Heft 34/1988

des Instituts für Geodäsie

Heft 34/1988

LANDAU, Herbert /
HEHL, Klaus /
HEIN, Günter W. /

Operational Geodesy Software Packages

323 S.

Auflage:  300

ISSN:  0173-1009



(OPERA 2.4)




Landau, Herbert / Hehl, Klaus / Eissfeller, Bernd / Hein, Günter W.
     OPERA 2.4  -  User's Guide
     A Multi-Purpose Integrated Geodesy Software Package

          1.  Introduction 7
          2.  The Integrated Geodesy Adjustment 12
          3.  Features of the New OPERA 2.4 Software 17
          4.  Input Specification 55
          5.  Input Examples 85
          6.  The OPERA Interactive Control Program Opus 110
          7.  Gravity Data Analysis Program CHECKOB 132
          References 142
          Appendix A:  The Graphic Interface 147
          Appendix B:  Output Examples 155
          Appendix C:  Plot Examples 219
          Appendix D:  A Complete Summary of OPERA Control

          Appendix E:  A Complete Summary of OPERA Error

Reilly, W. Ian
     A User's Guide to GEONET
     A Computer Programme for the Four-Dimensional
     Adjustment of Geodetic Networks

          1.  Introduction 259
          2.  Output Parameters 261
          3.  Method of Solution 266
          4.  Input Data 269
          5.  Formats of Input-Data Files 272
          6.  Output-Data Files 284
          7.  Description of the Output Listing 287
          8.  Auxiliary Programmes 292
          9.  Conclusions 296
        10.  References 297
        11.  Appendices 298


The final development of the program system GEONET took place during the sabbatical of Dr. W. Ian Reilly, Geophysics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington, New Zealand, at the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy of the University FAF Munich where he had a guest professorship from January 01, 1986 to April 30, 1987. Thanks to him for his excellent work, the many discussions, and his lectures during this time. The support of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and the University FAF Munich is gratefully acknowledged.

Günter W. Hein

Introduction  (OPERA 2.4)

After T. Krarup developed in 1973 his fundamental idea of integrated data processing, his integrated geodesy, it took nearly decade until the algorithm was realized in geodetic software. OPERA 1.0 (HEIN and LANDAU, 1983) produced meanwhile at several institutes results which could destroy most of the criticism brought up in relation to this new way (see e.g. ARGESEANU, 1986; ARGESEANU and COLLIER, 1986, 1987; COLLIER, 1988; HEIN et al., 1987; MÜLLER, 1986 - to mention only some papers). Even a conversion of OPERA 1.0 into an IBM PC compatible version was prepared by Hungarian colleagues (ADAM, 1987; personal communication). At other places similar (program) developments were carried out (BARZAGHI et al., 1985; ENGLER et al., 1982; GRAFAREND et al., 1985; ROSSIKOPOULOS, 1986; ZAISER, 1984). In the past three years new research versions of OPERA were written.

OPERA 1.1 was only a modified version with minor modifications compared to the original OPERA. Herbert Landau started to develop a completely new software system in 1984. From 1984 to 1986 he was working on OPERA versions 2.0 to 2.2. Results of these OPERA versions were published in 1985 (LANDAU et al., 1985) and 1986 (LANDAU, 1986). The youngest version 2.4 was prepared in cooperation with the other authors. New techniques were provided for covariance matrix calculation, linear equation solution, trend elimination and plotting facilities. In addition an interactive control program was written for OPERA.

With the OPERA 2.4 software version we feel now that it has reached a state which allows us to document a program which will meet - may be with minor modifications in the next year - the requirements of a large number of applications ranging from geometrical adjustment of traditional networks via integrated adjustments to the prediction of the gravity field.

Introduction  (GEONET)
(S. 259-260)

The programme system GEONET has its origin in 1980. I had been following my interest in the geometric structure of earth's gravity field by testing the use of least-squares collocation for the interpolation of gravity, and of the higher derivatives of the gravity field (REILLY, 1979), with a comprehensive trial of the method in the area of Canterbury, New Zealand (REILLY, 1980a, 1980b, 1981a). To have continued on this path would have been to delve more deeply into what are broadly called "geoid studies".

I was, however, anxious to see a more immediate application of this work on the geometry of the gravity field to a practical geodetic problem, that of network adjustment. This desire coincided with a parallel interest in the determination of earth deformation from geodetic observations, developed so successfully in New Zealand by BIBBY (1973, 1982). It seemed obvious that earth deformation studies would need a precise, physically rigorous adjustment method to extract the maximum of information from a wide range of geodetic observations available (including modern EDM measurements), and that traditional two-dimensional adjustment methods, with subsequent comparison of coordinates, would not be sufficient. What was neede was an expansion of Bibby's method of simultaneous adjustment, with a continuous strain-model, to a fully three-dimensional adjustment system which aslo considered changes in the gravity field. At the same time, the method should also be available for time-invariant network adjustment, offering a three-dimensional alternative to the two-dimensional methods currently in use.

