the surface nor even in the oxide part of the profile, where no ionization nor sputter yield transients are expected. Enhanced beam induced migration of boron during the initial phase of the bombardment needs to be invoked to explain the results. The latter appears to be enhanced under conditions (∼normal incidence) where full oxidation occurs.
BibTeX:
	@article{Vandervorst2004,
	  author = {Vandervorst, W. and Janssens, T. and Brijs, B. and Conard, T. and Huyghebaert, C. and Frühauf, J. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Buyuklimanli, T. and VandenBerg, J.A. and Kimura, K.},
	  title = {Errors in near-surface and interfacial profiling of boron and arsenic},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {231-232},
	  pages = {618--631},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)36},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433204003630},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.03.125}
	}
	
Basic aspects of deep lithography with particles for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures
B. Volckaerts, P. Vynck, M. Vervaeke, L. Cosentino, P. Finocchiaro, P. Reichart, G. Datzmann, A. Hauptner, G. Dollinger, A. Hermanne and H. Thienpont; In: , M.J. Daele P. (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 5454, Micro-Optics: Fabrication, Packaging, and Integration 5454 (2004) 52-63 , SPIE.
Abstract: The strength of today's deep lithographic micro-machining technologies is their ability to fabricate monolithic building-blocks including optical and mechanical functionalities that can be precisely integrated in more complex photonic systems. In this contribution we present the physical aspects of Deep Lithography with ion Particles (DLP). We investigate the impact of the ion mass, energy and fluence on the developed surface profile to find the optimized irradiation conditions for different types of high aspect ratio micro-optical structures. To this aim, we develop a software program that combines the atomic interaction effects with the macroscopic beam specifications. We illustrate the correctness of our simulations with experimental data that we obtained in a collaboration established between the accelerator facilities at TUM, LNS and VUB. Finally, we review our findings and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of DLP with respect to Deep Lithography with X-rays (LIGA).
BibTeX:
	@inproceedings{Volckaerts2004,
	  author = {Volckaerts, B. and Vynck, P. and Vervaeke, M. and Cosentino, L. and Finocchiaro, P. and Reichart, P. and Datzmann, G. and Hauptner, A. and Dollinger, G. and Hermanne, A. and Thienpont, H.},
	  title = {Basic aspects of deep lithography with particles for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures},
	  booktitle = {Proc. SPIE 5454, Micro-Optics: Fabrication, Packaging, and Integration},
	  publisher = {SPIE},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2004},
	  volume = {5454},
	  number = {52},
	  pages = {52--63},
	  editor = {Daele P., Mohr J.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)0},
	  url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=845728},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1117/12.547718}
	}
	

2003

Diamond diodes and transistors
A. Aleksov, A. Denisenko, M. Kunze, A. Vescan, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, W. Ebert and E. Kohn; Semiconductor Science and Technology 18 (3) (2003) 59-S66.
Abstract: Over the past few years a variety of diamond electron devices have been fabricated, analysed and simulated. This includes Schottky diodes on boron-doped p+ diamond substrates, boron/nitrogen pn-junction diodes, bipolar transistors based on this pn-junction and field effect transistors (FETs) with boron delta-doped channels and hydrogen-related surface conductive layers. Many of the fabricated devices considered here represent the current state-of-the-art in this field. This includes the operation of diamond Schottky diodes at temperatures of up to 1000 °C, as well as diamond FET devices with a cut-off frequency of 30 GHz and channel current densities of 300 mA mm-1. Simulations show that diamond boron delta-doped FETs might yield an RF-output power density of up to 30 W mm-1.
BibTeX:
	@article{Aleksov2003,
	  author = {Aleksov, A. and Denisenko, A. and Kunze, M. and Vescan, A. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Ebert, W. and Kohn, E.},
	  title = {Diamond diodes and transistors},
	  journal = {Semiconductor Science and Technology},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {18},
	  number = {3},
	  pages = {59-S66},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)40},
	  url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0268-1242/18/3/308/meta},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/0268-1242/18/3/308}
	}
	
Diamond field effect transistors - Concepts and challenges
A. Aleksov, M. Kubovic, N. Kaeb, U. Spitzberg, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, T. Bauer, M. Schreck, B. Stritzker and E. Kohn; Diamond and Related Materials 12 (3-7) (2003) 391-398.
Abstract: Field effect transistors (FETs) in diamond should outperform FET structures on other wide bandgap materials like SiC and GaN in high power/high temperature applications due to the ideal diamond materials properties. However, the technology of these structures proved difficult leaving two device concepts to investigate: (1) the boron δ-doped p-channel FET and (2) the hydrogen induced p-type surface-channel-FET. The δ-channel-FET approach follows a traditional design path of power FET structures. Here, simulation results have enabled the extrapolation of a maximum RF output power to 27 W/mm, a value which is indeed higher than for any FET based on III-Nitrides or SiC. However, due to the narrow technological parameter window, fabricated δ-channel-FETs are still well behind expectations. In contrast, concerning the surface-channel-FET the physical/chemical nature of its channel remains still under discussion. Nevertheless, results obtained with this FET concept yielded a VDmax &gt; 200 V (LG = 1 μm) and a IDmax &gt; 360 mA/mm a fT = 11.5 GHz and fmaxU &gt; 40 GHz (LG = 0.2 μm) and a recently obtained RF power measurement at 1 GHz. Furthermore, the 1 GHz power measurement result has been obtained on a diamond quasi-substrate grown on a Ir/SrTiO3 substrate. This result may therefore open up the perspective for wafer scale diamond electronics.
BibTeX:
	@article{Aleksov2003a,
	  author = {Aleksov, A. and Kubovic, M. and Kaeb, N. and Spitzberg, U. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Bauer, Th. and Schreck, M. and Stritzker, B. and Kohn, E.},
	  title = {Diamond field effect transistors - Concepts and challenges},
	  journal = {Diamond and Related Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {12},
	  number = {3-7},
	  pages = {391--398},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)62},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963502004016},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-9635(02)00401-6}
	}
	
