Improved Second Order Design of the GPS

des Instituts für Geodäsie

Heft 20-2/1985

Improved Second Design
of the Global Positioning System
-  Ephemerides, Clocks
and Atmospheric Influences  -

Universität Stuttgart

Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Warszawa / Poland


In: WELSCH, Walter M. / LAPINE, Lewis A. (Hrsg.) [1985]:
International Federation of Surveyors - FIG -
Proceedings Inertial, Doppler and GPS Measurements for National and Engineering Surveys
Joint Meeting of Study Groups 5B and 5C, July 1-3, 1985

Schriftenreihe Universitärer Studiengang Vermessungswesen, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Heft 20-2, Neubiberg, S. 359-375.


In order to acieve a desired positioning accuracy with the Navstar Global Positioning System certain accuracy requirements of system components have to be fulfilled. Here the accuracy requirements of type prior information for the components (i) ephemerides, (ii) clock errors and (iii) atmospheric refractivity are analyzed in the case of interferometric time delay observations. As a function of stochastic prior information for ephemerides, clock errors and atmospheric influences the variance-covariance matrix for absolute and relative point positioning is computed leading to new insights into the strengths and the weaknesses of the Global Positioning System. The simulation model is based on an extended Gauß-Markov model which is equivalent to be generalized mixed linear model, the latter originating from a linearization of the observational euqtions with respect to a stochastic point of prior information

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