The first step, in 1980, was to develop the theoretical basis for a three-dimensional network adjustment method (REILLY, 1980c), and to write a corresponding FORTRAN programme for the PDP/11 computer at Geophysics Division, DSIR, Wellington. This programme has as its object the derivation of the geocentric Cartesian coordinates, the astronomic longitude and latitude, and the gravity potential, for each network point, from observation of angles, distances, levelling, and satellite Doppler positioning.

In 1981, this programme was transported to the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, and built into a unified programme system on the IBM/370 computer, in a way not possible on the smaller PDP/11. Some results of this stage are given in REILLY (1984). In 1982 the programme returned to New Zealand, and the time-variable, three-dimensional strain model was added to it (REILLY, 1979, 1980b, 1981b). It was applied to the analysis of geodetic surveys in southern New Zealand, and a further theoretical development was that of the analysis of heterogeneous strain (REILLY, 1986), in an attempt to clarify the phenomenon of the variation of strain from point to point. Programming was now on a VAX computer, still using the FORTRAN language. The programme system, going under the generic name of GEONET, was now becoming somewhat unwiedly and hard to follow, having been carpentered together over a period of five years on three disparate computers. In 1985 I therefore undertook a complete "top-down" revision, translating the entire programme into the newly-available VAX-PASCAL, and exploiting the security offered by PASCAL's rigorous type-definition facility to the encoding of multi-dimensional vector geometry.

In 1986, the programme travelled again, this time to the Universität der Bundeswehr München (University FAF Munich), where the first task was to translate VAX-PASCAL into Burroughs-PASCAL to run on the University's Boroughs B7800 computer; a rather lengthy task, given the differences in each manufacturer's additional features. The programme was then further expanded by the addition of (a) a model of faulting, either continuous or discontinuous in time, (b) a model of time-varying gravity field, as envisaged in the original concept, and the inclusion of the intensity of gravity in the set of coordinate parameters in each station (REILLY, 1985, 1987). The range of observational data admitted was also extended to include (a) the type of relative vector measurements to be expected from using GPS techniques, and (b) both absolute and differential measurements of the intensity of gravity. (In April 1987 a VAX-PASCAL version was re-translated from the revised Burroughs version).

It is the PASCAL version of GEONET, current in March 1987, that is the subject of this report (with some notes on VAX modifications in an Appendix, § 11.2). It is hoped that this version will now be stable for some time, though it is rare to find a programme system in an actively developing field that is not subject to revision. The purpose of this report is to provide a guide to enable a would-be user both to obatin some results, and to understand something of the process by which they have been obtained. For the theory, reference should be made to the literature already cited; and the programme listing may also be consulted; it is quite liberally embellished with comments, though the main lines of the structure may be difficult to discern at first sight.


ARGESEANU, Vladimir (1986): Three-Dimensional Adjustment of a Terrestrial Geodetic Network - A Collocation Solution. In: Australian Journal of Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Surveying, No. 44, pp. 1-37  -  ISSN:  0159-8910.

ARGESEANU, Vladimir / COLLIER, Philip A. (1986): Integrated Adjustment and the Surveillance of Engineering Structures. In: Proceedings Symposium on Surveillance and Monitoring Surveys, Dapartment of Surveying, University of Melbourne, Novermber 1986, pp. 40-55  -  ISBN:  0-86839-484-X.

ARGESEANU, Vladimir / COLLIER, Philip A. (1987): An Application of Integrated Geodesy to the Surveillance of Engineering Structures. In preparation.

BARZAGHI, Riccardo / BETTY, Barbara / SANSÒ, Fernando (1985): Integrated Geodesy: A Purely Local Approach. Manuscript available from the authors.

BIBBY, Hugh M. (1973): The reduction of geodetic survey data for the detection of earth deformation. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 84, 31 p.  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

BIBBY, Hugh M. (1982): Unbiased estimate of strain from triangualtion data using the method of simultaneous reduction. In: Tectonophysics, Vol. 82, Tome 1, Issues 1-2, pp. 161-174  -  ISSN:  0040-1951.

COLLIER, Philip A. (1988): Integrated Geodesy Applied to Precise Engineering Surveys. Thesis (Ph. D.), Department of Surveying, University of Melbourne, Australia, 368 p.

ENGLER, Kurt / GRAFAREND, Erik / TEUNISSEN, Peter / ZAISER, Jochen (1982): Test Computations of Threedimensional Geodetic Networks with Observalbes in Geometry and Space. In: SIGL, Rudolf (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geodetic Networks and Computations of the International Association of Geodesy, Munich, August 31 to September 5, 1981. Deutsche Geodätische Kommission, Reihe B, Nr. 258/VII. Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften / Beck, München, S. 119-141  -  ISSN: 0065-5317.

