Heft 20-1/1985

des Instituts für Geodäsie

Heft 20-1/1985

WELSCH, Walter M. /
LAPINE, Lewis A.

International Federation of Surveyors  - FIG -

Proceedings Inertial, Doppler and GPS Measurements for National and Engineering Surveys

Joint Meeting of Study Groups 5B and 5C, July 1-3, 1985

310 S.

Auflage:  900

ISSN:  0173-1009





Preface 1
Table of Contents Volume 1 5
Table of Contents Volume 2 7

Inertial Measurements

Caspary, Wilhelm
     - Review Paper -
     Inertial Positioning  -  Principals and Procedures

Boedecker, Gerd
     Inertial Gravimetry:
     Results of a Testnet Observation Campaign with
     Ferranti FILS MKII

Lechner, Wolfgang
     Azimuth Determination with Inertial Systems

Möhlenbrink, Wolfgang
     Drift Effects in Inertial Measurement Systems
     (Resulting from Nonlinear Terms in the Equations
      of Motion)

Penton, Cyril R.
     Inertial Measurements for National Control

Schödlbauer, Albert
     Inertial Survey Platforms and their Geodetic Relevant
     Coordinate Systems


NNSS Doppler Measurements
- The Navy Navigation Satellite System -

Richardus, Peter
     - Review Paper -
     Transit Doppler Satellite Positioning for National and
     Engineering Control Surveys

Ádám, József
     On the Consistency of the Station Coordinates Derived
     from Satellite Doppler Observations

Joó, István / Ádám, József / Czobor, Árpád / Mihály, Szabolcs
     Improvement of the Hungarian National Geodetic
     Control Network by Satellite Doppler Positioning

Mihály, Szabolcs / Borza, Tibor / Fejes, István
     Practical Results of Interferometric Processing of NNSS
     Doppler Observations


GPS Measurements
- The Global Positioning System -

Wells, David E.
     Recommended GPS Terminology

Hartl, Philipp / Schöller, Wolfgang / Thiel, Karl-Heinz
     - Review Paper -
     GPS  -  Technology and Methodology for Geodetic

Krakiwsky, Edward J.
     - Review Paper -
     Satellite and Inertial Surveying:
     Trends and Prospects

Beier, Wolfgang
     A C/A Code GPS-Receiver for Navigation

Borutta, Harald / Heister, Hansbert
     Optimal Design for GPS 3-D Differential Positioning

Eissfeller, Bernd
     The Estimation of Orthometric Heights from GPS Baseline
     Vectors Using Gravity Field Information and Least-
     Squares Collocation

Evans, Alan G.
     The Global Positioning System:
     An Alternative to Six Degrees of Freedom Inertial

Fritzensmeier, Klaus / Kloth, Gerhard / Niemeier, Wolfgang / Eichholz, Klaus
     Simulation Studies on the Improvement of Terrestrial
     2-D-Networks by Additional GPS-Information



On behalf of the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) and the FIG Commission 5 "Survey Instruments and Methods" the joint meeting of Study Group 5B "Survey Control Networks" and 5C "Satellite and Inertial Survey Systems" was organized.

The basis for this meeting are the recommendations of the last FIG-Congress in Sofia, 1983, which read

R 503:  "Recognizing the basic importance of control networks for many tasks of surveying, considering the fact, that increasingly not only conventional terrestrial networks but also networks established on the basis of Doppler, inertial and interferometric techniques serve as fundamental control networks, and regarding the recommendations of the Meeting of Study Group 5B in Aalborg (Denmark), 1982, refering to general topics of current scientific and practical interest, the FIG recommends to continue the work of Study Group 5B "Survey Control Networks" with special emphasis on an adequate integration and densification of all kinds of fundamental control networks (hybrid networks) to the benefit of existing national and other control networks."

R 504:  "Considering the fact that "Satellite and Inertial Survey Systems" are relatively new high technology systems with important applications for developing countries with large unmapped areas, and that some of these survey systems also have worldwide applications for the connection of national survey networks, the FIG recommends that Study Group 5C continues its work to investigate all satellite and inertial survey systems with an emphasis on practical applications, use and data reduction by land surveyors. In the event that other high technology systems become available to the surveyor prior to the XVIIIth Congress, 1986, these systems should also be studied and reported on that time."

In fulfilment of these requirements the joint meeting has been given the title "Inertial, Doppler and GPS Measurements for National and Engineering Surveys".

The topics of the symposium have been fairly wide-spanned. They cover two substantially different sources of geodetic measurements: inertial survey systems and satellite aided survey systems. To begin with the latter:

Right now there is a transition zone between the use of the TRANSIT and the NAVSTAR satellite system. The first has been exploited extensively by measurements based on the Doppler-effect since many years. It is representing the second generation of satellites applied to geodetic measurements.

The first was the PAGEOS-satellite. In those early times of satellite aided positioning it took as much as two or three months to determine the position of a point with an accuracy of 5-8 m. The observation process was ourely photographic.

The second generation has, as mentioned before, made use of the TRANSIT satellites since 10 years or so. It takes some days or 70 to 100 satellite passes to determine point positions with an accuracy of 1 m or better absolutely or - applying differential techniques - an accuracy as good as 0.1 m relatively.

The new, third generation of satellites for geodetic applications coming into use since some years, the so-called Global Positioning System (GPS), requires an observation time of only a few hours for the time being. The accuracy received by different modes of processing can reach the subdecimeter region; even cm-accuracy can be achieved as test measurements have proven. The GPS allows not only static measurements, also the dynamic mode is possible. This mode can be utilized for tracking tasks. A target of the future is "millimeters within seconds" as expressed by a paper given at the First International Symposium on Precise Positioning with the Global Positioning System in Rockville in April 1985. The GPS is still in a nascent state. It was only recently that GPS ground control was switched from interim to operational status. This apparently means that the full worldwide tracking network will be used from now on to compute satellite ephemeris and should lead to some more consistent results. Summarizing, compard with the TRANSIT system, in differential positioning it will provide about 10 times the accuracy in 1/10 the time. But - is TRANSIT dead?

Inertial survey systems are of quite a different nature. They provide satellite independent information of positioning, and are therefore somehow independent of political constellations. The state of the art in inertial surveying has been under development for over two decades, is widely used in military and civilian applications, and is well documented in the technical literature. However, inertial systems are not typically stand-alone systems. In many applications, in navigation as well as in geodesy, the combination of an inertial navigation system (INS) and satellite aided system offer particular advantages, and integrated GPS - INS are being developed to capitalize on these advantages.

When information of this symposium was spread and papers were called for, the answer was clearly on the side of GPS-applications. It is a new and dascinating technology to scientists and practitioners as well. The other techniques, however, should not be forgotten.

The joint meeting of FIG Study Group 5B and 5C the proceedings of which have been published in these two volumes intended to contribute to the knowledge of inertial and satellite aided survey systems.

W. M. Welsch          L. A. Lapine


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