Heft 20

Schriftenreihe des Studiengangs Geodäsie und Geoinformation
der Universität der Bundeswehr München



  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Bestellung



Heft 20

International Federation of Surveyors - FIG
"Inertial, Doppler and GPS Measurements for National and Engineering Surveys"
Joint Meeting of Study Groups 5B and 5C, July 1-3, 1985
Two Volumes

Editors: W. M. Welsch and L. A. Lapine

Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg, 1985
Volume 1: 310 pages
Volume 2: page 311-634




Volume 1




Inertial Measurements

Caspary, W.:
Inertial Positioning - Principals and Procedures (Review Paper)

Boedecker, G.:
Inertial Gravimetry: Results of a Testnet Observation Campaign with Ferranti FILS MK II

Lechner, W.:
Azimuth Determination with Inertial Systems

Möhlenbrink, W.:
Drift Effects in Inertial Measurement Systems (Resulting from Nonlinear Terms in the Equations of Motions)

Penton, C. R.:
Inertial Measurements for National Control

Schödlbauer, A.:
Inertial Survey Platforms and their Geodetic Relevant Coordinate Systems



NNSS Doppler Measurements - The Navy Navigation Satellite System

Richardus, P.:
Transit Doppler Satellite Positioning for National and Engineering Control Surveys (Review Paper)

Ádám, J.:
On the Consistency of the Station Coordinates Derived from Satellite Doppler Observations

Joó, I.:
Improvement of the Hungarian National Geodetic Control Network by Satellite Doppler Positioning

Mihály, S., Borza, T., Fejes, I.:
Practical Results of Interferometric Processing of NNSS Doppler Observations



GPS Measurements - The Global Positioning System

Wells, D. E.:
Recommended GPS Terminology

Hartl, P., Schöller, W., Thiel, K.-H.:
GPS - Technology and Methodology for Geodetic Applications (Review Paper)

Krakiwsky, E. J.:
Satellite and Inertial Surveying: Trends and Prospects (Review Paper)

Beier, W.:
A C/A Code GPS-Receiver for Navigation

Borutta, H., Heister, H.:
Optimal Design for GPS 3-D Differential Positioning

Eissfeller, B.:
The Estimation of Orthometric Heights from GPS Baseline Vectors Using Gravity Field Information and Least-Squares Collocation

Evans, A. G.:
The Global Positioning System: An Alternative to Six-Degrees-of Freedom Inertial Navigation

Fritzensmeier, K., Kloth, G., Niemeier, W., Eichholz, K.:
Simulation Studies on the Improvement of Terrestrial 2-D-Networks by Additional GPS-Information



Volume 2

GPS Measurements - The Global Positioning System

Gerlach, B. E.:
Positioning with a GPS Pseudorange Receiver - Functional Model Test Results

Gervaise, J., Mayoud, M., Beutler, G., Gurtner, W.:
Test of GPS on the CERN-LEP Control Network

Grafarend, E. W., Lindlohr, W., Stomma, A.:
Improved Second Order Design of the Global Positioning System - Ephemerides, Clocks and Atmospheric Influences

Gründig, L., Neureither, M., Bahndorf, J.:
Including Macrometer-Type Observables into a Standard 3D Adjustment Program

Hartl, P., Schöller, W., Thiel, K.-H.:
GPS Related Activities of the INS

Hein, G. W.:
From the Phase Observables of the Global Positioning System to 3D-Baseline Components

Henson, D. J., Collier, E. A., Schneider, K. R.:
Geodetic Applications of the Texas Instruments TI 4100 GPS Navigator

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B.:
GPS in Practice - From Measurements to Results

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Remondi, B. W.:
Determination of the Trajection of a Moving Platform Using GPS Carrier Phase

Landau, H.:
GPS Baseline Vectors in an Integrated Threedimensional Adjustment

Le Cocq, C., Boucher, C.:
Geodetic Applications of the SERCEL TR5S GPS Receiver

Papo, H. B., Perelmuter, A.:
Should Our Concept of Geodetic Datum Change with the Introduction of GPS?