GRAFAREND, Erik D. / KREMERS, Horst / LINDLOHR, Wolfgang (1985): Threedimensional Operational Adjustment of Geodetic Observations of Terrestrial Type Including Prior Information of the Unkowns. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Geodetic Computations, Cracow, June 18-21, 1985. Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warschau, S. 207-219.

HEIN, Günter W. / LANDAU, Herbert (1983): A Contribution to 3D-Operational Geodesy. Part 3: OPERA - A Multi-Purpose Program for Operational Adjustment of Geodetic Observations of Terrestrial Type. Deutsche Geodätische Kommission, Reihe B, Nr. 264. Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften / Beck in Komm., München, 82 p.  -  ISBN:  3-7696-8557-1.

HEIN, Günter W. / LANDAU, Herbert / KAKKURI, Juhani / VERMEER, Martin (1987): Integrated 3D-Adjustment of the SW Finland Test Net with the FAF Munich OPERA 2.3 Software. Presented at the XIX General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Vancouver, Canada, August 9-22, 1987.

LANDAU, Herbert (1986): GPS Baseline Vectors in a Threedimensional Integrated Adjustment Approach. In: LANDAU, Herbert / EISSFELLER, Bernd / HEIN, Günter W.: GPS Research 1985 at the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy. Schriftenreihe Universitärer Studiengang Vermessungswesen, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Heft 19, Neubiberg, S. 7-45  -  ISSN:  0173-1009.

LANDAU, Herbert / HEIN, Günter W. / EISSFELLER, Bernd (1985): A Stepwise Approach for the Integrated Geodesy Adjustment Model. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Geodetic Computations, Cracow, June 18-21, 1985. Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warschau.

MÜLLER, Max V. (1986): Integrierte Geodäsie, Methode und ihre Anwendung im Präzisionsversuchsnetz Turtmann. Bericht Nr. 111, Institut für Geodäsie und Photogrammetrie, ETH Zürich.

REILLY, W. Ian (1979): Mapping the local geometry of the earth's gravity field. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 143, 56 p.  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

REILLY, W. Ian (1980a): The shape of the earth's gravity field in Canterbury, New Zealand. 1: Intrinsic curvatures. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 158, 19, A1-A2, B1-B2 p.  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

REILLY, W. Ian (1980b): The shape of the earth's gravity field in Canterbury, New Zealand. 2: The gravity vector. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 165, 12 p.  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

REILLY, W. Ian (1980c): Three-dimensional adjustment of geodetic networks with incorporation of gravity field data. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 160, 46, 8 p.  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

REILLY, W. Ian (1981a): The shape of the earth's gravity field in Canterbury, New Zealand. 3: Gravity potential. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 173, 11 p.  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

REILLY, W. Ian (1981b): Complete determination of local crustal deformation from geodetic observations. In: VYSKOČIL, Pavel / GREEN, Robert / MÄLZER, Hermann (Eds.): Proceedings of the IUGG Interdisciplinary Symposium No. 9, "Recent Crustal Movements", Canberra, A.C.T., Australia, December 13-14, 1979. Tectonophysics, Vol. 71, Issues 1-4, pp. 111-123  -  ISSN:  0040-1951.

REILLY, W. Ian (1984): Three-dimensional adjustment of geodetic networks: examples from southern New Zealand and West Germany. In: Zeitschrift für Vermessungswesen (ZfV), 109. Jahrg., S. 279-292  -  ISSN:  0340-4560.

REILLY, W. Ian (1985): Differential geometry of a time-varying gravity field. In: Bolletino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini, Vol. 44, pp. 283-293  -  ISSN:  0006-6710.

REILLY, W. Ian (1986): Heterogeneous geometry in earth deformation. New Zealand Geophysics Division Report No. 210  -  ISSN:  0110-6112.

REILLY, W. Ian (1987): Continuum models in earth deformation analysis. In: PELZER, Hans / NIEMEIER, W. (Eds.): Determination of Heights and Height Changes. Contributions to the Symposium on Height Determination and Recent Vertical Crustal Movements in Western Europe held at the University of Hannover, September 15-19, 1986. Dümmler, Bonn, pp. 557-569  -  ISBN:  3-427-78621-8.

ROSSIKOPOULOS, Dimitrios A. (1986): Integrated Control Networks. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Geodesy and Surveying, Arostotle University of Thessaloniki.

ZAISER, Jochen (1984): Ein dreidimensionales geometrisch-physikalisches Modell für konventionelle geodätische Beobachtungen - Bobachtungsfunktionale, Parameterschätzung und Deformationsanalyse. Deutsche Geodätische Kommission, Reihe C, Nr. 298. Dissertation. Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften / Beck in Komm., München, 107 S.  -  ISBN:  3-7696-9348-5.

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