Median implantation depth and implantation profile of 3-18 keV positrons in amorphous polymers
J. Algers, P. Sperr, W. Egger, G. Kögel and F. Maurer; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 67 (12) (2003) 1254041-1254047.
Abstract: Most applications of positron beams require knowledge of the implantation characteristics for an appropriate interpretation of the experimental data. In this work, the median implantation depth as a function of implantation energy, z1/2(E), of 3-18 keV positrons and their implantation profile P(z, E) in a total of 13 thin films of atactic polystyrene, poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), and polymethylmethacrylate spin coated onto a silicon substrate were determined from positron lifetime measurements using a pulsed, low-energy positron beam. z1/2(E) and P(z,E) were determined from the measurement of the ortho-positronium yield obtained from the intensity I3 of the long lifetime, z1/2(E) was parametrized with the commonly used power-law fit z1/2(E) = (A/ρ)En, with ρ and E in units of g cm-3 and keV, respectively, yielding A = 2.81(± 0.2) μg cm-2 and n = 1.71(± 0.05). Excellent agreement between amorphous polymer and literature data on A1 and Cu suggests that the median implantation depth of positrons for low- to medium-Z materials in the studied energy range is independent of structure and only a function of mass density. Fitting of the Makhovian implantation profile to the experimental data suggested that the value of the parameter m varies between 1.7 and 2.3, systematically increasing with z at constant implantation energy, but is independent of the implantation energy. Using an equation proposed by Baker et al., the experimental data of 12 of the 13 studied polymer films could be described with a slightly better agreement than the Makhovian equation.
BibTeX:
	@article{Algers2003,
	  author = {Algers, J. and Sperr, P. and Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Maurer, F.H.J.},
	  title = {Median implantation depth and implantation profile of 3-18 keV positrons in amorphous polymers},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {67},
	  number = {12},
	  pages = {1254041--1254047},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.67.125404},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.67.125404}
	}
	
The Munich ion microprobe: Characteristics and prospect
G. Dollinger, G. Datzmann, A. Hauptner, R. Hertenberger, H.-J. Körner, P. Reichart and B. Volckaerts; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 210 (2003) 6-13.
Abstract: The newly developed ion microprobe SNAKE (superconducting nanoscope for applied nuclear (Kern-) physics experiments) has gone into routine operation at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. It focuses ion beams, from protons to uranium, with energies that are about 10 times larger than they are available at standard nuclear microprobes. Lateral resolutions of Δx=1.6 μm and Δy=1.2 μm for x- and y-direction at full aperture and as low as Δx=600 nm and Δy=150 nm for a pencil beam have been achieved so far. The latter values are limited by positional drifts and 50 Hz oscillating fields which have become obvious in time resolved measurements.
SNAKE opens new possibilities for analysis of microstructured materials as well as materials modifications. The highlights are three dimensional hydrogen analysis using proton proton scattering, high resolution transmission energy loss measurements utilizing a magnetic spectrograph and materials modification with available high energy proton and heavy ion beams. Standard techniques like particle induced X-ray emission, elastic and inelastic scattering are also used for imaging. The paper summarizes some of the prospects using the enlarged range of available ion beams and ion energies.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2003,
	  author = {Dollinger, Günther and Datzmann, Gerd and Hauptner, Andreas and Hertenberger, Ralf and Körner, Hans-Joachim and Reichart, Patrick and Volckaerts, Bart},
	  title = {The Munich ion microprobe: Characteristics and prospect},
	  booktitle = {8th International Conference of Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {210},
	  pages = {6--13},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X03010012},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01001-2}
	}
	
Three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy using a high-energy proton probe
G. Dollinger, P. Reichart, G. Datzmann, A. Hauptner and H.-J. Körner; Applied Physics Letters 82 (1) (2003) 148-150.
Abstract: It is a challenge to measure two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen profiles on a micrometer scale. Quantitative hydrogen analyses of micrometer resolution are demonstrated utilizing proton–proton scattering at a high-energy proton microprobe. It has more than an-order-of-magnitude better position resolution and in addition higher sensitivity than any other technique for 3D hydrogen analyses. This type of hydrogen imaging opens plenty room to characterize microstructured materials, and semiconductor devices or objects in microbiology. The first hydrogen image obtained with a 10 MeV proton microprobe shows the hydrogen distribution of the microcapillary system being present in the wing of a mayfly and demonstrates the potential of the method.
BibTeX:
	@article{Dollinger2003a,
	  author = {Dollinger, G. and Reichart, P. and Datzmann, G. and Hauptner, A. and Körner, H.-J},
	  title = {Three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy using a high-energy proton probe},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {82},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {148--150},
	  url = {http://apl.aip.org/resource/1/applab/v82/i1/p148_s1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1533111}
	}
	
Fatigue and fracture-induced defect structures of metals investigated by positron microscopy
W. Egger, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Triftshäuser, J. Bär, S. Rödling and H.-J. Gudladt; Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde/Materials Research and Advanced Techniques 94 (6) (2003) 687-693.
Abstract: Defect distributions close to cracks from monotonic and fatigue fractures have been investigated for the first time by positron lifetime studies. The positron beams probe either the depth profile of defects at sub-μm resolution or the lateral distribution of defects at a few μm spatial resolution. Both in pure Cu and in the precipitation-hardened alloy Al 6013, in addition to dislocations, large clusters of up to 30 vacancies were detected close to a fatigue crack exclusively, whereas at monotonic fractures only the annihilation characteristics of dislocations were observed. If this characteristic difference holds as a general rule, then positron lifetime microscopy will provide a simple, quantitative method to distinguish a posteriori monotonic fractures from fatigue fractures without any further fractographic studies.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2003,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W. and Bär, J. and Rödling, S. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Fatigue and fracture-induced defect structures of metals investigated by positron microscopy},
	  journal = {Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde/Materials Research and Advanced Techniques},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {94},
	  number = {6},
	  pages = {687--693},
	  url = {http://www.hanser-elibrary.com/doi/abs/10.3139/146.030687},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3139/146.030687}
	}
	