Seeber, G., Wübbena, G.:
Geodetic Measurements with TI 4100 GPS Receivers

Stansell, T. A. jr., Chamberlain, S. M., Brunner, F. K.:
The First Wild-Magnavox GPS Satellite Surveying Equipment: WM 101

Stiller, A.:
Development of Civilian GPS Receivers in the Federal Republic of Germany for Different Applications

Strauß, R.:
On the Variation of the Transformation Parameters between GPS and the German Horizontal Network

Wübbena, G.:
Model and Program Developments for cm-Positioning with GPS



The Modern Techniques for Developing Countries

Wassef, A. M.:
Modern Techniques for Developing Countries (Review Paper)

Jonsson, B.:
Doppler Observations in Zambia

Seeber, G.:
Some Examples of Doppler Measurements for Control Surveys in Latin America



Vote of Thanks

Closing Remarks

After Dinner Speech

List of Participants




On behalf of the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) and the FIG Commission 5 "Survey Instruments and Methods" the joint meeting of Study Group 5B "Survey Control Networks" and 5C "Satellite and Inertial Survey Systems" was organized.

The basis for this meeting are the recommendations of the last FIG-Congress in Sofia, 1983, which read

  • R 503:
    "Recognizing the basic importance of control networks for many tasks of surveying, considering the fact, that increasingly not only conventional terrestrial networks but also networks established on the basis of Doppler, inertial and interferometric techniques serve as fundamental control networks, and regarding the recommendations of the Meeting of Study Group 5B in Aalborg (Denmark), 1982, refering to general topics of current scientific and practical interest, the FIG recommends to continue the work of Study Group 5B "Survey Control Networks" with special emphasis on an adequate integration and densification of all kinds of fundamental control networks (hybrid networks) to the benefit of existing national and other control networks."
  • R 504:
    "Considering the fact that "Satellite and Inertial Survey Systems" are relatively new high technology systems with important applications for developing countries with large unmapped areas, and that some of these survey systems also have worldwide applications for the connection of national survey networks, the FIG recommends that Study Group 5C continues its work to investigate all satellite and inertial survey systems with an emphasis on practical applications, use and data reduction by land surveyors. In the event that other high technologgy systems become available to the surveyor prior to the XVIIIth Congress, 1986, these systems should also be studied and reported on that time."

In fulfilment of these requirements the joint meeting has been given the title "Inertial, Doppler and GPS Measurements for National and Engineering Surveys".

The topics of the symposium have been fairly wide-spanned. They cover two substantially different sources of geodetic measurements: inertial survey systems and satellite aided survey systems. To beginn with the latter:

Right now there is a transition zone between the use of the TRANSIT and the NAVSTAR satellite system. The first has been exploited extensively by maesurements based on the Doppler-effect since many years. It is representing the second generation of satellites applied to geodetic measurements.

The first was the PAGEOS-satellite. In those early times of satellites aided positioning it took as much as two or three months to determine the postion of a point with an accuracy of 5 - 8 m. The observation process was purely photographic.

The second generation has, as mentioned before, made use of the TRANSIT satellites since 10 years or so. It takes some days or 70 to 100 satellite passes to determine point positions with an accuracy of 1 m or better absolutely or - applying differential techniques - an accuracy as good as 0.1 m relatively.

The new, third generation of satellites for geodetic applications coming into use since some years, the so-called Global Positioning System (GPS), requires an observation time of only a few hours for the time being. The accuracy received by different modes of processing can reach the subdecimeter region; even cm-accuracy can be achieved as test measurements have proven. The GPS allows not only static measurements, also the dynamic mode is possible. This mode can be utilized for tracking tasks. A target of the future is "millimeters within seconds" as expressed by a paper given at the First International Symposium on Precise Positioning with the Global Positioning System in Rockville in April 1985. The GPS is still in a nascent state. It was only recently that GPS ground control was switched from interim to operational status. This apparently means that the full worldwide tracking network will be used from now on to compute satellite ephemeris and should lead to some more consistent results. Summarizing, compared with the TRANSIT system, in differential positioning it will provide about 10 times the accuracy in 1/10 the time. But - is TRANSIT dead?

Inertial survey systems are of quite a different nature. They provide satellite independent information of positioning, and are therefore somehow independent of political constellations. The state of the art in inertial surveying has been under development for over two decades, is widely used in military and civilian applications, and is well documented in the technical literature. However, inertial systems are not typically stand-alone systems. In many applications, in navigation as well as in geodesy, the combination of an inertial navigation system (INS) and satellite aided systems offer particular advantages, and integrated GPS - INS are being developed to capitalize on these advantages.

When information of this symposium was spread and papers were called for, the answer was clearly on the side of GPS-applications. It is a new and fascinating technology to scientists and practitioners as well. The other techniques, however, should not be forgotten.

The joint meeting of FIG Study Group 5B and 5C the proceedings of which have been published in these two volumes intended to contribute to the knowledge of inertial and satellite aided survey systems.