Transverse cooling and heating in ion channeling
F. Grüner, W. Assmann, F. Bell, M. Schubert, J. Andersen, S. Karamian, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, L. Görgens, W. Günther and M. Toulemonde; Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 68 (17) (2003) 1741041-17410412.
Abstract: In contrast to predictions from the standard theory of ion channeling we have observed strong redistributions of initially isotropic ion beams after transmission of thin crystal foils. Depending on the experimental parameters, there can be strong enhancements, corresponding to "transverse cooling," or strong reductions, "transverse heating," of the ion flux along a crystal axis or plane. For most ions there is a transition from cooling to heating when the ion energy is decreased, which depends on the crystal direction and on the atomic numbers of the ion and of the crystal atoms. In this paper we present an overview of this newly discovered phenomenon. Redistribution of an initially isotropic flux violates basic symmetries in the theory of channeling. We have argued earlier that the observed transverse cooling or heating can be understood as a consequence of fluctuations in the charge state of the channeled ions, but a detailed explanation of the transition from cooling to heating has yet to be established. A theoretical description is the most difficult for ions with many electrons. A different type of simulation has been developed based on n-body classical trajectory Monte-Carlo procedures and the first results are discussed.
BibTeX:
	@article{Gruener2003,
	  author = {Grüner, F. and Assmann, W. and Bell, F. and Schubert, M. and Andersen, J.U. and Karamian, S. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Görgens, L. and Günther, W. and Toulemonde, M.},
	  title = {Transverse cooling and heating in ion channeling},
	  journal = {Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {68},
	  number = {17},
	  pages = {1741041-17410412},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)15},
	  url = {http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.68.174104},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.68.174104}
	}
	
Positron source based on neutron capture
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr and W. Triftshäuser; Radiation Physics and Chemistry 68 (3-4) (2003) 669-671.
Abstract: A positron beam based on absorption of high-energy prompt γ-rays from thermal neutron capture in 113Cd was installed at a neutron guide of the High Flux Reactor at the ILL in Grenoble. The positron source consists of platinum foils acting as γ-e+e --converter and positron moderator. After acceleration to 3keV by electrical lenses the positrons were magnetically guided through the beamline. Measurements were performed for various source geometries. The beam diameter and moderation characteristics such as positron work function, moderation efficiency and degradation were determined as well. The results lead to an optimised design of the in-pile positron source which will be implemented at the Munich research reactor FRM-II. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2003,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Positron source based on neutron capture},
	  journal = {Radiation Physics and Chemistry},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {68},
	  number = {3-4},
	  pages = {669--671},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969806X0300197X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-806X(03)00197-X}
	}
	
Physical characterization of thin ALD-Al2O3 films
S. Jakschik, U. Schroeder, T. Hecht, D. Krueger, G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier, C. Luhmann and J. Bartha; Applied Surface Science 211 (1-4) (2003) 352-359.
Abstract: Aluminum oxide was deposited using atomic layer deposition on either a silicon oxide or a silicon nitride interface. Water vapor or ozone were used as oxidation precursors. The structural properties of these films were investigated by time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD). Special attention was given to contamination issues of the film and the interface, bonding conditions and temperature influence on diffusion. The results suggest that the silicon most likely diffused along grain boundaries of polycrystalline Al2O3. Carbon and hydrogen were located at the interface and furthermore hydrogen diffused out of the film to some extent due to anneal. Carbon content in the layer was reduced when using O3 as an oxidant. The formation of metallic aluminum clusters was not observed for any of the investigated process conditions.
BibTeX:
	@article{Jakschik2003,
	  author = {Jakschik, S. and Schroeder, U. and Hecht, T. and Krueger, D. and Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Luhmann, C. and Bartha, J.W.},
	  title = {Physical characterization of thin ALD-Al2O3 films},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {211},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {352--359},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)36},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433203002642},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(03)00264-2}
	}
	
Diffusion in diamond-like carbon
H. Kröger, C. Ronning, H. Hofsäss, P. Neumaier, A. Bergmaier, L. Görgens and G. Dollinger; Diamond and Related Materials 12 (10-11) (2003) 2042-2050.
Abstract: The diffusion of carbon and five other elements in amorphous carbon (a-C) films was studied. One set of samples were sp2 dominated a-C and the other set of samples were sp3 dominated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). The films were deposited using mass separated ion beam deposition under UHV conditions. The diffusion of 13C as well as that of hydrogen and deuterium was studied using high resolution elastic recoil detection analysis. No apparent self-diffusion could be detected using this technique. The diffusion of hydrogen was found to start at temperatures between 600 and 800 °C. For deuterium, activation energies of 3.34(5) and 3.39(5) eV were found for diffusion in ta-C and a-C, respectively. Tungsten, copper and silver were used to study the diffusion of metals in ta-C. Up to annealing temperatures of 1000 °C no diffusion took place in the samples. During annealing at 1200 °C the ta-C is converted into graphite, making diffusion into the carbon matrix possible. The fact that there is no diffusion of copper in ta-C at temperatures below 1200 °C shows that ta-C is a possible diffusion barrier between copper and silicon.
BibTeX:
	@article{Kroeger2003,
	  author = {Kröger, H. and Ronning, C. and Hofsäss, H. and Neumaier, P. and Bergmaier, A. and Görgens, L. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Diffusion in diamond-like carbon},
	  journal = {Diamond and Related Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {12},
	  number = {10-11},
	  pages = {2042-2050},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)12},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963503002188},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-9635(03)00218-8}
	}
	
Sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy using high energy protons at SNAKE
P. Reichart, G. Dollinger, G. Datzmann, A. Hauptner, R. Hertenberger and H.J. Körner; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 210 (2003) 135-141.
Abstract: The new ion microprobe SNAKE (Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied nuclear (Kern-) physics Experiments) is a tool to focus, beside heavy ions, 4-28 MeV protons to submicron beam spot size. This facility establishes a sensitive 3D microscopy of hydrogen distributions by elastic proton proton scattering. The high proton energy enables analysis at a target thickness up to some 100 μm without significant reduction of the micrometer lateral resolution. The scattered projectile and recoiled target protons are detected in coincidence using an annular silicon strip detector. It covers scattering angles from 29° to 61° and a 2.3 sr solid angle of detection. The readout electronics with a 50 ns coincidence window allows an efficient reduction of accidental coincidence events even at some 10 kHz count rates. 3D hydrogen microscopy using 17 MeV proton proton scattering is tested successfully providing a ppm detection limit in a 55 μm thick diamond plate. First measurements on CVD grown diamond show the possibility to investigate such low hydrogen content of the bulk region with micrometer lateral resolution.
BibTeX:
	@article{Reichart2003,
	  author = {Reichart, P. and Dollinger, G. and Datzmann, G. and Hauptner, A. and Hertenberger, R. and Körner, H. - J.},
	  title = {Sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy using high energy protons at SNAKE},
	  booktitle = {8th International Conference of Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {210},
	  pages = {135--141},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X0301084X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01084-X}
	}
	
Cooling and heating of channeled ions and corresponding charge state distributions
M. Schubert, F. Grüner, W. Assmann, F. Bell, A. Bergmaier, L. Goergens, O. Schmelmer, G. Dollinger and S. Karamian; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 209 (2003) 224-232.
Abstract: Our group has recently [Phys. Rev. Lett., 83 (1999) 1759] reported experimental evidence for the redistribution of an isotropic ion flux after transmission through thin crystals. For not fully stripped ions we have observed either an enhancement (cooling) or a reduction (heating) of the angular flux along crystal directions. For a possible explanation of this unpredicted effect an additional mechanism was introduced: cooling or heating of the transverse motion by spatially correlated charge exchange processes. One consequence of this mechanism could be a different charge state distribution of well-channeled versus non-channeled ions: for cooling channeled ions should exit the crystal with a higher charge state than in random directions and heating should yield the opposite result. We report here measurements that show indeed shifts of the mean charge state of channeled ions in comparison to the one of random ions. These shifts depend on the ion velocity, but there seems to be no general correlation between the shifts and the appearance of cooling or heating. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Schubert2003,
	  author = {Schubert, M. and Grüner, F. and Assmann, W. and Bell, F. and Bergmaier, A. and Goergens, L. and Schmelmer, O. and Dollinger, G. and Karamian, S.},
	  title = {Cooling and heating of channeled ions and corresponding charge state distributions},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {209},
	  pages = {224--232},
	  editor = {Marletta G., Bouffard S., Neumann R.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)7},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X02020384},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(02)02038-4}
	}
	
Growth and properties of CVD diamond films grown under H2S addition
H. Sternschulte, M. Schreck, B. Stritzker, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Diamond and Related Materials 12 (3-7) (2003) 318-323.
Abstract: The influence of H2S on the CVD diamond growth, the sulfur incorporation and the electronic properties of sulfur containing homoepitaxial diamond films were studied. Laser reflection interferometry (LRI) in combination with mass spectroscopy (MS) showed that H2S modifies the gas phase chemistry by reducing the concentration of CHx species. As a consequence thereof, at high deposition temperatures the growth rate decreased. At lower substrate temperatures, the observed increase in the growth rate after sulfur addition indicates that these gas phase effects are overcompensated by processes at the growing diamond surface. The incorporation coefficient of sulfur into the definitely boron free diamond films was very low (less than 10-6). Incorporation seems to be enhanced by a reduction of the substrate temperature, by the presence of Si and, most effectively, by addition of CO2. For 0.5% CO2 in the gas mixture a maximum S concentration of 480 ppm (9 × 1019/cm3) corresponding to an incorporation coefficient of 6 × 10-4 was attained. Even for the highest H2S concentrations (nearly 1%) the deposited diamond films preserve their excellent quality as judged from μ-Raman measurements. The electrical properties were not changed by the S incorporation. The electrical conductivity is thermally activated with typically 1.4-1.5 eV independent from the S concentration in the films. No values below 1.0 eV have been measured which argues against doping. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Sternschulte2003,
	  author = {Sternschulte, H. and Schreck, M. and Stritzker, B. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Growth and properties of CVD diamond films grown under H2S addition},
	  journal = {Diamond and Related Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {12},
	  number = {3-7},
	  pages = {318--323},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)15},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433202006785},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-9635(02)00312-6}
	}
	
An (un)solvable problem in SIMS: B-interfacial profiling
W. Vandervorst, T. Janssens, R. Loo, M. Caymax, I. Peytier, R. Lindsay, J. Frühauf, A. Bergmaier and G. Dollinger; Applied Surface Science 203-204 (2003) 371-376.
Abstract: To get an insight in the diffusion behavior of boron after annealing and in particular its segregation characteristics towards the interface in oxide structures on silicon, it is necessary to probe the boron profile with very high accuracy and depth resolution. Sputter depth profiling as employed in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is frequently used as the most suited tool for dopant profiling in view of its sensitivity and depth resolution. However, in order to determine the segregated boron peak, sub-nm depth resolution is required and artifacts such as beam induced broadening effects, potential ionization yield changes at interfaces, transient sputter yields need to be considered in detail. When reducing the primary beam energy the depth resolution can be improved and sub-nm depth sensitivity can be demonstrated. However, comparisons with high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis demonstrate that even under those conditions no reliable depth profile can be obtained in the first nm near the surface nor even in the oxide part of the profile, where no ionization nor sputter yield transients are expected. Enhanced beam induced migration of boron during the initial phase of the bombardment needs to be invoked to explain the results.
BibTeX:
	@article{Vandervorst2003,
	  author = {Vandervorst, W. and Janssens, T. and Loo, R. and Caymax, M. and Peytier, I. and Lindsay, R. and Frühauf, J. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {An (un)solvable problem in SIMS: B-interfacial profiling},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2003},
	  volume = {203-204},
	  pages = {371--376},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)21},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433202006785},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00678-5}
	}
	

2002

Vacancy defects in as-polished and in high-fluence H+-implanted 6H-SiC detected by slow positron annihilation spectroscopy
M.-F. Barthe, P. Desgardin, L. Henry, C. Corbel, D. Britton, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Triftshäuser, P. Vicente and L. Dicioccio; Materials Science Forum 389-393 (1) (2002) 493-496.
Abstract: The vacancy defects in near surface region are investigated in n-type 6H-SiC after polishing or low-energy-proton implantation using slow-positron-beam-based positron annihilation spectroscopy. Measuring the momentum distribution of annihilating electron-positron pairs by Doppler broadening spectroscopy we detect an about 100 nm thick vacancy-defects layer under the surface of mechanically polished wafers. No damaged layer is detected after mechano-chemical finishing. Measuring positron lifetime as a function of temperature, we show that neutral and negatively-charged vacancy clusters exist in the track region of low-energy proton-implanted 6H-SiC(H). Depending on annealing, they give rise to positron lifetimes of 257 ± 2 ps, 281 ± 4 ps and 345 ± 2 ps, respectively. By comparison with theory, the 257 ps and 280 ps are attributed to (VC-VSi) 2 and (VC-VSi)3 clusters, respectively. The (VC-VSi)3 cluster has likely an ionization level near the middle of the bandgap. © 2002 Trans Tech Publications.
BibTeX:
	@article{Barthe2002,
	  author = {Barthe, M.-F. and Desgardin, P. and Henry, L. and Corbel, C. and Britton, D.T. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W. and Vicente, P. and Dicioccio, L.},
	  title = {Vacancy defects in as-polished and in high-fluence H+-implanted 6H-SiC detected by slow positron annihilation spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {389-393},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {493--496},
	  url = {https://www.scientific.net/MSF.389-393.493},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.389-393.493}
	}
	
Analysis of the total carbon deposition during the bias enhanced nucleation of diamond on Ir/SrTiO3 (001) using 13C-methane
T. Bauer, M. Schreck, F. Hörmann, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger and B. Stritzker; Diamond and Related Materials 11 (3-6) (2002) 493-498.
Abstract: Carbon deposition during bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond on Ir/SrTiO3 (001) was measured by elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis using 13C-methane in the process gas. High resolution optical emission spectra (OES) of CH emission lines from the gas phase as well as Raman spectra of deposited diamond films showed the high isotopic purity of the reaction gas. During the biasing step a carbon coverage of approximately 1 × 1016 cm-2 equivalent to a 0.6-nm-thick diamond layer was deposited at the surface after 45 min. Its thickness only increased slowly for longer biasing. A similar carbon enrichment was also found at the iridium/SrTiO3 interface. After the nucleation step, nanometer-size particles of very uniform height were found at the iridium surface. Their integral volume was more than an order of magnitude lower than the total volume of the carbon layer present at the surface after BEN. Our experiments indicate that most of the carbon is continuously distributed over the surface which allows to sketch a rough image of the processes occurring during BEN on iridium.
BibTeX:
	@article{Bauer2002,
	  author = {Bauer, Th. and Schreck, M. and Hörmann, F. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Stritzker, B.},
	  title = {Analysis of the total carbon deposition during the bias enhanced nucleation of diamond on Ir/SrTiO3 (001) using 13C-methane},
	  journal = {Diamond and Related Materials},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {11},
	  number = {3-6},
	  pages = {493--498},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)17},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963501006264},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-9635(01)00626-4}
	}
	
Advanced characterization of high-k materials: A nuclear approach
B. Brijs, C. Huyghebaert, S. Nauwelaerts, M. Caymax, W. Vandervorst, K. Nakajima, K. Kimura, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger G.llinger, W. Lennard, G. Terwagne and A. Vantomme; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 190 (1-4) (2002) 505-509.
Abstract: The determination of the composition of thin (1.5-3 nm) high-k layers ZrO2/Al2O3 becomes more and more important in microelectronics. High resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and high resolution elastic recoil detection can achieve depth resolutions down to 1 nm while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis are perfectly suited to quantify the zirconium, the oxygen and the aluminum content. The goal of this paper is to investigate the use of nuclear techniques for the characterization of thin high-k materials.
BibTeX:
	@article{Brijs2002,
	  author = {Brijs, B. and Huyghebaert, C. and Nauwelaerts, S. and Caymax, M. and Vandervorst, W. and Nakajima, K. and Kimura, K. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G.llinger, G. and Lennard, W.N. and Terwagne, G. and Vantomme, A.},
	  title = {Advanced characterization of high-k materials: A nuclear approach},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {190},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {505--509},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)6},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X02004688},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(02)00468-8}
	}
	
Shallow traps and positron dynamics in epitaxial silicon carbide
D. Britton, M.-F. Barthe, C. Corbel, P. Desgardin, W. Egger, P. Sperr, G. Kögel and W. Triftshäuser; Applied Surface Science 194 (1-4) (2002) 122-126.
Abstract: We have used slow positron beam-based positron lifetime spectroscopy to study positron diffusion in thick epitaxial n-type 6H-SiC layers. The layers are considerably thicker than the maximum positron penetration depth, and can therefore, be treated as homogeneous semi-infinite bulk material in an analysis including the time-dependent diffusion of a single group of probe particles. Temperature-dependent measurements show a reduction in positron diffusion at low temperatures, which has been interpreted by an increase in trapping to negatively charged defect states. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
	@article{Britton2002,
	  author = {Britton, D.T. and Barthe, M.-F. and Corbel, C. and Desgardin, P. and Egger, W. and Sperr, P. and Kögel, G. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Shallow traps and positron dynamics in epitaxial silicon carbide},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {194},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {122--126},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433202001101},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00110-1}
	}
	
Positron states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon
D. Britton, M. Härting, A. Hempel, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Triftshäuser, M. Hempel and D. Knoesen; Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 299-302 (Part 1) (2002) 249-253.
Abstract: Low-hydrogen-concentration a-Si:H grown by HW-CVD forms a continuous random network with no detectable free volume in the form of microvoids, and no evidence of a microcrystalline phase. Over a wide temperature range we observe a single positron state in the amorphous network with a temperature-independent lifetime of 322 ps. From the temperature dependence of the positron diffusion we show that this is a localized state and present direct observation of hopping diffusion of positrons. On annealing up to 400 °C the amorphous network is seen to relax and the first stages of crystallization occur. There is also evidence of vacancy clustering to form a low concentration of microvoids. The structural relaxation has a very low-activation energy, around 0.1 eV, and is interpreted in terms of a reconfiguration of the fundamental defect identifed by positron annihilation. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
	@article{Britton2002a,
	  author = {Britton, D.T. and Härting, M. and Hempel, A. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W. and Hempel, M. and Knoesen, D.},
	  title = {Positron states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon},
	  journal = {Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {299-302},
	  number = {Part 1},
	  pages = {249--253},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022309301011656},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3093(01)01165-6}
	}
	
Vacancy clusters close to a fatigue crack observed with the München scanning positron microscope
W. Egger, G. Kögel, P. Sperr, W. Triftshäuser, S. Rödling, J. Bär and H.-J. Gudladt; Applied Surface Science 194 (1-4) (2002) 214-217.
Abstract: The accumulation of plastic strain by low cycle fatigue has been expected for a long time to induce vacancy clusters, particularly in the most damaged region, i.e. close to a fatigue crack. For the first time, the München scanning positron microscope (SPM) enables the detection of the expected vacancy clusters by positron lifetime studies of a fatigue crack with micrometer resolution. A fatigue crack with a length of about 8 mm was created in a single edge-notched specimen of cold-rolled technical copper. The fatigue crack propagation test was performed under K-controlled conditions with a constant stress intensity factor of 9 MPa m1/2. Lifetime images from a region of about 200 × 400 μm2 around the crack tip were obtained at about 5 μm spatial resolution for 5, 8 and 16 keV positron implantation energies. Independent of position, a positron lifetime of about 190 ps is observed, indicating annihilation of positrons at dislocations. Within about 40 μm from the crack path, however, a second lifetime in the range of 360-420 ps is observed at all positron implantation energies and with an intensity up to 25%. Therefore in this region there must be large vacancy clusters with a trapping rate comparable to one of the dislocations. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Egger2002,
	  author = {Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W. and Rödling, S. and Bär, J. and Gudladt, H.-J.},
	  title = {Vacancy clusters close to a fatigue crack observed with the München scanning positron microscope},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {194},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {214--217},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016943320200106X},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00106-X}
	}
	
Electron-stimulated hydrogen desorption from diamond surfaces and its influence on the low-pressure synthesis of diamond
C. Goeden and G. Dollinger; Applied Physics Letters 81 (26) (2002) 5027-5029.
Abstract: A total cross section σD = (5±2.6)×10e−18 cm2 is measured for electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of deuterium from a boron-doped, deuterated diamond(100) surface at 5 eV incident electron energy. This large ESD cross section means a significant contribution of ESD to hydrogen abstraction reactions in microwave-driven chemical vapor deposition of diamond. The ESD cross section decreases when changing to a nitrogen-doped diamond. This change is suggested to be the reason for the reported influence of small concentrations of nitrogen or boron added to the process gas on diamond growth.
BibTeX:
	@article{Goeden2002,
	  author = {Goeden, C. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Electron-stimulated hydrogen desorption from diamond surfaces and its influence on the low-pressure synthesis of diamond},
	  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {81},
	  number = {26},
	  pages = {5027-5029},
	  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/81/5027/1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1526460}
	}
	
Electron stimulated desorption of negative ions: A time-of-flight experiment
C. Goeden and G. Dollinger; Review of Scientific Instruments 73 (8) (2002) 3058-3064.
Abstract: We present a setup for stimulated desorption experiments of negative ions using low energy incident electrons and time-of-flight identification of the desorbed ions. It consists of a pulsed electron gun, an electrostatic focusing system, and a channel plate detector setup. Electron beams down to sub-eV energies can be used due to electrostatic shielding and the compensation of the earth’s magnetic field by a set of Helmholtz coils. The main advantage is the large acceptance for ions of all masses, energies, and desorption angles at the same time, which keeps measuring time reasonably short and allows us to gain information before degeneration of the irradiated sample occurs, even if weak desorption channels are investigated. We demonstrate the power of our setup with first results from a boron doped, (100)-oriented diamond sample, which is partly oxidized and partly hydrogenated with some water contaminations on it. Different binding states of oxygen are disclosed clearly by different desorption thresholds. The C–O binding on oxidized diamond forms a carbonyl group. The 1b_2 orbital of water can be seen in a O desorption threshold. The yield of negative hydrogen desorption shows a linear increase for incident electron energies higher than 13 eV. It results from a dipolar dissociation as has been published previously.
BibTeX:
	@article{Goeden2002a,
	  author = {Goeden, C. and Dollinger, G.},
	  title = {Electron stimulated desorption of negative ions: A time-of-flight experiment},
	  journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {73},
	  number = {8},
	  pages = {3058-3064},
	  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/73/3058/1},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1491030}
	}
	
Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers
M. Healy, A. Pidduck, G. Dollinger, L. Görgens and A. Bergmaier; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B 190 (1-4) (2002) 630-635.
Abstract: This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universität München using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the 27Al(d,p01)28 Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest.
BibTeX:
	@article{Healy2002,
	  author = {Healy, M.J.F. and Pidduck, A.J. and Dollinger, G. and Görgens, L. and Bergmaier, A.},
	  title = {Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {190},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {630--635},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)3},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X01012861},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(01)01286-1}
	}
	
Intense positron source at the Munich research reactor FRM-II
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr, B. Straßer and W. Triftshäuser; Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 74 (SUPPL.I) (2002) S295-S297.
Abstract: The principle and the design of the in-pile positron source at the new Munich research reactor FRM-II are presented. Absorption of high-energy prompt γ-rays from thermal neutron capture in 113Cd generates positrons by pair production. For this purpose, a cadmium cap is placed inside the tip of the inclined beam tube SR11 in the neutron field of the reactor, where an undisturbed thermal neutron flux up to 2 × 1014 n cm-2 s-1 is expected. At this position the flux ratio of thermal to fast neutrons will be better than 104. Monte Carlo calculations showed that a mean capture rate in cadmium between 4.5 and 6.0 × 1013 n cm-2 s-1 can be expected. Inside the cadmium cap a structure of platinum foils is placed for converting γ-radiation into positron-electron pairs. The heated foils also act as positron moderators to generate monoenergetic positrons. After acceleration to 5 keV a positron beam is formed by electric lenses and guided by magnetic fields. In the primary positron beam an intensity up to 1010 slow positrons per second is expected.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2002,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Straßer, B. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Intense positron source at the Munich research reactor FRM-II},
	  journal = {Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {74},
	  number = {SUPPL.I},
	  pages = {S295-S297},
	  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs003390201398},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s003390201398}
	}
	
First platinum moderated positron beam based on neutron capture
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr and W. Triftshäuser; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 198 (3-4) (2002) 220-229.
Abstract: A positron beam based on absorption of high energy prompt γ-rays from thermal neutron capture in 113Cd was installed at a neutron guide of the high flux reactor at the ILL in Grenoble. Measurements were performed for various source geometries, dependent on converter mass, moderator surface and extraction voltages. The results lead to an optimised design of the in-pile positron source which will be implemented at the Munich research reactor FRM-II. The positron source consists of platinum foils acting as γ-e+e--converter and positron moderator. Due to the negative positron work function moderation in heated platinum leads to emission of monoenergetic positrons. The positron work function of polycrystalline platinum was determined to 1.95(5) eV. After acceleration to several keV by four electrical lenses the beam was magnetically guided in a solenoid field of 7.5 mT leading to a NaI-detector in order to detect the 511 keV γ-radiation of the annihilating positrons. The positron beam with a diameter of less than 20 mm yielded an intensity of 3.1 × 104 moderated positrons per second. The total moderation efficiency of the positron source was about ε = 1.06(16) × 10-4. Within the first 20 h of operation a degradation of the moderation efficiency of 30% was observed. An annealing procedure at 873 K in air recovers the platinum moderator. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2002a,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {First platinum moderated positron beam based on neutron capture},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {198},
	  number = {3-4},
	  pages = {220--229},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X02015276},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(02)01527-6}
	}
	
Monoenergetic positron beam at the reactor based positron source at FRM-II
C. Hugenschmidt, G. Kögel, R. Repper, K. Schreckenbach, P. Sperr, B. Straßer and W. Triftshäuser; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 192 (1-2) (2002) 97-101.
Abstract: The principle of the in-pile positron source at the Munich research reactor FRM-II is based on absorption of high energy prompt γ-rays from thermal neutron capture in 113Cd. For this purpose, a cadmium cap is placed inside the tip of the inclined beam tube SR-11 in the moderator tank of the reactor, where an undisturbed thermal neutron flux up to 2 × 1014 n cm-2s-1 is expected. Inside the cadmium cap a structure of platinum foils is placed for converting high energy γ-radiation into positron-electron pairs. Due to the negative positron work function, moderation in annealed platinum leads to emission of monoenergetic positrons. Therefore, platinum will also be used as moderator, since its moderation property seems to yield long-term stability under reactor conditions and it is much easier to handle than tungsten. Model calculations were performed with SIMION-7.0w to optimise geometry and potential of Pt-foils and electrical lenses. It could be shown that the potentials between the Pt-foils must be chosen in the range of 1-10 V to extract moderated positrons. After successive acceleration to 5 keV by four electrical lenses the beam is magnetically guided in a solenoid field of 7.5 mT resulting in a beam diameter of about 25 mm. An intensity of about 1010 slow positrons per second is expected in the primary positron beam. Outside of the reactor shield a W(1 0 0) single crystal remoderation stage will lead to an improvement of the positron beam brilliance before the positrons are guided to the experimental facilities. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Hugenschmidt2002b,
	  author = {Hugenschmidt, C. and Kögel, G. and Repper, R. and Schreckenbach, K. and Sperr, P. and Straßer, B. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Monoenergetic positron beam at the reactor based positron source at FRM-II},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {192},
	  number = {1-2},
	  pages = {97--101},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X02007887},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(02)00788-7}
	}
	
Dependence of the doping efficiency on material composition in n-type a-SiOx:H
A. Janotta, R. Janssen, M. Schmidt, T. Graf, L. Görgens, C. Hammerl, S. Schreiber, G. Dollinger, A. Bergmaier, B. Stritzker and M. Stutzmann; Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 299-302 (PART 1) (2002) 579-584.
Abstract: Amorphous hydrogenated silicon suboxides (a-SiOx:H) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) have a band gap which can be tuned from 1.9 to 3.0 eV by varying the oxygen content from 0 to 50 at.%. n- and p-type doping is realised by adding PH3 and B2H6, respectively, to the source gases SiH4, H2 and CO2. Alloying with increasing amounts of oxygen reduces the mean co-ordination number 〈r〉 from a value close to 4 (a-Si:H) to approximately 2.7, which gradually approaches the ideal value of 〈r〉=2.4 for network glasses. Thus the incorporation of dopant atoms into electrically active, fourfold co-ordinated sites becomes more unlikely with increasing [O]. As a consequence the conductivity, defect density and doping efficiency in phosphorus doped n-type SiOx undergo drastic changes and show increasingly intrinsic character for higher oxygen concentrations. The dependence of the doping efficiency on average co-ordination 〈r〉 is examined in a quantitative manner.
BibTeX:
	@article{Janotta2002,
	  author = {Janotta, A. and Janssen, R. and Schmidt, M. and Graf, T. and Görgens, L. and Hammerl, C. and Schreiber, S. and Dollinger, G. and Bergmaier, A. and Stritzker, B. and Stutzmann, M.},
	  title = {Dependence of the doping efficiency on material composition in n-type a-SiOx:H},
	  journal = {Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {299-302},
	  number = {PART 1},
	  pages = {579--584},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)4},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022309301009632},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3093(01)00963-2}
	}
	
Radiation-induced defects in 4H- And 6H-SiC epilayers studied by positron annihilation and deep-level transient spectroscopy
A. Kawasuso, M. Weidner, F. Redmann, T. Frank, R. Krause-Rehberg, G. Pensl, P. Sperr, W. Triftshäuser and H. Itoh; Materials Science Forum 389-393 (1) (2002) 489-492.
Abstract: Vacancy defects in high-quality 4H and 6H SiC epilayers induced by electron irradiation have been characterized using positron annihilation and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Vacancy defects were annealed in two steps below 700°C and above 1200°C irrespective to polytype. From the correlation between positron annihilation and DLTS data using the same wafers, it was confirmed that complexes including silicon vacancies are the origin of the E1/2 levels in 6H SiC and the Z1/2 level in 4H SiC. © 2002 Trans Tech Publications.
BibTeX:
	@article{Kawasuso2002,
	  author = {Kawasuso, A. and Weidner, M. and Redmann, F. and Frank, T. and Krause-Rehberg, R. and Pensl, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W. and Itoh, H.},
	  title = {Radiation-induced defects in 4H- And 6H-SiC epilayers studied by positron annihilation and deep-level transient spectroscopy},
	  journal = {Materials Science Forum},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {389-393},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {489--492},
	  url = {https://www.scientific.net/MSF.389-393.489},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.389-393.489}
	}
	
Microscopes/microprobes
G. Kögel; Applied Surface Science 194 (1-4) (2002) 200-209.
Abstract: Our new pulsed positron microbeam is not only a microprobe for the local analysis of defect characteristics but also a microscope providing a complete lifetime image of defect distributions at micron resolution. Both aspects are discussed with examples from recent applications to basic problems of materials research. For fundamental reasons an image of defects at nanometer resolution by the present generation of microbeams is impossible. Therefore, a more advanced dual microbeam system will be proposed, where the defects are stained with positrons. Then a scanned electron beam with nanometer spot size is sensitive to the stained defects. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Koegel2002,
	  author = {Kögel, G.},
	  title = {Microscopes/microprobes},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {194},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {200--209},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433202001022},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00102-2}
	}
	
Improved defect profiling with slow positrons
R. Krause-Rehberg, F. Börner, F. Redmann, W. Egger, G. Kögel, P. Sperr and W. Triftshäuser; Applied Surface Science 194 (1-4) (2002) 210-213.
Abstract: Monoenergetic positrons are widely used to study defects in near-surface regions and buried interfaces of solids. Depth information is usually obtained by varying the positron implantation energy. However, at energies larger than 10 keV the stopping profile becomes much broader than the positron diffusion length. The study shows that optimum depth resolution can be obtained by stepwise removal of the surface and measurement with the smallest possible positron implantation depth. The removal from the surface can be done by ion sputtering or chemical etching. Furthermore, excellent defect depth profiles can be obtained when a sample is wedge-shaped polished (wedge angle about 1 °). A line scan using a scanning positron microbeam along the wedge with a small positron implantation depth gives then the defect profile with optimum depth resolution. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
	@article{Krause-Rehberg2002,
	  author = {Krause-Rehberg, R. and Börner, F. and Redmann, F. and Egger, W. and Kögel, G. and Sperr, P. and Triftshäuser, W.},
	  title = {Improved defect profiling with slow positrons},
	  journal = {Applied Surface Science},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Triftshäuser, Werner},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {194},
	  number = {1-4},
	  pages = {210--213},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433202001046},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00104-6}
	}
	
An ultracold neutron (UCN) detector with Ti/6LiF multi-layer converter and 58Ni reflector
P. Maier-Komor, I. Altarev, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, S. Paul, G. Petzoldt and W. Schott; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 480 (1) (2002) 109-113.
Abstract: High efficient detectors for ultracold neutrons (UCN) must be developed for the new high flux neutron source Forschungsreaktor München II (FRM II). On silicon PIN diodes 76 μg/cm2 58Ni was deposited as a UCN reflector. On this 100 double layers of natTi (4.7 μg/cm2) and 6LiF (1.8 μg/cm2) were deposited to function as a UCN converter. On top of this, 33 double layers of natTi (3.4 μg/cm2) and 6LiF (0.92 μg/cm2) were condensed in addition to provide sensitivity to very low-energy UCN. Finally, 6.0 μg/cm2 natV was deposited to protect the multi-layers. Vanadium has nearly zero optical potential for UCN and thus should not hinder their transmission. Since no expensive isotopes were involved, a source to substrate distance of 24 cm could be chosen, leading to excellent uniformity. The setup designed for deposition under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and the evaporation procedures are described.
BibTeX:
	@article{Maier-Komor2002,
	  author = {Maier-Komor, P. and Altarev, I. and Bergmaier, A. and Dollinger, G. and Paul, S. and Petzoldt, G. and Schott, W.},
	  title = {An ultracold neutron (UCN) detector with Ti/6LiF multi-layer converter and 58Ni reflector},
	  journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A},
	  school = {Universität der Bundeswehr München, Fakultät für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, LRT 2 - Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Professur: Dollinger, Günther},
	  year = {2002},
	  volume = {480},
	  number = {1},
	  pages = {109--113},
	  editor = {Ingelbrecht C., Maier-Komor P.},
	  note = {cited By (since 1996)7},
	  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900201020770},
	  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(01)02077-0}
	}
	
Development of antireflection coatings with a 6LiF/62Ni multilayer converter for ultracold neutron detectors
P. Maier-Komor, I. Altarev, A. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, S. Paul and W. Schott; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 480 (1) (2002) 104-108.
Abstract: High efficiency detectors for ultracold neutrons (UCN) are needed at the new high flux neutron source, Forschu